Daily Prelims Notes 8 June 2021
- June 9, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
8 June 2021
Table Of Contents
- INTERPOL HAS LAUNCHED A NEW GLOBAL DATABASE
- BIOMEDICAL WASTE
- SEA SNOT IN TURKEY
- SCIENCE MINISTRY ANNOUNCED ANIMAL CHALLENGE STUDY PLATFORM
- RENEWABLE ENERGY CERTIFICATE (REC) Mechanism
- FDA CONDITIONALLY APPROVES ALZHEIMERS DRUG
Subject: International Relations
Context: The Interpol has launched a new global database named ‘I-Familia’. It will identify missing persons or unidentified human remains around the world through DNA of relatives.
- The International Police Organization is commonly known as Interpol.
- It is an international organization facilitating international police cooperation against cross-border terrorism, trafficking, and other crime.
- INTERPOL has 194 member countries, making us the world’s largest police organization. State of Palestine is its member.
- All decisions regarding the activities of INTERPOL are made by the General Assembly which is it’s supreme governing body which meets annually.
- It is not a unit or part of united nation system. It is an independent international organization.
- HQ: Lyon in France.
- It was founded in 1923.
- Each country hosts an INTERPOL National Central Bureau (NCB), which links national police with our global network. in India, CBI is the NCB.
- Interpol notices: These are international alert/requests circulated by Interpol allowing police in member countries to share critical crime-related information. There are eight types of notices, seven of which are colour-coded by their function. An eighth Special Notice is issued at the request of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).
Context : The report titled, “State of India’s Environment 2021,” released by the Centre for Science and Environment, said 2,03,000 kg of COVID-19 biomedical waste was produced daily in May this year and it was roughly 33% of India’s non-COVID biomedical waste.
- As per Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016, Bio-medical waste is required to be segregated in 4 colour coded waste categories, and the same is treated and disposed as per the methods prescribed under Schedule I of the Rules.
Common methods of treatment and disposal of bio-medical waste are by
- incineration/plasma pyrolysis/deep-burial for Yellow Category waste;
- autoclaving/microwaving/chemical disinfection for Red Category waste;
- sterilization and shredding, disinfection followed by burial in concrete pit/recycling through foundry/encapsulation for White Category sharps waste; and
- washing, disinfection followed by recycling for Blue Category glass waste.
Subject: International Relations
Context: Recently, there has been growing environmental concern in Turkey over the accumulation of ‘sea snot’.
- It is a slimy layer of grey or green sludge in the country’s seas, which can cause considerable damage to the marine ecosystem.
- Turkey’s Sea of Marmara, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, has witnessed the largest outbreak of ‘sea snot’.
- The sludge has also been spotted in the adjoining Black and Aegean seas.
- The thick slimy layer of organic matter, which looks like a viscous, brown and foamy substance, has spread through the sea south of Istanbul and also blanketed harbours and shorelines.
What is a Sea Snot?
- It is marine mucilage that is formed when algae are overloaded with nutrients as a result of water pollution combined with the effects of climate change.
- The nutrient overload occurs when algae feast on warm weather caused by global warming.
- The phenomenon of water pollution adds to the problem.
- The overproduction of phytoplankton caused by climate change and the uncontrolled dumping of household and industrial waste into the seas has led to the Sea Snot.
- The dumping of sewage in the sea along with rising temperatures is causing the crisis.
- A ‘sea snot’ outbreak was first recorded in the country in 2007 and it was also spotted in the Aegean Sea near Greece.
Context: Recently, the Ministry of Science & Technology has announced the establishment of Animal Challenge Study Platform.
Animal Challenge Study Platform
- Its foundation stone was laid at the Institute of Life Sciences (ILS) Bhubaneswar.
- It will be set up inside the campus with an estimated cost of Rs 12 crore.
- It will be funded by the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC) of the Centre’s department of biotechnology (DBT).
Significance of Animal Challenge Study Platform
- The platform can be used for animal trial of drugs and vaccines.
- The platform will have biosafety levels-3 (BSL-3) facility for animal study and it will house animals for this purpose.
- It is aimed at undertaking evaluation studies of potential drug and vaccine candidates.
Context: Recently, the Ministry of Power has circulated a discussion paper on redesigning the Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) Mechanism for comments of stakeholders in power sector.
Renewable Energy Certificate (REC)
- It is a market based instrument to promote renewable energy and facilitate compliance of renewable purchase obligations (RPO).
- It is a tradable, legal mechanism that represents the environmental benefits associated with one Megawatt-hour of electricity generated from a renewable energy resource.
- It is aimed at addressing the mismatch between availability of RE resources in state and the requirement of the obligated entities to meet the renewable purchase obligation (RPO).
- One Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) is treated as equivalent to 1 MWh.
Eligibility under Renewable Energy Certificate (REC)
- A generating company engaged in generation of electricity from renewable energy sources shall be eligible to apply for registration for issuance of and dealing in Certificates if it fulfills the following conditions:
- It has obtained accreditation from the State Agency; and
- It does not have any power purchase agreement for the capacity related to such generation to sell electricity, with the obligated entity for the purpose of meeting its renewable purchase obligation.
- A distribution licensee shall be eligible to apply for registration with the Central Agency for issuance conditions:
- It has procured renewable energy, in the previous financial year, at a tariff determined under Section 62 or adopted under Section 63 of the Act; and
- It has obtained a certification from the Appropriate Commission towards procurement of renewable energy.
Subject: Science & tech
Context: The U.S.’s pharma regulator, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), made a much anticipated ruling on Monday, in conditionally approving the use of an Alzheimer’s drug, called aducanumab, the first such approval since 2003.
- The drug, which goes by the brand name Aduhelm, has been granted ‘accelerated approval’, meaning it will need to verify expected clinical benefits in a new trial.
- The drug’s approval had become controversial, with growing pressure from those impacted by the debilitating degenerative brain disease on one hand and opposition from many in the scientific community who were not convinced that the drug had demonstrated efficacy in trials.
About the Drug
- Aducanumab is based on the amyloid hypothesis of the disease — that plaques made of beta amyloid peptide (a type of protein) form in the patients brain leading to cognitive decline and problems with thinking.
- The drug supposedly binds to beta amyloid molecules and removes them. The drug, a monoclonal antibody, is given monthly via injection to patients who suffer from early stages of Alzheimer’s.