Daily Prelims Notes 15 May 2021
- May 15, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
15 May 2021
Table Of Contents
- PM KISAN
- SPUTNIK V
- DRUG PRICES CONTROL ORDER
- DONGRIA KONDH
- SECTION 124 A
- RED EARED / US SLIDER TURTLE
- CYCLONE TAUKTAE
- ELEPHANT CASUALTIES ON RAILWAY LINES
- COVAX FACILITY
Subject: Government Schemes
Context: PM Modi on Friday said the Centre has transferred around Rs 1,35,000 crore so far under the PM-Kisan scheme with the payment of eighth instalment . He added that the Centre is also procuring higher quantity of paddy and wheat at MSP to boost farmers’ income.
- It is implemented as a central sector scheme by the Government of India.
- This scheme was introduced to augment the source of income of many small and marginal farmers.
- Under the Scheme an amount of Rs.6000/- per year is transferred directly into the bank accounts of the farmers, subject to certain exclusion criteria relating to higher income status.
- The entire responsibility of identification of beneficiaries rests with the State / UT Governments.
- The Scheme initially provided income support to all Small and Marginal Farmers’ families across the country, holding cultivable land upto 2 hectares.
- Its ambit was later expanded w.e.f. 01.06.2019 to cover all farmer families in the country irrespective of the size of their land holdings.
- Affluent farmers have been excluded from the scheme such as Income Tax payers in last assessment year, professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants etc and pensioners pensioners drawing at least Rs.10,000/- per month (excluding MTS/Class IV/Group D employees).
Similar programmes by states:
- BhavantarBhugtanYojana- MP.
- The RythuBandhu scheme- Telangana.
- Krushak Assistance for Livelihood and Income augmentation (KALIA)- Odisha.
Subject: Science & tech
Context: Recently, Dr Reddy’s Laboratories (DRL) has said that it had launched Sputnik V in India. The vaccine is currently the second most expensive Covid-19 jab in the country.
About Sputnik V
- It is made by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Moscow.
- It is a two-dose Covid-19 vaccine using a similar platform to Covishield.
- Unlike Covishield, which uses a weakened common cold “adenovirus” that affects chimpanzees, Sputnik V makes use of two different human adenoviruses.
- The vaccine has an efficacy of over 91 per cent.
- It implies that Sputnik V has the ability to bring down symptomatic Covid-19 cases by over 91 per cent in those vaccinated compared with those who have not received a Covid vaccine.
- In India, Dr Reddy’s Laboratories is the local distribution partner for Sputnik V.
- It works on a complex biotechnology in which another virus is employed to carry the DNA code required for triggering immune response in human cells.
Working of Sputnik V Vaccine
- It uses two different viruses that cause the common cold (adenovirus) in humans.
- The adenoviruses are weakened so they cannot replicate in humans and cannot cause disease.
- They are also modified so that the vaccine delivers a code for making the coronavirus spike protein.
- It aims to ensure that when the real virus tries to infect the body, it can mount an immune response in the form of antibodies.
- Sputnik uses a different vector for each of the two shots in a course of vaccination.
- It provides immunity with a longer duration than vaccines using the same delivery mechanism for both shots.
Subject : Governance
Context : No Interim Protection From Arrest To Kalra Till May 18 in Oxygen Black Marketing Case.He said that under the Drug Price Control Order (DPCO) 2013, there is a provision for adjusting the overcharged amount or refunding it.
Drugs (Prices Control) Order (DPCO)
- The Drugs Prices Control Order is an order issued by the Government of India under Sec. 3 of Essential Commodities Act, 1955 to regulate the prices of drugs.
- The Order interalia provides the list of price controlled drugs, procedures for fixation of prices of drugs, method of implementation of prices fixed by Govt., penalties for contravention of provisions etc.
- Under the provisions of DPCO 2013, only the prices of drugs that figure in the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM) are monitored and controlled by the regulator, the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority.
- Essential medicines are those that satisfy the priority healthcare needs of the majority of the population. The primary purpose of NLEM is to promote rational use of medicines considering the three important aspects i.e. cost, safety and efficacy.
National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)
- National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) was constituted as an attached office of the Department of Pharmaceuticals (DoP) in 1997 under Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers as an independent Regulator for pricing of drugs and to ensure availability and accessibility of medicines at affordable prices.
- It fixes ceiling prices of scheduled essential drugs and monitors Maximum Retail Prices (MRPs) of remaining non-scheduled medical devices, which have been regulated as drugs.
Subject : Society
Context : Recently, the first cases of corona virus infection have been reported among the DongriaKondh tribe which has sparked concern among the administration of Odisha.
About DongriaKondh Tribe
- It is settled in the Niyamgiri hills of Rayagada district in Odisha.
