Daily Prelims Notes 20 April 2021
- April 20, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
20 April 2021
Table Of Contents
- LoC /LAC
- THRISSUR POORAM FESTIVAL
- MAHABALESHWAR TEMPLE
- INAS 323
- PREVENTION OF CRUELTY TO ANIMALS ACT
- SUDARSHAN SEN COMMITTEE
- STARTUP INDIA SEED FUND SCHEME
- TRIPLE MUTANT & GENOME SEQUENCING
- VANDE BHARAT MISSION
- COUNCIL OF EUROPEAN UNION
Context: Army chief: No firing at LoC since February; hope to settle China issues through talks.
Line of Control
- The LoC emerged from the 1948 as “ceasefire line” negotiated by the UN after the Kashmir War.
- It was designated as the LoC in 1972, following the Shimla Agreement between the two countries. It is delineated on a map signed by DGMOs of both armies and has the international sanctity of a legal agreement.
- The part that is under Indian control is known as the state of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.
- The Pakistani-controlled part is divided into Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan. The northernmost point of the Line of Control is known as NJ9842.
Line of Actual Control
- The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.
LAC is different from the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan:
- The LoC emerged from the 1948 ceasefire line negotiated by the United Nations (UN) after the Kashmir War.
- It was designated as the LoC in 1972, following the Shimla Agreement between the two countries. It is delineated on a map signed by the Director General of Military Operations (DGMO) of both armies and has the international sanctity of a legal agreement.
- The LAC, in contrast, is only a concept – it is not agreed upon by the two countries, neither delineated on a map nor demarcated on the ground.
- Length of the LAC: India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long, while the Chinese consider it to be only around 2,000 km.
Sectors Across the LAC:
- It is divided into three sectors: the eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim (1346 km), the middle sector in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh (545 km), and the western sector in Ladakh (1597 km).
- The alignment of the LAC in the eastern sector is along the 1914 McMahon Line.
- The McMohan line marked out previously unclaimed/undefined borders between Britain and Tibet.
- The middle sector is the least disputed sector, while the western sector witnesses the highest transgressions between the two sides.
Subject : Culture
Context : Thrissur Pooram 2021 will be celebrated on Friday, April 23, 2021.
- Thrissur Pooram is an annual Hindu festival held in Kerala. It is celebrated on the day when the star sign “Pooram” occurs in the Malayalam month of “medam (April-May)”.
- The festival was the brainchild of Raja Rama Varma, famously known as SakthanThampuran, the Maharaja of Cochin (1790–1805).
- Pooram officially begins with Kodiyettam (flag hoisting ceremony) in which all the participating temples of the festival are present.
- The Pooram consists of ten temples in and around Thrissur and is considered to be a ceremony where these deities come together to pay obeisance to Lord Shiva at the Vadakkunnathan Temple, located in the centre of the town.
- One of the hallmarks of the festival is the percussion ensemble consisting of traditional instruments like chenda, maddalam, edakka, thimila and kombu.
- The seventh day of the pooram is the last day. It is also known as “PakalPooram”.
- Pooram, though a Hindu ritual, has grown to encompass all religious and cultural strains of Kerala. Both the Muslim and Christian communities participate in the festival in a variety of ways highlighting secular credentials of the state.
Subject : Art & Architecture
Context: The Supreme Court Monday said the management of Gokarna Mahabaleshwar temple would be handed over to an oversight committee headed by former apex court judge Justice B.N. Srikrishna.
- The Mahabaleshwar Temple, Gokarna is a 4th-century CE Hindu temple located in Gokarna, Uttara Kannada district, Karnataka state, India which is built in the classical Dravidian architectural style.
- It is a site of religious pilgrimage. The temple faces the Gokarna beach on the Arabian Sea in which Hindu pilgrims cleanse before visiting the temple for worship.
- The temple is considered as holy as the Shiva temple at Varanasi or Kāśi (Kashi) in North India on the banks of the Ganges River.
- Hence, the Mahabaleshwar temple, Gokarna is known as the DakshinKasi (“Kasi of the south”).
- The main attraction of this temple is the 6-foot long Shiva lingam of which only the tip is seen, representing the stone incarnation of Lord Shiva.
- There are amid mountainous terrain, this temple glorifies the Maratha Empire and its dominance in the 16th century.
Subject : Defence
Context : Indian Naval Air Squadron (INAS) 323, the first unit of the indigenously built ALH Mk III aircraft, was commissioned into the Indian Navy.
- The squadron will operate three state-of-the-art Advanced Light Helicopters Mk III, a multirole helicopter with Shakti engine manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL).
- The Mk III version of the ALH has an all glass cockpit and will be used for Search and Rescue, Special Operations and Coastal Surveillance.
- 16 aircraft are under procurement and the aircraft are being delivered in a phased manner to the Indian Navy.
