Daily Prelims Notes 1 September 2022
- September 1, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily prelims Notes
1 September 2022
Table Of Contents
- Core sector output at 6-month low; crude, natural gas hit most
- Urban joblessness declines to 7.6% in Apr-Jun 2022: NSO
- High inflation and risk of recession widen ECB dilemma
- Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: symptoms, treatment and prevention
- The Deal With Eric Lerner Saying the Big Bang Didn’t Happen
- Bhang, ganja, and criminality in the NDPS Act
- What are anti-radiation pills, how will they help in case of a nuclear emergency in Ukraine?
- United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs
1. Core sector output at 6-month low; crude, natural gas hit most
Section: National income
Context: Growth in the output of eight core infrastructure sectors decelerated sharply for a second straight month to hit a six-month low of 4.5 percent in July from a year ago, as a conducive base effect waned considerably. The growth was as much as 13.2 per cent in June and 19.3 per cent, a 13-month peak, in May. This may weigh down the growth of the index of industrial production (IIP) in July from 6.7 per cent in June, given that the core industries makeup for 40.3 per cent of the IIP.
- Core industry can be defined as the main industry which has a multiplier effect on the economy.
- In most countries, there is particular industry that seems to be backbone of all other industries and it qualifies to be the core industry.
- The Eight Core Industries comprise 40.27% of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP).
- The eight Core Industries in decreasing order of their weightage: Refinery Products> Electricity> Steel> Coal> Crude Oil> Natural Gas> Cement>Fertilizers.
Index of Industrial Production
- The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index that shows the growth rates in different industry groups of the economy in a fixed period of time.
- It is compiled and published monthly by the Central Statistical Organization (CSO), Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
- IIP is a composite indicator that measures the growth rate of industry groups classified under:
- Broad sectors: Mining, Manufacturing, and Electricity.
- Use-based sectors: Basic Goods, Capital Goods, and Intermediate Goods.
- Base Year for IIP is 2011-2012.
- The eight core industries of India represent about 40% of the weight of items that are included in the IIP.
Significance of IIP:
- IIP is the only measure on the physical volume of production.
- It is used by government agencies including the Ministry of Finance, the Reserve Bank of India, etc., for policy-making purposes.
- IIP remains extremely relevant for the calculation of the quarterly and advance GDP estimates.
2. Urban joblessness declines to 7.6% in Apr-Jun 2022: NSO
The unemployment rate for person saged 15 years and above in urban areas declined to 7.6 per cent during April-June 2022 against 12.6 per cent a year ago, the National Statistical Office (NSO) said on Wednesday.
- The PLFS further showed that joblessness among females (aged 15 years and above) in urban areas declined to 9.5% in April-June 2022 as against 14.3% a year ago. It was 10.1% in January March this year
- Among males, the unemployment rate in urban areas dipped to 7.1% in April-June 2022 compared to 12.2% a year ago. It was 7.7% in January-March 2022
- Joblessness or unemployment rate is defined as the percentage of unemployed persons among the labour force.
- The rate was high in April-June 2021, mainly due to the staggering impact of Covid-related restrictions in the country. The latest data—based on a periodic labour force survey, underlining a decline in unemployment rate a mid improved labour force participation ratio —signal a sustained economic recovery from the pandemic impact.
- According to the 15th Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS), the unemployment rate for people aged 15 years and above in January-March was 8.2 percent in urban areas. The survey further showed that joblessness among females (aged 15 years and above) in urban areas declined to 9.5 percent in April June 2022 as against 14.3 per cent a year ago. It was 10.1 per cent in January-March this year. Among males, the unemployment rate in urban areas dipped to 7.1 per cent in April June 2022 compared to 12.2 per cent a year ago. It was 7.7 per cent in January-March 2022.
- The PLFS further show that labour force participation rate in CWS (Current Weekly Status) in urban areas for persons aged 15 years and above increased to 47.5 percent in April-June 2022, from 46.8 percent in the same period a year ago. It was 47.3 percent in January-March.