- Niyamgiri is an area of densely forested hills, deep gorges and cascading streams.
- It is one of the particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs) in India.
- They derive their name from dongar, meaning ‘hill’ and the name for themselves is Jharnia: protector of streams.
- The Dongria have distinctive jewellery, tattoos and hairstyles.
- Women wear many rings through their ears and three through their noses, while boys wear two nose rings.
- Dongria girls wear clips in their hair and rings and beads around their necks.
- The Dongria also cultivate orchards in the forest, producing crops such as oranges, bananas, ginger, sweet papaya and the aromatic resin jhunu.
- The Dongria believe that animals, plants, mountains and other specific sites and streams have a life-force or soul, jela, which comes from the mother goddess.
Tribes in Odisha
- Odisha has among the largest and most diverse tribal populations in the country.
- Of the 62 tribal groups residing in Odisha, 13 are recognised as PVTGs.
- According to the 2011 Census, Odisha’s share of the country’s total tribal population was 9%. Tribals constitute 22.85% of State’s population.
- The PVTGs in the states are Bonda, Birhor, ChuktiaBhunjia, Didayi, DongariaKandha, Hill Kharia, Juang, KutiaKondh, LanjiaSaora, Lodha, Mankirdia, PaudiBhuyan and Saora.
- These PVTGs have been identified on the basis of stagnant or diminishing populations, subsistence level of economy associated with pre-agricultural stages of hunting, food gathering and shifting cultivation, and relative physical isolation.
Subject : Governance
Context : YSRC MP, who criticised CM Jagan Mohan Reddy, held for sedition.
- Sedition, which falls under Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code, is defined as any action that brings or attempts to bring hatred or contempt towards the government of India and has been illegal in India since 1870.
Historical Background of Sedition Law:
- Sedition laws were enacted in 17th century England when lawmakers believed that only good opinions of the government should survive, as bad opinions were detrimental to the government and monarchy.
- This sentiment (and law) was borrowed and inserted into the Section 124A of IPC in 1870, by the British.
- British used Sedition law to convict and sentence freedom fighters. It was first used to prosecute Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1897.
- Mahatama Gandhi, too, was later tried for sedition for his articles in Young India.
Supreme Court Observations
- In 1962, the Supreme Court decided on the constitutionality of Section 124A in KedarNath Singh v State of Bihar.
- It upheld the constitutionality of sedition, but limited its application to “acts involving intention or tendency to create disorder, or disturbance of law and order, or incitement to violence”.
- It distinguished these from “very strong speech” or the use of “vigorous words” strongly critical of the government.
- In 1995, the Supreme Court, in Balwant Singh v State of Punjab, held that mere sloganeering which evoked no public response did not amount to sedition.
Subject : Environment
Context :The US Slider Turtle, popular as pet, is threatening to invade the natural water bodies across the Northeast which is home to 21 of the 29 vulnerable native Indian species of freshwater turtles and tortoises.
About US Slider Turtle
- The red-eared slider (Trachemysscriptaelegans) derives its name from red stripes around the part where its ears would be and from its ability to slide quickly off any surface into the water.
- It is native to the U.S. and northern Mexico.
- It can live up to 20 years in captivity.
- The diseases such as metabolic bone disease (MBD) and vitamin A deficiency are seen in many kinds of reptiles including red eared sliders.
- It is an aquatic turtle, a strong swimmer, and in the wild, will commonly be seen basking on rocks, logs, or other surfaces above the water.
- The red-eared slider prefers marshes, ponds, and slow-moving water that supply food and basking areas.
Why US Slider Turtle is a threat to Indian native species of turtles?
- The report said a red-eared slider was collected from an unnamed stream, connected to the Tlawng River, on a farm near Mizoram capital Aizawl.
- The red-eared slider has already affected States such as Karnataka and Gujarat.
- The prevention of this invasive species from overtaking the Brahmaputra and other river ecosystems in the Northeast is crucial because the Northeast is home to more than 72% of the turtle and tortoise species in the country.
- The people who keep it as pets become sensitive about turtle conservation but endanger the local ecosystem by releasing them in natural water bodies.
- It is regarded as the most invasive species of turtles in the world.
- According to researchers, they can have a devastating impact on the aquatic life here.
- The red-eared sliders do not have any natural predators because they are an invasive species.
- They pose a threat to both native aquatic animals and plants since they are omnivores.
Subject : Geography
Context : Recently, the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) has warned against Cyclone Tauktae, strengthening and intensifying into a ‘very severe’ cyclonic storm.
About Cyclone Tauktae
- It is formed over Southeast Arabian Sea.
- It shall cause extremely heavy rainfall (more than 204 mm) over Lakshadweep, Kerala, ghats of Tamil Nadu, coastal Karnataka.
- The word Tauktae has been suggested by Myanmar.