Subject : Legislations
Context : The Centre’s Animal Husbandry department has suggested adding to the 1960 legislation a stringent new section that addresses the killing of animals and “gruesome cruelty” towards them.
About the Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act:
- It prohibits any person from inflicting, causing, or if it is the owner, permitting, unnecessary pain or suffering to be inflicted on any animal.
- It provides for punishment for causing unnecessary cruelty and suffering to animals.
- Section 2 of the act defines animals and types of animals like domestic or captive animals.
- Section 4 provides for Welfare Board of India (WBI), a statutory advisory body for animal welfare and protection of animals from unnecessary suffering and pain. Late Smt. Rukmini Devi Arundale, well known humanitarian and Bharatnatyam exponent led it since its foundation for almost 20 years.
- It mentions forms of cruelty, exceptions, and killing of a suffering animal in case any cruelty has been committed against it, so as to relieve it from further suffering.
- Provides the guidelines relating to experimentation on animals for scientific purposes.
- An animal cannot be exhibited or trained by any person, if:
Such a person is unregistered as per the provisions of this chapter;
Such an animal has been barred from being included in any performance by the Central Government through a notification in the Official Gazette.
Subject : Science & tech
Context : NASA announced that Ingenuity had performed its first flight. “…the first flight of a powered aircraft on another planet!”
- Ingenuity, the first helicopter to fly on Mars was carried by NASA’s rover called Perseverance that was launched in July last year and will help collect samples from the surface from locations where the rover cannot reach.
- Perseverance landed at the Jezero Crater of Mars in February year. It will remain on the Red Planet for about two years and look for finding past signs of life.
- The rover is designed to study signs of ancient life, collect samples that might be sent back to Earth during future missions and test new technology that might benefit future robotic and human missions to the planet.
- Ingenuity is able to fly using counter-rotating blades that spin at about 2,400 rpm. It has a wireless communication system, and is equipped with computers, navigation sensors, and two cameras. It is solar-powered, able to charge on its own.
- Taking to the air would give scientists a new perspective on a region’s geology and even allow them to peer into areas that are too steep or slippery to send a rover. In the distant future, they might even help astronauts explore Mars.
- NASA will try and demonstrate rotorcraft flight in the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars with this helicopter, which is why the mission is so crucial.
Subject : Economics
Context : Recently, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has set up a committee to undertake a comprehensive review of the working of asset reconstruction companies (ARCs).
- It is a six-member committee which will be headed by Sudarshan Sen, former Executive Director of RBI.
- The other members are ICICI Bank ED Vishaka Mulye, SBI deputy MD R N Prasad, EY partner Abizer Diwanji, MDI economics professor Rohit Prasad and CA R Anand.
- The panel will submit their report within three months of their first meeting.
- The Department of Regulation (RBI) will provide the necessary secretarial support to the Committee.
What are Asset Reconstruction Companies (ARCs)?
- The ARCs are entities that purchase bad loans from banks and salvage value from them by finding buyers for the security or selling the business.
- The ARCs are registered under the RBI and regulated under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Securities Interest Act, 2002 (SARFAESI Act, 2002).
- The ARCs take over a portion of the debts of the bank that qualify to be recognised as Non-Performing Assets.
- It implies that the ARCs are engaged in the business of asset reconstruction or securitisation or both.
- All the rights that were held by the lender (the bank) in respect of the debt would be transferred to the ARC.
- In February 2021, the government had said that public sector banks will set up a national ARC which will buy bad loans from banks and help clean their books.
Subject : Government Schemes
Context : Union Minister for Commerce and Industry, PiyushGoyal today launched the Startup India Seed Fund Scheme (SISFS)
- It is a Rs 1,000-crore seed fund for startups.
- The scheme will help startups with the initial capital for growth and operations.
- The government will provide guarantees to help startups raise debt-capital in order to build a startup ecosystem which functions on the ‘of the youth, by the youth, for the youth’ mantra.
- It is the need of the hour that the technologies of the future come out of the lab of Asia and the entrepreneurs of the future should be prepared from here.
Fund of Fund Scheme
- It is a scheme that invests in units of other Mutual Fund (MF) schemes.
- The FoF is an MF scheme but one that does not invest directly in stocks or securities but in other MF schemes.
- It gives the investor an opportunity to invest in different schemes managed by different fund managers.
Subject : Science & tech
Context : Double Virus Strain First Detected in Oct, But its Gene Study was Stalled; A Triple Mutant Appears: Report.
- The report said that a third mutation in the B.1.167 has been identified now and experts are hoping that this time the pace of intervention and follow-up picks up.
- Genome sequencing, the study of genetic structures of an organism and the changes happening in it, give information about the virus’ origins, routes taken to reach a particular area and the changes, or mutations, that are making the virus stronger or weaker.
