Daily Practice Sheet 20 January 2021
- January 20, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPS
Daily Practice Sheet 20 January 2021
All 6 Prelims qualified
4 CSE Mains qualified
If I can do it, you can too
Daily Prelims Topic
- S 400
- Parakaram Diwas
- People Density Index:
- Question hour, Zero hour:
- Insider trading:
- Habeaus Corpus
- Chief Information Commissioner (CIC)
- Domestic Systematically Important Banks
- Global Risks Report
- K-Shaped recovery
- On an average an amount of around Rs 5000-6000 is transferred to each farmer as fertilizer subsidy each year. (Department of fertiliser)
Unpaid work/Gender Divide
- As per NSSO’s Time Use Survey 2019, 92% of the women in the 15-59 age group reported doing unpaid daily housework vis-a-vis 29% of men, and women spend a lot more time on domestic work, too, (299 minutes versus 97 minutes for men). This has surely come down from the days when the corresponding figures were 352 minutes versus 57 minutes—then the widest such gap in the world.
- Only 38% of women in the country own any land or a house
Daily Mains Mantra
GS 1: Society
In the introduction, highlight the need for understanding the differences between these terms. In the body, define each term and bring out the differences. You can add examples.
In general terms, “sex” refers to the biological differences between males and females, such as the genitalia and genetic differences.
- Male( XY chromosomes, high levels of testosterone)
- Female( XX chromosomes, high levels of Estrogen)
- Intersex(a person born with the sexual anatomy or chromosomes that don’t fit the traditional definition of male or female. A combination of reproductive sex organs, including internal sex organs, chromosomes. and hormones).
“Gender” is more difficult to define, but it can refer to the role of a male or female in society, known as a gender role, or an individual’s concept of themselves, or gender identity.
- Cisgender– a person who identifies with the sex they were assigned at birth. For example, a person who was assigned as a male at birth, and identifies as male, or vice versa.
- Transgender– a person whose gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth. For example, a person who was assigned as a male at birth, but identifies as female, or vice versa.
- Gender Fluid– a person whose gender identity is not fixed and / or shifts depending on the situation. These people don’t feel the need to act according to the sex they were assigned at birth and the associated traditional social roles.
Sexuality and sexual orientation are often used interchangeably. Sexual orientation, in fact is the intensified form of sexuality.
Sexuality is about the sexual feelings, thoughts, attractions and behaviours towards other people. One can find other people physically, sexually or emotionally attractive, and all those things are a part of his/her sexuality. Sexuality is diverse and personal, and it is an important part to define about that person.
Sexual orientation is the emotional, romantic, or sexual attraction that a person feels toward another person. There are several types of sexual orientation;
A person’s sexuality can be:
- Heterosexual – A person attracted to people of the opposite sex.
- Homosexual – A person attracted to people of the same sex.
- Bisexual – The word ‘bi’, meaning ‘two’, refers to a person attraction to both genders (male and female).
- Asexual – Asexuality is the absence of sexual attraction. For example, some asexual people are in romantic relationships where they never desire sex, and some are not in romantic relationships at all.
- Pansexual – ‘Pan’, meaning ‘all-inclusive’, refers to a person’s attraction to multiple genders. Some pansexual people describe their attraction as being based on chemistry rather than gender, but everyone is different.
- Questioning – Some people may be unsure about their sexuality and / or are exploring it, so might identify as ‘questioning’.
- + many more variations of sexuality!
Sexuality is not necessarily black or white. Instead, it can be thought about on a continuum or in shades of grey.
Three of the most common aspects used to describe sexuality are:
- Feelings and fantasies: who we fall in love with, who we are attracted to, who we think about when we are aroused, and who we intimately connect with.
- Behaviours: include any form of sexual contact (kissing, touching, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex etc.), flirting, who we date, and have relationships with.
- Identity: is the label or description of our sexuality.
In the conclusion, summarize the answer stating why it is important to recognize the differences between the terms and how all the 4 reinforces each other. Explain how understanding the differences will help in recognizing the rights and space for the people in a society. Ex., LGBTQ, transgenders.
GS 2: Geography
GS 2: Polity
1. It is perfectly possible to pervert the Constitution, without changing the form by merely changing the form of administration and to make it inconsistent and opposed to the spirit of Constitution”. Comment in context of Indian federalism. [Reference: Indian Express]
Introduction: Talk briefly about the unique federation or union of state The Constitution has provided for.
Changing form of administration, a challenge to federalism and Constitution:
- President rule
- Emergency power (Ex- Lockdown and other powers used by Centre during COvid-19)
- Governor’s role
- Controlling Indian administrative Services
- PMO dominated administration in parliamentary democracy where majority enjoyed by party in power changes form of government to Presidential form
Flexibility in administration as unique point of India Constitution:
- Addressing India’s diversity
- Handling crises in decisive manner (Ex- Covid-19 crisis)
- Union of states with Centre as an enabler
- Parliament’s power to fix accountability of the government
- Rise of regional parties with state having major share in administration deepening federalism
- Less frequent use of President rule (Mention Sarkaria, Punchhi commission recommendations)
- Cooperative federalism by utilising platforms like Niti Aayog to implement decision which impacts many states
- Governor to exercise caution (Use SC’s judgement or Sarkaria recommendations)
The unique aspect of Indian federalism with flexibility should be prevented from becoming a concern. Thus, there is need to develop cooperative federalism to allay any concern arising in federalism in India.