- It means ‘gecko’, a distinctively vocal lizard, in the Burmese language.
Naming cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea
- The World Meteorological Organisation/United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (WMO/UNESCAP) Panel on Tropical Cyclones agreed in principle to assign names to the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
- It was decided to name cyclones in Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea during WMO/ESCAP’s 27th session held in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, in 2000.
- The naming of the tropical cyclones over the north Indian Ocean commenced from September 2004, with names provided by eight members.
- The members are Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Maldives, Oman, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand.
- In September 2018, it was decided to prepare a fresh list of names of tropical cyclones including representation from five new member countries, viz., Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
Subject : Environment
Context :A total of 186 elephants were killed after being hit by trains across India between 2009-10 and 2020-21, according to the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
- Assam accounted for the highest number of elephant casualties on railway tracks (62), followed by West Bengal (57), and Odisha (27). Uttar Pradesh saw just one death.
Measures taken to avoid elephant casualties on railway lines
- A Permanent Coordination Committee was constituted between the Ministry of Railways (Railway Board) and the MoEFCC for preventing elephant deaths in train accidents.
- Clearing of vegetation along railway tracks to enable clear view for loco pilots, setting up underpass/overpass for safe passage of elephants, regulation of train speed from sunset to sunrise in vulnerable stretches, and regular patrolling of vulnerable stretches of railway tracks are among other initiatives the Ministry has undertaken.
- The MoEFCC released ₹49 crore to elephant range States under Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) of Project Elephant to protect elephants, their habitat and corridors, to address man-elephant conflicts, and for the welfare of captive elephants, between 2011-12 and 2020-21.
Subject : Governance
Context :A day after Punjab Cabinet decided to join COVAX to procure covid vaccine at cheaper prices, the government said it was exploring options on how to tie up with the facility.
- COVAX is one of three pillars of the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Accelerator, which was launched in April 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the European Commission and France in response to the Covid-19 pandemic.
- The ACT Accelerator is a framework for collaboration to accelerate the development, production, and equitable access to Covid-19 tests, treatments, and vaccines. It is built on three main pillars: Vaccines (COVAX), Therapeutics, Diagnostics.
- COVAX is an effort to ensure that people in all corners of the world will get access to Covid-19 vaccines once they are available, regardless of their wealth.
- The initial aim is to have 2 billion doses available by the end of 2021, which should be enough to protect high risk and vulnerable people, as well as frontline healthcare workers.
- It is co-led by Gavi, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), working in partnership with developed and developing country vaccine manufacturers.
- The COVAX facility continually monitors the Covid-19 vaccine landscape to identify the most suitable vaccine candidates, based on scientific merit and scalability, and works with manufacturers to incentivise them to expand their production capacity in advance of vaccines receiving regulatory approval.
- Gavi COVAX Advance Market Commitment (AMC), a mechanism within the COVAX facility, is to ensure that the 92 middle- and lower-income countries that cannot fully afford to pay for Covid-19 vaccines themselves get equal access to Covid-19 vaccines as higher-income self-financing countries and at the same time.
- India is a Gavi beneficiary and will, therefore, receive a certain proportion of the vaccines from the COVAX facility
Subject : International Relations
Context : Israel bombarded Gaza with artillery and air strikes following a new barrage of rocket fire from the Hamas-run enclave, intensifying a conflict that has claimed more than 120 lives.
- The Gaza Strip or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory.
- It is located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest and Israel on the east and north border.
- Gaza and the West Bank are claimed by the de jure sovereign State of Palestine. The territories of Gaza and the West Bank are separated from each other by Israeli territory.
- Both fell under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, but the strip has since the Battle of Gaza in June 2007 been governed by Hamas, a Palestinian fundamentalist militant Islamic organization which came to power in the last-held elections in 2006.
- It has been placed under an Israeli and US-led international economic and political boycott from that time onwards.
Subject : Current Events/ Governance
Context : Punjab Chief Minister announced the creation of a new district of Malerkotla, carving the state’s only Muslim-majority town from Sangrur district.
- Malerkotla will be the 23rd district of the State.
- Adjoining Amargarh and Ahmedgarh will also form part of Malerkotla district.
- Initially the sub-divisions of Malerkotla and Ahmedgarh, as well as the sub-tehsil of Amargarh, would be included in the newly created district. The process of bringing villages under the jurisdiction of Malerkotla district would begin later, after the conclusion of census operations.
- Tracing the town’s history, the chief minister said it was established in 1454 by Sheikh Sadruddin-i-Jahan from Afghanistan and subsequently the State of Malerkotla was established in 1657 by Bayazid Khan.
- Malerkotla was later merged with other nearby princely states to create the Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU).
- During the reorganisation of states in 1956, the territory of the erstwhile State of Malerkotla became part of Punjab.