Daily Prelims Notes 5 July 2021
- July 5, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
5 July 2021
Table Of Contents
- Literacy numeracy mission deadline pushed to 2027
- NIPUN Bharat Mission
- Investment in neobanking space plunges
- Four years on delay derails Railways CCTV Project
- Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI)
- Project BOLD to Boost Tribals
- New CM took oath in Uttarakhand
- T cell responses against Variants
- Electroporation physical Transfection
- Consumer genomics
- Dalai Lama
- Bagram Airfield-BAF
Context: No extra funds for the goal (NEP) , money are allocated from Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan
- SamagraShiksha is an integrated scheme for school education extending from pre-school to class XII to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education at all levels of school education.
- It subsumes the three Schemes of SarvaShikshaAbhiyan (SSA), RashtriyaMadhyamikShikshaAbhiyan (RMSA) and Teacher Education (TE).
- The scheme treats school education holistically as a continuum from Pre-school to Class 12.
- The main emphasis of the Scheme is on improving the quality of school education by focussing on the two T’s – Teacher and Technology.
- The Scheme is being implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
- The fund sharing pattern for the scheme between Centre and States is at present in the ratio of 90:10 for the North-Eastern States and the Himalayan States and 60:40 for all other States and Union Territories with Legislature.
- It is 100% centrally sponsored for Union Territories without Legislature.
- The scheme also proposes to give flexibility to the States and UTs to plan and prioritize their interventions within the scheme norms and the overall resource envelope available to them.
Subject : Governance
Context : Recently, the Ministry of Education has announced that it will launch NIPUN Bharat Mission.
- It is a National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy (NIPUN Bharat).
- It marks an important step undertaken by the Department of School Education and Literacy, among a series of measures taken for implementation of the National Education Policy 2020.
- Its vision is to create an enabling environment to ensure universal acquisition of foundational literacy and numeracy.
- Its primary focus will be on that every child achieves the desired learning competencies in reading, writing and numeracy by the end of Grade 3, by 2026-27.
- It will be implemented by the Department of School Education and Literacy.
- Under the mission, a five-tier implementation mechanism will be set up at the National- State- District- Block- School level in all States and UTs, under the aegis of the centrally sponsored scheme of SamagraShiksha.
- It will help in improving the overall education and literacy standards in the country.
Context: However players say it’s still early days with many more deals in the pipeline.
- Neo banks are virtual banks. They are the banks that are only operable online. The bank is not physical but is completely digital.
- Neo Banking is a technique to provide a complete banking experience but through digital platforms like a mobile application.
Neo banking: Features
- These banks are cheaper and quicker.
- Neo banks have the ability to leverage a single network with the complete financial portfolio.
- In short, Neo bank is a kind of digital bank with no branches.
- Neobanks can be called fintech firms providing digital and mobile-first financial solutions payments along with money transfers, money lending, and more.
- Neo banks do not have a license of their own but they have banking partners to provide licensed services.
- Conventional banks are at the frontline of increasing rivalry from the digital world. With neo banks expanding so quickly, their state of art technologies are winning over customers who wish the financial services to be easier for them.
Situation in India:
- In India there are 10 neo banks at present. ICICI took lead and partnered with three of them namely- Free, Instant Pay and Yelo.
- Neo Banks have been divided into licensed and non licensed. Non licensed banks tie up with a traditional bank and provide their products while the licensed banks obtain their licenses and work on their own.
- Currently in India neo banks are not allowed to hold customer deposits and they are not even being granted virtual license by the RBI since it maintains the stand on the need of physical availability as per its 2014 guidelines.
Context: More than four years after a MoU was signed between the Indian Railways and RailTel for the installation of surveillance cameras at 983 stations across the country, the project envisaged under the “Nirbhaya Fund” to enhance safety of women passengers has derailed.
About Nirbhaya Fund
- Objective: For implementation of initiatives aimed at enhancing the safety and security for women in the country.
- Established by: Union Finance Ministry.
- It is a non-lapsable corpus fund.
Schemes of Ministry of Women and Child Development under Nirbhaya Fund:
- One Stop Centre Scheme (Sakhi Centres): It is being implemented across the country since 1st April 2015. It aims at establishing Centres to facilitate women affected by violence. It provides First aid, Medical aid, Police assistance, Legal aid and counselling support.