- India, in the first six months, barely conducted a few hundred genome sequencing, while other countries like China, the UK and US, had done several thousand and submitted these in public global depositories for scientists across the world to study.
- It was only in December last year that the government announced setting up the Indian SARS-CoV2 Genomics Consortium (INSACOG) to expedite the gene sequencing effort from India through a consortium of 10 laboratories.
- The CCMB, which is one of the labs under INSACOG, discovered the double mutant during genome sequencing last month.
Indian SARS-CoV-2 Consortium on Genomics (INSACOG):
- INSACOG is a multi-laboratory, multi-agency, pan-India network to monitor genomic variations in the SARS-CoV-2.
- It helps in the understanding of how the virus spreads and evolves.
- Genomic surveillance can generate a rich source of information for tracking pathogen transmission and evolution on both national and international levels.
Subject : International Relations
Context : The Vande Bharat Mission (VBM), which started repatriating Indians stranded abroad due to COVID-19 and the resultant lockdowns since May 7, 2020, has turned out to be one of the largest evacuations of civilians by a country.
- Into the middle of Phase 10, the VBM has surpassed the large-scale airlift of 1,10,000 people in 1990 at the onset of the Gulf War.
- Till now, the Air India (AI) Group has operated 11,523 inbound flights to carry 18,19,734 passengers and 11,528 outbound flights with 13,68,457 passengers.
- The national carrier, which carried out the bulk of air transfers under the mission, was supported by its budget carrier Air India Express.
- The current VBM Phase 10 has international and domestic schedules operating till October 31.
- Air India Express (AIE) used its B-737-800 fleet to lift agricultural produce, mainly fruits and vegetables, to West Asian countries, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.
- “Transport bubbles” or “air travel arrangements”, temporary arrangements between two countries aimed at restarting commercial passenger services when regular international flights are suspended as a result of the pandemic, are in place.
Subject : International Organisations
Context : The Council of the European Union approved conclusions on a European Union strategy for cooperation in the Indo-Pacific to reinforce its strategic focus to contribute to regional stability at a time of “rising challenges and tensions in the region.
- The Council tasked the High Representative and the Commission with putting forward a Joint Communication on cooperation in the Indo-Pacific by September 2021.
- The EU will aim to promote effective rules-based multilateralism, reiterating its support for ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) centrality, a point also stressed by India.
Council of the European Union:
- It is part of the essentially bicameral EU legislature (the other legislative body being the European Parliament) and represents the executive governments (Minister) of the EU’s member states.
- In the Council, government ministers from each EU country meet to discuss, amend and adopt laws, and coordinate policies. The ministers have the authority to commit their governments to the actions agreed on in the meetings.
Subject : National Organisations
Context: Sivasubramanian Ramann from Tamil Nadu has taken charge as the Chairman and Managing Director of the Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI).
- It is a statutory body which was set up on 2nd April 1990 under an Act of Indian Parliament.
- It acts as the Principal Financial Institution for Promotion, Financing and Development of the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) sector as well as for co-ordination of functions of institutions engaged in similar activities
- Its mission is to facilitate and strengthen credit flow to MSMEs and address both financial and developmental gaps in the MSME eco-system.
- It is one of the four All India Financial Institutions regulated and supervised by the Reserve Bank of India.
Subject : Economy
Context : Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology-Madras (IIT-M) have filed 184 patents during the year 2020, including 65 international ones.
- A patent is an intellectual property right.
- A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention, which is a new product or process that meets conditions of
- A patent provides the owner with the right to decide how – or whether – the invention can be used by others.
Criteria for issuing Patents in India
- Novelty: it should be new (not published earlier + no prior Public Knowledge/ Public Use in India)
- Non obviousness: It must involve an inventive step (technical advanced in comparison to existing knowledge + non‐obvious to a person skilled in the relevant field of technology)
- Industrial use: It should be capable of Industrial application
- Patents in India are governed by “The patent Act 1970” which was amended in 2005 to make it compliant with TRIPS.
What cannot be patented?
- Frivolous Invention: Invention that harms public order/Morality/ health of animals, plants & humans
- Methods of agriculture or horticulture
- Traditional Knowledge
- Computer Program
- Inventions related to Atomic Energy
- Plants & Animals
- Mere discovery of scientific principle
Patent (Amendment) Rules, 2020
- The central government has published an amended Patent (Amendment) Rules, 2020.
- The new rules have amended the format of a disclosure statement that patentees & licensees are required to annually submit to the Patent Office.
- The format contains disclosing the extent to which they have commercially worked or made the patented inventions available to the public in the country.
- The disclosure is to be made in the Form 27 format as prescribed under the Patent Rules, 2003.
- The patentees & licensees as well as the Patent Office have blatantly disregarded this statutory requirement.
- There has been significant pressure from MNCs & the U.S. to do away with this requirement.