Daily Practice Sheet 6 August 2022
- August 6, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPS
Daily Practice Sheet
6 August 2022
Daily Prelims Topics
- IMF-External Sector Report
- RBI monetary policy & OBICUS
- Supreme Court moots verdict to help unmarried women gain ‘bodily autonomy’ under MTP Act
- No privilege to MPs from criminal proceedings during session: Naidu
- Taiwan dominates the world’s supply of computer chips — no wonder the US is worried
- Energy conservation law to get a new look
- India’s higher climate targets
- Changtang Plateau
Daily Mains Mantra
GS 1: Geography
- What are rare earth metals? Why are they important? Discuss their distribution. [Reference: Indian Express]
- What are critical minerals? Why are they so important? [Reference: Indian Express]
- What are coral reefs? Why re they so important for ecosystem? What are they dying? Explain with the example of the Great Barrier Reef. [Reference: DownToEarth]
GS 2: Polity
- Discuss the role of media as the fourth estate in India. Analyse the challenges faced by Indian media. [Reference: Indian Express]
- Should voting be made mandatory? Give arguments.
GS 2: IR
- Why Taiwan is important? [Reference: The Diplomat]
- What is the Minerals Security Partnership (MSP)? Why is India keen to join it? [Reference: Indian Express]
GS 3: Environment
- Discuss the problem of marine plastic pollution. In this context explain Swachh Sagar Surakshit Sagar campaign
- Why has Wildlife Protection Amendment Bill enraged the animal activists? [Reference: DownToEarth]
GS 3: Science and Technology
GS 3: Security
- Discuss the threat of radicalisation. How should government counter it? [Reference: New Indian Express]
Anti-microbial resistance (AMR)
Anti microbial resistance is the resistance acquired by any microorganism (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasite, etc.) against antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics) that are used to treat infections.
Government is aware about the challenges posed by anti-microbial resistance (AMR) in India and has taken following measures to address the issue:
- AMR surveillance network has been strengthened by establishing labs in State Medical College. 36 sites in 26 States/UTs have been included in this network so far.
- National action plan on containment of Antimicrobial Resistance (NAP-AMR) focusing on One Health approach was launched in April 2017 with the aim of involving various stakeholder ministries/departments. Delhi Declaration on AMR– an inter-ministerial consensus was signed by the ministers of the concerned ministries pledging their support in AMR containment.
- AMR Surveillance Network: ICMR has established AMR surveillance and research network (AMRSN) comprising 30 tertiary care hospitals, both private and government to generate evidence and capture trends and patterns of drug resistant infections in the country.
- AMR Research & International Collaboration: ICMR has taken initiatives to develop new drugs /medicines through international collaborations in order to strengthen medical research in AMR.
- ICMR along with Research Council of Norway (RCN) initiated a joint call for research in antimicrobial resistance in 2017.
- ICMR along with Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), Germany has a joint Indo-German collaboration for research on AMR.
Government of India has taken following initiatives to increase awareness about antibiotics misuse:
- ICMR has initiated antibiotic stewardship program (AMSP) on a pilot project basis in 20 tertiary care hospitals across India to control misuse and overuse of antibiotics in hospital wards and ICUs.
- DCGI has banned 40 fixed dose combinations (FDCs) which were found inappropriate.
- ICMR worked in collaboration with Indian Council of Agriculture Research, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairy and Fisheries and the DCGI to ban use of Colistin as growth promoter in animal feed in poultry.
- Various IEC activities like public conclave, poster and quiz competitions have been conducted by National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) in schools, colleges and Health melas to create awareness about AMR, its containment & prevention and judicial use of antibiotics among the common public.
- To raise awareness among the community and the health care providers, communication material includes posters, videos and radio jingles has been developed with emphasis on prevention of irrational use of antibiotics during viral-illnesses and also on infection prevention through hand hygiene to prevent spread of infections.
Steps to improve health sector
- XV-Finance Commission :Health Grants through Local Government announced as part of Union Budget 2021-22, for strengthening the healthcare system at primary healthcare level, has recommended grants aggregating to Rs. 70,051 Crores over the period of five years (2021-2026) through local government to strengthen the healthcare system in states.
- ‘Free Diagnostics Service Initiative’ (FDSI) :It is a programme under National Health Mission, was launched in July 2015 with the aim to provide accessible and affordable pathological and radiological diagnostics services closer to the community by a minimum set of essential diagnostic tests has been recommended as per the Essential Diagnostic List at each level of public health facility.
- PM-ABHIM :
- Pradhan Mantri Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission (PM-ABHIM) with an outlay of Rs. 64,180 Crores aims to fill critical gaps in public health infrastructure especially in critical care facilities and primary care in both urban and rural areas.
- It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with some Central Sector components, includes support for infrastructure development for Sub-Health Centres, Urban Health and Wellness Centres, Support for Block Public Health Units, Integrated District Public Health Laboratories and Critical Care Hospital Blocks.