GS 2: IR
GS 3: Economy
GS 3: Environment
India is one of the biggest producers of e-waste in the world, The Global E-waste Monitor 2017. India collected just 10 per cent of the electronic waste (e-waste) estimated to have been generated in the country 2018-19 and 3.5 per cent of that in the generated in 2017-18, said a recent report by the Central Pollution Control Board.
E waste management rules 2017
- The e-waste collection targets under EPR have been revised and will be applicable from 1 October 2017. The phase-wise collection targets for e-waste in weight shall be 10% of the quantity of waste generation as indicated in the EPR Plan during 2017-18, with a 10% increase every year until 2023. After 2023 onwards, the target has been made 70% of the quantity of waste generation as indicated in the EPR Plan.
- The quantity of e-waste collected by producers from the 1 October 2016 to 30 September 2017 shall be accounted for in the revised EPR targets until March 2018.
- Separate e-waste collection targets have been drafted for new producers, i.e. those producers whose number of years of sales operation is less than the average lives of their products. The average lives of the products will be as per the guidelines issued by CPCB from time to time.
- Producer Responsibility Organizations (PROs) shall apply to the Central Pollution Control board (CPCB) for registration to undertake activities prescribed in the Rules.
- Under the Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) provisions, cost for sampling and testing shall be borne by the government for conducting the RoHS test. If the product does not comply with RoHS provisions, then the cost of the test will be borne by the Producers.
- State Government to prepare integrated plan for effective implementation of these provisions, and to submit annual report to Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
- The transportation of e – waste shall be carried out as per the manifest system whereby the transporter shall be required to carry a document (three copies) prepared by the sender, giving the details.
- Liability for damages caused to the environment or third party due to improper management of e – waste including provision for levying financial penalty for violation of provisions of the Rules has also been introduced.
- Urban Local Bodies (Municipal Committee/Council/Corporation) has been assign the duty to collect and channelized the orphan products to authorized dismantler or recycler.
- CPCB noted that capacity of one dismantlers increased eight times without any increase in corresponding shed area by the United Nations University,
- According to CPCB, there are 214 authorised recyclers/dismantlers in India.
- According to many studies, about 95 per cent of India’s e-waste is recycled in the informal sector and in a crude manner.
- These cause severe pollution in air, water and soil and severely affects the worker’s health (see ‘Informal and invisible’) over 95 per cent of e-waste recycling is done by the informal sector.
- One of the major hubs in India, Moradabad in Uttar Pradesh, was in the news recently when the National Green Tribunal (NGT) fined the district magistrate and State Pollution Control Board for not being able to tackle the black powder waste lying on the banks of Ramgangariver.
- HUGE GAPS in compliance of electronic waste-management rules show authorities’ lack of concern for health of the citizens, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) cases of assaults but there is no adequate action
- Petty benefit of retrieving metals etc., the poor labour class is engaged in burning electronic wires or other waste to the detriment of their own health and also the health of others which is not being duly checked… Constant vigilance is required
- 95 per cent of e-waste in India is recycled by the informal sector and scrap dealers unscientifically dispose it by burning or dissolving it in acids.
- Illegal recycling and processing of e-waste is concentrated in a few hotspots in the state. Seelampur in New Delhi is a hub, and Loni, Baghpat and Moradabad in UP are the hotspots.
- E-waste or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) are loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, broken, electrical or electronic devices.
- In India most of the waste electronic items are stored at households as people do not know how to discard them.
- Lead enters biological systems via food, water, air, and soil. Children are particularly vulnerable to lead poisoning – more so than adults because they absorb more lead from their environment and their nervous system and blood get affected. It is found that the e-waste recycling activities had contributed to the elevated blood lead levels in children living in China
Steps to overcome
- The sustainability of e-waste management systems has to be ensured by improving the collection and recycling systems. It would be desirable to establish public-private partnerships in setting up buy-back or drop-off centers.
- Levying advance recycling fees is another approach to ensure waste management sustainability. To identify best e-waste management technologies across the globe and adopt them successfully can be key to a sustainable futuristic growth.
- The reduction of the hazardous substances in the electronic and electrical equipments and the promotion of use of their safer substitutes many countries have adopted the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)
- Regulations in the manufacture of these itemsmajor effects of e-waste on environment include groundwater pollution, acidification of soil and contamination of ground water, and air pollution due to burning of plastic and other remnants.
- The inability to reliably source e-waste quantities that create economies of scale restricts entry of private players, such as PROs to set up e-waste management systems in the formal sector. For example, employing effective recycling technologies for e-waste may require significant upfront capital expenditures
- E-waste also contains plastic, up to nearly 25 per cent of its weight. Novel recovery and conversion of e-waste plastics to value-added products have also been successfully developed.