- Women Helpline (181): The Department of Telecommunication has allocated the number 181 to all States/UTs for Women Helpline. This helpline number will link the One Stop Centres being established by the Ministry of Women & Child Development.
- Mahila Police Volunteers (MPVs): These will act as a link between police and community and help women in distress. Haryana launched the scheme in 2016, thereby becoming the first state to launch it.
Schemes of other Ministries/Departments under Nirbhaya Fund:
Integrated Emergency Response Management System:
- The project aims to provide round the clock security to women passengers in all Railway Stations by strengthening of Security Control Rooms of Railways with Security Helpline, Medical Facilities, RPF and police, installation of CCTV cameras, etc.
- Ministry in charge: Railways.
Central Victim Compensation Scheme (CVCF):
- It has been created with a corpus of Rs.200 crores under section 357A CrPC.
- It will support States/UTs in providing fund towards compensation to the victim or her dependents who have suffered loss or injury as a result of the crimes (including survivors of rape and acid attack).
- Ministry in charge: Home affairs.
Emergency Response Support System (ERSS):
- ERSS envisages an integrated computer aided emergency response platform to respond to distress calls and ensure speedy assistance to the distressed persons.
- It aims to integrate all emergency numbers to 112 with state of art technology.
- Ministry in charge: Home affairs.
Subject: Governance / Science & tech
Context: Recently, the Ministry of AYUSH has announced that the Ayurveda Dataset on Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI) Portal will be launched.
- The Ayurveda Dataset of CTRI has been jointly developed by ICMR and Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Ministry of Ayush.
- Its key feature is the provision of selection of the Ayurveda Health conditions from drop down of 3866 Ayurveda morbidity codes incorporated from the NAMASTE portal.
- It provides that the information, results etc. of Ayurveda Clinical Trials will be available in Ayurvedic vocabulary in the clinical trials registry of India.
Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI)
- It is a primary register of Clinical Trials under WHO’s International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP).
- It hosted at the ICMR’s National Institute of Medical Statistics (NIMS).
- It is a free and online public record system for registration of clinical trials being conducted in India.
- It was initiated as a voluntary measure since 2009.
- The trial registration in the CTRI has been made mandatory by the Drugs Controller General (India) (DCGI).
International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP)
- It is a project of the World Health Organization, based within the Health Metrics and Measurement cluster.
- It was established in August 2005.
- It is based in WHO Headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
- Its aim is to facilitate the prospective registration of the WHO Trial Registration Data Set on all clinical trials, and the public accessibility of that information.
- Its purpose is to strengthen accountability and transparency in the conduct of clinical research and dissemination.
Context: Recently, the Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) has announced a Project BOLD in order to boost tribals’ lives and livelihoods.
- It is a unique initiative of Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC).
- It is named as “Bamboo Oasis on Lands in Drought” (BOLD).
- It is the first of its kind exercise in India which was launched from the tribal village NichlaMandwa in Udaipur, Rajasthan.
- Under the project, 5000 saplings of special bamboo species i.e. BambusaTulda and BambusaPolymorpha have been planted over 16 acres approx. of vacant arid Gram Panchayat land.
- It is a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament in 1956.
- It is under the administrative control of Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
The broad objectives that the KVIC has set before it are:
- The social objective of providing employment;
- The economic objective of producing saleable articles; and
- The wider objective of creating self-reliance amongst the poor and building up of a strong rural community spirit
- It is charged with the planning, promotion, organisation and implementation of programs for the development of Khadi and other village industries in the rural areas.
Context: Pushkar Singh Dhami took oath as Chief Minister of Uttarakhand. He replaced Tirath Singh Rawat.
- Tirath Singh Rawat’s term as Uttarakhand Chief Minister — that lasted just 114 days — was riddled with controversies over his remarks as well as reversal of decisions taken by his predecessor Trivendra Singh Rawat who had resigned in March after leading the state government for four years.
Key constitutional provisions for CMs:
- Article 163(1): There shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Governor in the exercise of his functions, except in so far as he is by or under the Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion.
- Article 164(1): The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the Governor and the other Ministers shall be appointed on the advice of the Chief Minister.