Periodic Labour Force Survey-
It is India’s first computer-based survey launched by the NSO in 2017. It essentially maps the state of employment in the country. In doing so, it collects data on several variables such as the level of unemployment, the types of employment and their respective shares, the wages earned from different types of jobs, the number of hours worked etc. Before PLFS, the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO)- previous name of NSO used to bring the data related to employment and unemployment based on its quinquennial (every 5 year) household socio-economic survey programme.
The reports are released on a quarterly as well as annual basis. The quarterly reports cover only urban areas whereas the annual report covers both urban and rural areas.
- It estimates the key employment and unemployment indicators (viz. WPR, LFPR, UR) in the short time interval of three months for the urban areas only in the Current Weekly Status (CWS).
- To estimate employment and unemployment indicators in both usual status and CWS in both rural and urban areas annually.
- Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR)-the percentage of persons in labour force (working or seeking or available for work) in the population of all age
- Unemployment rate -refers to the percentage of unemployed persons in the labour force. Labour force includes persons who are either employed or unemployed but seeking work.
- Worker Population Ratio (WPR)-the percentage of employed persons in the population.
- Usual Status: The activity status determined on the basis of the reference period of the last 365 days preceding the date of survey, it is known as the usual activity status of the person.
- Current Weekly Status (CWS): The activity status determined on the basis of a reference period of the last 7 days preceding the date of survey is known as the current weekly status (CWS) of the person).
3. High inflation and risk of recession widen ECB dilemma
Subject : International relations
Section: International body
Eurozone (EZ) inflation jumped to another record high and will soon hit double-digit territory, herald in gast ring of big interest rate hikes even as a painful recession appears increasingly certain
- The eurozone (EZ) is a monetary union of 19 member states of the European Union (EU).
- They have adopted the euro (€) as their primary currency and sole legal tender.
European Central Bank (ECB)
The European Central Bank (ECB) manages the euro and frames and implements EU economic & monetary policy. Its main aim is to keep prices stable, thereby supporting economic growth and job creation.
- Role: To manage the euro, keep prices stable and conduct EU economic & monetary policy
- President: Christine Lagarde
- Members: ECB President and Vice-President and governors of national central banks from all EU countries
- Established in: 1998
- Location: Frankfurt (Germany)
The ECB President represents the Bank at high-level EU and international meetings. The ECB has the 3 following decision-making bodies:
Governing Council – the main decision-making body.
Consists of the Executive Board (see below) plus the governors of the national central banks from eurozone countries.
Executive Board – handles the day-to-day running of the ECB.
Consists of the ECB President and Vice-President and 4 other members appointed for 8-year terms by the leaders of the eurozone countries.
General Council – has more of an advisory & coordination role.
Consists of the ECB President and Vice-President and the governors of the central banks from all EU countries.
4. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease: symptoms, treatment and prevention
Subject : Science and Technology
- There has been a spike in cases of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) in Mumbai. But, as HFMD is not a notifiable disease, the state doesn’t have cumulative data from private hospitals which share most of the caseload.
- Doctors have advised the public not to panic, as HFMD is a self-limiting disease and most patients recover within a week.
What is Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease, and how does it spread?
- Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease is common in children under the age of 5, but anyone can get it. It is most commonly caused by a coxsackievirus, which belongs to a group of viruses called nonpolio enteroviruses. The illness is usually not serious, but is very contagious. It spreads quickly at schools and daycare centers.
- It spreads through person-to-person contact when an infected person’s nose secretions or throat discharge, saliva, fluid from blisters, stool or respiratory droplets are sprayed into the air after a cough or sneeze
What are the profiles of patients with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease?
- City doctors claim that a large number of children below the age of 5 are contracting the infection. The most common age group is 3-4 years.
- Some children are coming to hospital with chickenpox-like lesions, but the distribution is limited only to hands and mouths. Whereas, in chickenpox, the lesions are mostly in the chest and abdomen
- The usual period from initial infection to the time symptoms appear among patients, which is also called the incubation period, is between 3-6 days.
- Some kids have also developed rashes repeatedly 2-3 times after a month or two
Are children with HFMD requiring hospitalisation?