- The developed process is capable of converting a majority (76 per cent) of the waste plastics into suitable materials, which could be used for virgin plastic products.
- ProfessorVeenaSahajwalla, an expert, suggests setting up micro-factories in India that can transform e-waste into reusable material to be converted into ceramics and plastic filaments for 3D printing.
- The high-grade metals — like gold, silver, copper and palladium — in the e-waste can be separated for re-sale in conditions that are totally safe.
- Micro-factories can create filament with plastic by compressing the waste in a temperature controlled area.
- The first step would be to more explicitly recognize (like in the case of Municipal Solid Waste Rules in 2016) the informal sector as a critical stakeholder in any future e-waste regime
- The government should institute a platform that facilitates consultations among various stakeholders such as the informal sector workers, NGOs working with the informal sector, third party private entities such as PROs and registered recyclers and manufacturers. Such forums could be constituted under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) at the central level and under the State Departments of Environment at the state level.
- SPCBs and the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) will still be required to monitor and enforce compliance with the standards specified for collection centres, dismantlers, recyclers and PROs. The MoEFCC must make the regulatory actions related to e-waste transparent.
- E-waste imports: Under the existing regulations, e-waste is not allowed to be imported for final disposal but can be imported for reuse and recycling. In the absence of adequate infrastructure in the country for recycling, we should seriously consider banning all kinds of imports, similar to what China did recently
- Public awareness: The current e-waste regulations require the producers to provide, on their websites, information on the impacts of e-waste, appropriate disposal practices and such other issues.
The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) has initiated an e-waste awareness programme under Digital India, along with industry associations from 2015, to create awareness among the public about the hazards of e-waste recycling by the unorganised sector, and to educate them about alternate methods of disposing their e-waste.
The programme stresses the need for adopting environment friendly e-waste recycling practices. The programme has adopted the best practices for e-waste recycling available globally, so that this sector could generate jobs as well as viable business prospects for locals.
Development of waste recycling technologies The MeitY has developed affordable technologies to recycle valuable materials and plastics in an environmentally sound manner, including two exclusive PCB recycling technologies, viz 1000 kg/ day capacity (~35 MT e-waste) and 100kg/batch (~3.5MT e-waste) processes, with acceptable environmental norms
Immense potential is there in augmenting e-waste recycling in the country. There are some forward movements in this direction, however, lots of ground has to be covered through awareness campaign, skill development, building human capital and introduction of technology while adopting adequate safety measures in the country’s informal sector.
GS 3: Science
According to WHO, vaccine hesitancy refers to delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite availability of vaccine services. • Is complex and context specific varying across time, place and vaccines. It has been reported in more than 90% of countries in the world.
- Media platforms (including social media) have been enormously influential in the spread of vaccine hesitancy.
- Lack of transparency surrounding the roll-out of the COVID vaccines
- Geographical distance was common to many, as well as the costs of getting to the health centre2000’s Muslims in Uttar Pradesh had a misconception over of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) causing infertility and was ‘ineffective’. Due to this reason, there was a 5 times ..times low uptake of OPV.
- The propaganda that the vaccine was derived from animal products which is forbidden by Islamic law.
- A 2018 study found low awareness to be the main reason why 45% of children missed different vaccinations in 121 Indian districts that have higher rates of unimmunized children. While 24% did not get vaccinated due to apprehension about adverse effects
- Vaccine-derived diseases
- Italy includes a set of vaccinations that are mandatory by law for all newborns. Mandatory childhood vaccinations are guaranteed free of charge for all Italians as well as foreign children who live in the country, and they are delivered in different doses up to 24 months of age
- In Australia, parents of children who are not vaccinated are denied the universal Family Allowance welfare payments
Steps to counter
- The spread of fake news and misinformation on social media is blamed as a primary cause of vaccine hesitancy, which is one of the major threats to global health, according to the World Health Organization.
- Mass campaign that involves voluntary effort on the part of the public can succeed only
- When transparency and open communication channels are the tools for Physicians advice has been shown to be the most important predictor of vaccine acceptance.
- governments and health policy makers also play an essential role in promoting vaccination, educating the general public, and implementing policies that reduce the public health risks associated with vaccine hesitancy.
- collaborative effort between paediatricians, family doctors, parents, public health officials, governments, the technology sector, and civil society will allow myths and misinformation around vaccination to be dispelled.
- Addressing low vaccination requires an adequate understanding of the determinants of the problem, tailored evidence-based strategies to improve uptake, and monitoring and evaluation to determine the impact and sustainability of the interventions.
- Building trust: SabkaSaath, SabkaVikas’, is very relevant here, Vaccine manufacturers can provide honest information about side effects and reassurance
- Digital platforms can be requested to make sure that users only get to see the credible, science-based information about the vaccines.
- The influential person or celebrities should come forward to dispel the myths leading to Vaccine hesitancy.
Only a collaborative effort between paediatricians, family doctors, parents, public health officials, governments, the technology sector, and civil society will allow myths and misinformation around vaccination to be dispelled. Vaccine hesitancy is threatening the historical achievements made in reducing the burden of infectious diseases, which have plagued humanity for centuries.