- Article 164(2): The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly of the State.
Context: Researchers have found that T cells from people who have recovered from Covid-19, or received the Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines, are still able to recognise several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. It found that both “helper” T cells and “killer” T cells can still recognise mutated forms of the virus.
- The researchers tested T cell responses against Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Epsilon. They found that both vaccinated individuals and the recovered patients had cross-reactive T cells that could target these variants.
What are T Cells?
- T cells (also called T lymphocytes) are one of the major components of the adaptive immune system.
- Their roles include directly killing infected host cells, activating other immune cells, producing cytokines and regulating the immune response.
- There are two major types of T cells: the helper T cell and the cytotoxic T cell.
- As the names suggest, helper T cells ‘help’ other cells of the immune system, whilst cytotoxic T cells kill virally infected cells and tumours.
Subject: Science and Technology
Context: a team of researchers from IIT-Madras, in collaboration with scientists from the UK and Taiwan, have achieved a signal breakthrough in doing transfection.
Transfection is the process of introducing foreign genetic substances such as nucleic acids into cells, is often needed for gene research and therapy.
Single-cell transfection techniques (SCTT) provide a better understanding of the interactions between molecules and organelles, which can help in the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools.
There are three ways of doing transfection.
A) Biological, in which the desired genetic material is introduced into a virus. The virus is then used as a truck to take the material inside the cell. It is an Easy method, but there are undesirable side-effects as it could trigger an immuno-response from the body or set off harmful genetic mutations.
B) Chemical method attaches the shipment (carrier) to the positive ions of certain chemicals (cationic polymer, cationic amino acids) and they get attracted to the negatively charged cell membrane. This is tough, because it have to match the chemicals to the type of cell, or else the ‘transfection efficiency’ will be low.
C) Physical is gaining ground. Here again, there are different techniques, such as micro-injection, biolistics and electroporation.
- Micro-injection is straightforward injection but demands high skill and is laborious.
- ‘Biolistics’, or biological ballistics, is expensive as it needs equipment for mixing the shipment material with gold and shooting it into the cell using a gene-gun.
- Electroporation, a more fancied technique, involves applying an electric field to the cell, so that its permeability increases — the holes in its walls get bigger, so that our shipment passes through. For this, it needs extremely small electrodes (at least one thousandth of an mm)
Electroporation, The researchers fabricated a very precise array of nano-electrodes with the help of advanced micro/ nanofabrication techniques.
The gap between two nano-electrodes was 70 nanometers and the interspace between an array of nano-electrodes was 5 micrometers. The electric pulse creates temporary hydrophilic (water-loving) pores, through which the desired cargo could be slipped in. In the experiment, the researchers used their device to deliver into a cell material such as cell-impermeable dyes, quantum dots (nano crystals that can ferry electrons) and plasmids (a kind of DNA).
- With Nano-electrodes, the voltage applied is small (4V to 6V) and, because of this, the cell lives longer (3 to 4 days).
- The voltage needed is large enough to kill the cell within minutes after the cargo gets in the smaller Nano-electrode surface area, the electrolysis effect was almost negligible, which enhanced cell viability
- Also, with Nano-electrodes it is possible to choose where to puncture holes in the cell membrane. This brings in two advantages.
- Can deny the entry of other unwanted materials into the cell. Two, you can do parallel transfection of multiple drugs and see how they interact.
- This Nano device provides a spatial and temporal dosage control technique, offering high transfection efficiency and cell viability.
- This technology is a significant breakthrough in transfection techniques, which can aid drug research.
Subject: Science and Technology
Context: the Covid-19 pandemic given a boost to direct-to consumer (DTC) genome sequencing services
DTC genomics, where a lab provides sequencing (and, if called for, genetic counselling) services directly to the consumer, without the intervention of a doctor.
Technique of DTC genomics /genome sequencing: ‘single nucleotide polymorphisms’ (SNP)
- ‘Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms’ (SNP) in the non-coding genes. The SNP is a variation in the position of a single nucleotide in a DNA sequence (eg, in place of a nucleotide Adenine you have the nucleotide Cytosine).
- Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are sites in the individual genome that have at least two different nucleotide bases at the same location.
