Daily Practice Sheet 25 January 2021
- January 25, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPS
Daily Practice Sheet 25 January 2021
All 6 Prelims qualified
4 CSE Mains qualified
If I can do it, you can too
On this day
Election Commission of India will celebrate the 11th National Voters Day on January 25 with the theme of `Making Our Voters Empowered, Vigilant, Safe and Informed`.
Daily Prelims Topic
- RISA CLOTH
- NATIONAL VOTER DAY
- MCLR vs EXTERNAL BENCHMARK RATE
- INEQUALITY REPORT
- Time Capsule in ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY
- PREFERENTIAL TRANSACTION IN IBC
- POCSO ACT
- USENET POLICY
- Palk bay
- Sethusamudram Project
Daily Mains Mantra
GS 1: Society
Define middle class in the Introduction.
The middle class is a description given to individuals and households who typically fall between the working class and the upper class within a socio-economic hierarchy.
During the eight-year period between 2004 and 2012, the middle class doubled in size from 300 million to 600 million. By 2015, the size of the middle class in India was between 300 and 600 million, according to Deutsche Bank Research.
In the body, explain in brief the importance of Indian middle class right from freedom struggle to IT revolution in India
Now address the 2nd part of the question.
In prevailing theories, middle class has often been considered the mainstay of democracy. Here, a direct correlation is made between higher economic development, education, middle class and higher political participation, open political attitudes (toleration of opposition, inter-personal trust).
While it can be argued that the notion of the authentic middle class, progressive and liberal in its views, is a myth the world over, this is particularly true in the Indian context.
For, far from having a rationalist modern political attitude, Indian middle class use their social and cultural capital in contradictory ways:
Advocating radical change and preservation of tradition; liberty and authoritarianism; equality and hierarchy all at the same time.
As mentioned earlier, their political attitudes are largely influenced by their location in the caste, religion, ethnicity, language sub group and the Indian middle classes have not militated against identity politics.
Even as the new middle class becomes globally mobile, inhabits modern spaces, uses the language of modernity, they actively participate in articulations of identity politics of both the dominant “majorities” and of the “minorities”.
Besides, their actions are about protecting their own interests and social privileges. Many scholars have also pointed out to the preoccupation of the middle classes with their own keen of interests and consumption, and immunity to abject poverty and deprivation around; their zealous protection of upper caste privileges to their thriving on “connections”, family and patronage. There are of course exceptions, and sections of middle classes have spoken out or joined progressive movements, but these at large have been the dominant tendencies of Indian middle classes.
Add how reservation, Government policies are many a times benefitting middle class, which ultimately leads to vote bank politics.
Example : Arvind Kejriwal’s CM candidature is mainly attributed to the strong hold of middle class voting behaviour.
Add 2 to 3 lines on the role of middle class in social movements which has a big say in deciding political sphere in India.
Eg: Pressure groups.
In conclusion, summarize how middle class plays a dominant society
GS 2: Geography
GS 2: Polity
Voting behaviour refers to actions and inactions of citizens in respect of participating in the elections that take place for members of their local, regional, or national government. The empirical study Richaed Rose and HarveMassavir point out, voting covers as many as six important functions:-
- It involves an individual’s choice of governors or major governmental policies;
- It permits individuals to contribute to a reciprocal and continuing exchange of influence with officeholders and candidates;
- It contributes to the development of an individual’s allegiance to the existing constitutional regime;
- . It contributes to the development of a voter’s disaffection from the existing constitutional regime;
- It has emotional significance for individuals; and 6. For some individuals, it may be functionless of any emotional or political significant personal consequences.
- The study of voting behaviour has come to be regarded as an important feature of current political research and theorySamuel S. Eldersveld in his article “Theory and Method of Investigating Electoral Behaviour”
- It is often seen that the educated people take more interest in casting their vote as compared to the illiterates because they know the importance of their right to vote and consider the use of this right a national duty.
- They know that they can elect the government of their choice by executing their right to vote.
- during the election of the 16th loksabha, the percentage of voting had gone up to 66.38% which was quite high in comparison to previous elections.
- It means the exceptional quality of a factor and overrides group elements leader that becomes a source of attraction and reverence for the people in large numbers in an opposite sense,
- It also means a source of fear to many people because they do not speak or dare to speak against the wishes of a powerful leader. e.g. Nehru, Indhiragandhi
- Caste continues to be a determining factor in voting behaviour in India. It has deep roots in society and constitutes an important basis for social relations at all levels.
- The politicization of caste and casteism in politics has been a well-known reality of the Indian political system
- The ideological commitment of the voters also effect the voting behaviour most of the voters are crazy about particular ideology and they keep in view the ideology of the candidate and the political party at the time of casting their votes
- Sometimes different political parties raise the populist slogans according to the need of the time and affect the thinking of the voters.
For example, congress raised the slogan of, ‘garibihatao’ in 1971.
Public Esteem of the Candidate:
- A candidate report with the people with a constituency or his known qualities or contribution in any value spread of activity always acts as a factor of voting behaviour.
- In addition to his party loyalty or opinion on various issues and problems, the voter, while making his choice, always takes into account the nature and level of his association with the candidate.
- Each party launches election campaigns on a large scale to influence the voters in its favour. Use of mass gatherings, street gatherings, personal contacts, posters, poster war, movie star speeches, TV and radio broadcasts, newspaper advertising, pamphlets, processions, and propaganda is made to win votes, particularly floating votes.
Influence of money:
- India is a poor country with a large number of people living below the poverty line. Money as such plays a crucial role in determining the behaviour of votes in India.
