- November 25, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
- Biodynamic agriculture is a form of alternative agriculture based on pseudo-scientific and esoteric concepts initially developed in 1924 by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925).
- It was the first of the organic farming movements.
- It treats soil fertility, plant growth, and livestock care as ecologically interrelated tasks, emphasizing spiritual and mystical perspectives.
- It emphasizes the use of manures and composts and excludes the use of synthetic (artificial) fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on soil and plants.
- Methods unique to the biodynamic approach include its treatment of animals, crops, and soil as a single system, an emphasis from its beginnings on local production and distribution systems, its use of traditional and development of new local breeds and varieties.
- Some methods use an astrological sowing and planting calendar.
- Biodynamic agriculture uses various herbal and mineral additives for compost additives and field sprays.
- No difference in beneficial outcomes has been scientifically established between certified biodynamic agricultural techniques and similar organic and integrated farming practices. Biodynamic agriculture is a pseudoscience as it lacks scientific evidence for its efficacy because of its reliance upon esoteric knowledge and mystical beliefs.
- As of 2020, biodynamic techniques were used on 251,842 hectares in 55 countries, led by Germany, Australia and France. Germany accounts for 41.8% of the global total; the remainder average 1,750 ha per country.
- Biodynamic methods of cultivating grapevines have been taken up by several notable vineyards.
- There are certification agencies for biodynamic products, most of which are members of the international biodynamics standards group Demeter International.