- This point mutations or substitution of a single nucleotide, do not change the overall length of the DNA sequence in that region. Presently.
- The SNPs are used as tools for Applications of Genetic Polymorphism studying variation within human populations or between different populations. Over the past years, a large number of different SNP technologies have been developed based on various methods of allelic discrimination and detection platforms
- SNPs themselves do not cause disorders, they just red-flag them because some SNPs are associated with certain diseases.
- It is impossible to exhaustively list all possible applications. The more important ones are:
- Inferring population histories and affinities,
- Reconstructing mutational patterns and dating occurrences of mutations in populations,
- Relating inferences in demographic histories of populations,
- Mapping disease genes
- Tracing trials of disease and other genes.
- Forensic anthropology
- Suggest the age, sex, ancestry, stature, and unique features of a decedent from the skeleton.
The benefits of consumer genomics
- A genome test can look into your genes, check for any anomalies and make some predictions, such as whether you are predisposed to a certain disease.
- In effect, a genome testing can lead to expert advice on what you should or should not eat, whether you would be a good athlete or a musician, which drugs work best for you if you acquire a disease, to which part of the world you trace your ancestry, and so on
- It allows hospital network for delivering next-generation sequencing and “personalised and preventive healthcare.
- Due to the ongoing Covid pandemic, people have become more health-conscious, potentially leading them to use new and advanced techniques like consumer genomics
- Emerging technologies that are making consumer genomics more affordable.
- People can check their ‘ancestry’ out of curiosity.
- Consumer genomics has big scope in screening for specific mutations for cancer,” For diseases such as diabetes, heart and cancer, identification of the gene associations can help develop precision medicine
- A full genome profile could cost up to ₹1 lakh
- Data security is the biggest of them. Labs sitting on heaps of data might lead to privacy issues. Experts say that while existing laws cover these privacy issues, a separate regulation for consumer genomics is desirable
Subject: International Relations
Context: The Dalai Lama’s birthday is celebrated as one of the grandest events of Tibetan community. In Dharamshala, where the Dalai Lama lives, thousands of people from across the globe used to reach for being part of the birthday celebrations
Following the Buddhist belief in the principle of reincarnation, the current Dalai Lama is believed by Buddhists to be able to choose the body into which he is reincarnated.
- That person, when found, will then become the next Dalai Lama.
- According to Buddhist scholars it is the responsibility of the High Lamas of the Gelugpa tradition and the Tibetan government to seek out and find the next Dalai Lama following the death of the incumbent.
- If more than one candidate is identified, the true successor is found by officials and monks drawing lots in a public ceremony.
- Once identified, the successful candidate and his family are taken to Lhasa (or Dharamsala) where the child studies the Buddhist scriptures in order to prepare for spiritual leadership.
But, According to China, there was a well-established procedure for recognizing the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama,
- One of the conditions was that the name of the successor was pulled out of golden urns found in the Jokhang Temple (one of the most sacred monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism situated in Lhasa) and the Potala Palace which was the residence of the Dalai Lama till he fled to India in 1959.
- The second was the reincarnation getting the approval of the Chinese government.
- Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people for the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or “Yellow Hat” school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest of the classical schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
- The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso.
- The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and the patron saint of Tibet.
- Bodhisattvas are realized beings inspired by a wish to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings, who have vowed to be reborn in the world to help humanity.
Subject: International Relations
Context: The US departure from Bagram has already raised the stakes in Afghanistan. With the Taliban on the move, uncertainty and anxiety have returned to the land.
- Bagram Airfield-BAF also known as Bagram Air Base was the largest S. military base in Afghanistan.
- It is located next to the ancient city of Bagram, 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) southeast of Charikar in the Parwan Province of Afghanistan. The airbase near the town of Bagram is a little over 60 km north of Kabul.
- It has always been a military base. The Soviets built the airstrip in the 1950s.
- Bagram airfield was the site of several military encounters and anepicentre of US ‘war on terror’ in Afghanistan in the backdrop of 9/11 terror attacks.
- Testimony to the importance of Bagram has been the visits by US Presidents since 9/11.
- Bagram airfield has now been handed over to Afghan National Security and Defense Force.