- A rich candidate or party has more chances of winning the elections always. he process of, ‘give a note and take vote’ goes on in India.I
- n the recent Gujarat election, the 20 richest candidates all won, among whom the richest declared assets of a whopping Rs. 268 crores
- There have been problems in states like that of the status of one particular language in that state, or relating to the quality of the status of a language of a state.
- Since people have an emotional attachment with their languages, they easily get influenced whenever there comes up any issue relating to language. eg, DMK in tamilnadu
- Religion also plays an important role in Indian politics. Many political parties have been formed on the basis of religion in India.
- At the time of elections, different political parties beg votes in the name of religion. They raise the slogan ‘Religion is in danger’ and instigate the religious feelings of the people. While distributing party tickets the religion of the voters and candidates is given due consideration.
India’s political system as a developing democratic political system is progressively training the Indian voters. The process of emergence of an issue-based political struggle in place of caste or religion or personality dominated struggle for power is very slowly but gradually changing. Elections occupy a prominent place in the democratic government. It is a way through which people express and implement their political opinion and control the political organization of society.
2. Electoral reforms is a must to enhance the quality of democracy in India. What are the suggested reforms by various commissions and committees and how far are they significant to make democracy successful?
The definition of democracy is a form of government in which the common people hold political power and can rule either directly or through elected representatives. Electoral reform is change in electoral systems to improve how public desires are expressed in election results. That can include reforms of: Voting systems, such as proportional representation, a two-round system (runoff voting), instant-runoff voting (alternative voting, ranked-choice voting, or preferential voting)
ECI has nursed and strengthened the electoral processes of a nascent democracy. The successes have not been consistent or uniform
- 1982, electronic voting machines made a quiet trial entry in the by-election to the Parur Assembly constituency of Kerala. Chief Election Commissioner T.S. Krishnamurthy took the plunge and conducted the entire general election
- In 2009 by a comprehensive photo electoral roll; election cards reached 514 million voters in time for the general election and de-duplication technologies helped further eliminate bogus and duplicate entries.
- A Booth Level Officer was created to become the custodian of the electoral roll at each polling station, leading to constant door-to-door verification of electors. Myriad forms of voter assistance were built in on and prior to the Election Day.
- General and Expenditure Observers were supplemented by micro-observers to keep the poll day processes transparent. Video cameras began to record the polling and counting procedures. Through the strategy of “vulnerability mapping,” first tried on any scale in the Uttar Pradesh election of 2007, localities that for reasons of deliberate exclusion, accident or design did not turn up to vote, were identified and enabled to vote.
- The Commission developed a system of online communication (COMET) that made it possible to monitor every polling booth on the day of election. In the recent Himachal Pradesh election, there was real-time monitoring of polling at all 7,553 booths using GPS and a web-enabled facility through the Google search engine.
- A vital instrument of the Election Commission of India’s impartiality, the Model Code of Conduct, designed to neutralise the ‘lalbatti’ culture and level the playing field between candidates of the ruling party and those in opposition
- 1972, the Joint Parliamentary Committee on Amendments to Election Laws suggested that the state assume the burden of legitimate election expenses of candidates and political parties.
- In 1978, the Tarkunde Committee echoed the need for some electoral expenses being taken up by the government.
- The Dinesh Goswami Committee (1990) suggested state funding in kind.
- The Law Commission Report of 1999 pointed to partial state funding.
- In 2004, the President in his address to the Joint Session of Parliament announced the new government’s intent for state funding. .
- The statutory limits were increased in 2011 to broadly Rs. 40 lakhs for a parliamentary seat and Rs. 16 lakhs for an assembly election, levels of actual spending exceed these limits. The ECI does its best by posting as many as 2000 senior officers as observers during a parliamentary election
- The ECI has time and again written to the Government of India of the day to debar through legislation those against whom charges stand framed for heinous offences. However, parliamentary committees hold that such a provision is liable to misuse by parties in power seeking vendetta. They suggest special courts and speedy trials instead, but the recommendations have not yet been translated into action.
- RESTRICTION ON THE NUMBER OF SEATS FROM WHICH ONE MAY CONTEST As per the law as it stands at present [Sub-Section (7) of Section 33 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951], a person can contest a general election or a group of bye-elections or biennial elections from a maximum of two constituencies.
- The Commission is of the view that there should be clear provision to deal with cases of surrogate advertisements in print media. For this purpose, Section 127A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951 may be suitably amended, adding a new sub-Section (2A) to the effect that in the case of any advertisements / election matter for or against any political party or candidate in print media, during the election period, the name and address of the publisher should be given along with the matter / advertisement.
- The Commission recommends that the law should be amended to specifically provide for negative / neutral voting. For this purpose, Rules 22 and 49B of the Conduct of Election Rules, 1961 may be suitably amended adding a proviso that in the ballot paper and the particulars on the ballot unit, in the column relating to names of candidates, after the entry relating to the last candidate, there shall be a column None of the above, to enable a voter to reject all the candidates, if he chooses so.
Reforms yet to be taken
- Anti-defection law-post election reform
- same number of proposers for all contesting candidates – amendment of section 33 of the representation of the people act, 1951
- Making of false declaration in connection with elections to be an offence
- Rulemaking authority under the representation of the people act, 1950 and representation of the people act, 1951, should be conferred on the election commission, instead of on the central government, who should, however, be consulted by the election commission while framing any rule.
- registration and de-registration of political parties strengthening of existing provisions
Elections occupy a prominent place in the democratic government. It is a way through which people express and implement their political opinion and control the political organization of society. Hence it is essential that a timely reform is needed
GS 2: IR
1. WTO-led multilateral trading system has been a catalyst not only to the growth and expansion of global trade but it has significantly contributed to global prosperity, peace, and stability. Discuss the challenges faced by the WTO and analyze India’s engagement with the body. [Reference: Business Line]
GS 3: Economy
GS 3: Science