- A majority of children have recovered at home and rarely require hospitalisation. As it is a self-limited illness, the symptoms last up to 7-10 days and fade away.
What are symptoms, treatment for Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease?
- Patients usually develop fever, sore throat, painful blister-like lesions on the tongue, gums and inside of the cheeks
- The children may develop ulcers inside their mouths. Also, rashes are noticed on the palms, soles and sometimes the buttocks
- Children are mostly treated with anti-allergic medicines and ointments. The lesions usually disappear in five to six days.
- Drink enough liquids. Mouth sores can make it painful to swallow, so your child may not want to drink much. Make sure they drink enough to stay hydrated
- Just a precaution, children should follow the guidelines laid for Covid-appropriate behaviour like washing hands and wearing masks
- They should wash their hands with soap for at least 20 seconds. In the absence of soap, use alcohol-based hand sanitizers
- A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities.
- This will allow authorities to gather information to monitor the disease, and provides early warning of possible outbreaks.
- The process will also help the government to keep track and formulate a plan for elimination and control. In less infectious conditions, it improves information about the burden and distribution of disease.
- The Centre has notified several diseases such as cholera, diphtheria, encephalitis, leprosy, meningitis, pertussis (whooping cough), plague, tuberculosis, AIDS, hepatitis, measles among others.
5. The Deal With Eric Lerner Saying the Big Bang Didn’t Happen
Subject :Science and Technology
Section: Space Science
CONTEXT:After NASA released the first images from the James Webb Space Telescope, Eric J. Lerner repeated his infamous claim that the Big Bang didn’t really happen.
- The images from the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) never fail to impress people anywhere in the world. Even those who usually have their eyes glued to cynical primetime debates on news channels on the TV spared a minute or two to behold those spectacular images, like that of the SMACS 0723 galaxy cluster
- Scientists recently spectroscopically confirmed the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of a hot gas-giant planet orbiting a Sun-like star some 700 light years away, thanks to JWST.
- Fred Hoyle, the astrophysicist famous for explaining how fusion reactions in stars create chemical elements, advanced the steady state theory, the only serious rival theory to the Big Bang theory in his time.
James Webb Space Telescope
- JWST is a joint NASA–ESA–CSA space telescope that is planned to succeed the Hubble Space Telescope as NASA’s flagship astrophysics mission
- It is the most powerful space telescope ever built.
- It will enable a broad range of investigations across the fields of astronomy and cosmology, including observing some of the most distant events and objects in the universe,
- It would help understand events such as the formation of the first galaxies, and detailed atmospheric characterization of potentially habitable exoplanets.
- Some have called JSWT the “telescope that ate astronomy.”
- It is said to look back in time to the Dark Ages of the universe as it will examine every phase of cosmic history: from the Big Bang to the formation of galaxies, stars, and planets to the evolution of our own Solar System.
- The JWST will be able to see right through and into massive clouds of dust that are opaque to earlier generation visible-light observatories like the Hubble Telescope.
- The Webb is equipped with cameras and other instruments sensitive to infrared or “heat” radiation, and the Hubble is not.
- The galaxy cluster SMACS 0723 shows the image of “thousands of galaxies” as it appeared 4.6 billion years ago.
- NASA has shared the deepest and sharpest infrared image of the distant galaxy cluster taken from the James Webb Space telescope.
- Galaxy clusters are the largest objects in the universe that are held together by their own gravity.
- It provide us with information about the structure of the universe on the largest scales
Big Bang Theory
- Big bang theory, often known as the expanding universe hypothesis, is a current theory that attempts to answer numerous issues about the origin of the world.
- Edwin Hubble, in 1920, provided evidence that the universe is expanding.
- As time passes, galaxies move further and further apart. Similarly, the distance between the galaxies is also found to be increasing and thereby, the universe is considered to be expanding. Scientists believe that though the space between the galaxies is increasing, observations do not support the expansion of galaxies.
6. Bhang, ganja, and criminality in the NDPS Act
Subject : Security
While granting bail to a man arrested on June 1 for possessing 29 kg of bhang and 400 g of ganja, Karnataka High Court recently observed that nowhere in the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act is bhang referred to as a prohibited drink or prohibited drug. Since the ganja recovered was below commercial quantity, the accused was given bail on a personal bond of Rs 2 lakh.
- The single judge Bench relied on two earlier judgments, Madhukar vs the State of Maharashtra, 2002 and Arjun Singh vs State of Haryana, 2004, where the courts had ruled that bhang is not ganja, and is therefore not covered under the NDPS Act.
What is bhang?
- Bhang is the edible preparation made from the leaves of the cannabis plant, often incorporated into drinks such as thandai and lassi, along with various foods. Bhang has been consumed in the Indian subcontinent for centuries, and is frequently consumed during the festivals of Holi and Mahashivratri.
Bhang and the law
- Enacted in 1985, the NDPS Act is the main legislation that deals with drugs and their trafficking. Various provisions of the Act punish production, manufacture, sale, possession, consumption, purchase, transport, and use of banned drugs, except for medical and scientific purposes.
- The NDPS Act defines cannabis (hemp) as a narcotic drug based on the parts of the plant that come under its purview. The Act lists these parts as:
(a) Charas: “The separated resin, in whatever form, whether crude or purified, obtained from the cannabis plant and also includes concentrated preparation and resin known as hashish oil or liquid hashish.”
(b) Ganja: “The flowering or fruiting tops of the cannabis plant (excluding the seeds and leaves when not accompanied by the tops), by whatever name they be known or designated.”
(c) “Any mixture, with or without any neutral material, of any of the above forms of cannabis or any drink prepared therefrom.”
- The Act, in its definition, excludes seeds and leaves “when not accompanied by the tops”. Bhang, which is made with the leaves of the plant, is not mentioned in the NDPS Act.
- As a “special provision”, the Act states that the government “may allow cultivation of any cannabis plant for industrial purposes only of obtaining fibre or seed or for horticultural purposes”.
Cannabis and criminal liability
- Contravention that involves a small quantity (100 g of charas/hashish or 1 kg of ganja), will result in rigorous imprisonment for a term that may extend to one year and/or a fine which may extend to Rs 10,000.
- For a commercial quantity (1 kg charas/ hashish or 20 kg ganja), rigorous imprisonment of not less than 10 years, which may extend to 20 years, including a fine that is not less than Rs 1,00,000 but may extend to Rs 2,00,000.
- Where the contravention involves quantity less than commercial, but greater than small quantity, rigorous imprisonment up to 10 years is prescribed, along with a fine which may extend to Rs 1,00,000.
7. What are anti-radiation pills, how will they help in case of a nuclear emergency in Ukraine?
Subject : Science and technology
- With fears of a nuclear disaster at Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhia power plant growing, the European Union has decided to pre-emptively supply 5.5 million anti-radiation pills to be distributed among residents in the vicinity.
What is a radiation emergency?
- These are unplanned or accidental events that create radio-nuclear hazard to humans and the environment. Such situations involve radiation exposure from a radioactive source and require prompt intervention to mitigate the threat. Dealing with such an emergency also involves the use of anti-radiation tablets.
What are anti-radiation pills?
- Potassium iodide (KI) tablets, or anti-radiation pills, are known to provide some protection in cases of radiation exposure. They contain non-radioactive iodine and can help block absorption, and subsequent concentration, of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland.
How do these pills work?
- After a radiation leak, radioactive iodine floats through the air and then contaminates food, water and soil.
- While radioactive iodine deposited during external exposure can be removed using warm water and soap, according to the World Health Organisation, the bigger risk is inhaling it.
- “Internal exposure, or irradiation, occurs when radioactive iodine enters the body and accumulates in the thyroid gland,” says the WHO.
- The thyroid gland, which uses iodine to produce hormones to regulate the body’s metabolism, has no way of telling radioactive from non-radioactive iodine.
- Potassium iodide (KI) tablets rely on this to achieve ‘thyroid blocking’. KI pills taken a few hours before or soon after radiation exposure ensure that non-radioactive iodine in the medicine is absorbed quickly to make the thyroid “full”.
- “Because KI contains so much non-radioactive iodine, the thyroid becomes full and cannot absorb any more iodine – either stable or radioactive – for the next 24 hours,” says the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention.
- But KI pills are preventive only and cannot reverse any damage done by radiation to the thyroid gland. Once thyroid gland absorbs radioactive iodine, those exposed are at a high risk of developing thyroid cancer.
Is the method fool-proof?
- Anti-radiation pills do not provide 100% protection. “The effectiveness of KI also depends on how much radioactive iodine gets into the body and how quickly it is absorbed in the body,” says the CDC.
- Also, the pills are not meant for everybody. They are recommended for people under 40 years of age. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are also advised to take them. While it can protect the thyroid against radioactive iodine, it cannot protect other organs against radiation contamination.
Substitutes for KI?
- The US Food and Drug Administration advises against using salt or iodine supplements as they do not contain enough iodine to trigger thyroid blocking.
8. United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs
Subject: International Relations
Section: International organisation
Context: Review of NPT
- The UN Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA is an Office of the United Nations Secretariat established in January 1998 as the Department for Disarmament Affairs, part of United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan’s plan to reform the UN as presented in his report to the General Assembly in July 1997.
- Its goal is to promote nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation and the strengthening of the disarmament regimes in respect to other weapons of mass destruction, chemical and biological weapon It also promotes disarmament efforts in the area of conventional weapons, especially landmines and small arms, which are often the weapons of choice in contemporary conflicts.
- The United Nations has sought to eliminate such weapons ever since its establishment. The first resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1946 established a Commission to deal with problems related to the discovery of atomic energy among others.
- A number of multilateral treaties have since been established with the aim of preventing nuclear proliferation and testing, while promoting progress in nuclear disarmament. These include the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The Atmosphere, In Outer Space And Under Water, also known as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT),the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which was signed in 1996 but has yet to enter into force, and the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) , which will enter into force on 22 January 2021.
- A number of bilateral and plurilateral treaties and arrangements seek to reduce or eliminate certain categories of nuclear weapons, to prevent the proliferation of such weapons and their delivery vehicles. These range from several treaties between the United States of America and Russian Federation as well as various other initiatives, to the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Missile Technology Control Regime, the Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation, and the Wassenaar Arrangement.
- The United Nations Secretariat supports efforts aimed at the non-proliferation and total elimination of nuclear weapons. “Securing Our Common Future: An Agenda for Disarmament” considers nuclear weapons in the framework of “disarmament to save humanity.”
Treaties Involved in the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones
The following treaties form the basis for the existing NWFZs:
- Treaty of Tlatelolco — Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Treaty of Rarotonga — South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty
- Treaty of Bangkok — Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone
- Treaty of Pelindaba — African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty
- Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia
- The NPT is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to foster the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of disarmament.
- The treaty was signed in 1968 and entered into force in 1970. Presently, it has 190 member states.
- India is not a member.
- It requires countries to give up any present or future plans to build nuclear weapons in return for access to peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
- It represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States.
- Nuclear-weapon states parties under the NPT are defined as those that manufactured and exploded a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive devices before 1st January, 1967.
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
- CTBT was negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva and adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1996.
- The Treaty intends to ban all nuclear explosions – everywhere, by everyone. It was opened for signature in 1996 and since then 182 countries have signed the Treaty, most recently Ghana has ratified the treaty in 2011.
- A comprehensive test ban has been defined as a “zero yield” test ban that would prohibit supercritical hydro-nuclear tests but not sub-critical hydrodynamic nuclear tests.
- The Treaty will enter into force after all 44 States listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty will ratify it.
- These States had nuclear facilities at the time the Treaty was negotiated and adopted.
- As of August 2011, 36 of these States have ratified the Treaty. Eight States still need to do so: China, North Korea, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Pakistan and the United States.
- India,North Korea and Pakistan have not yet signed the Treaty.
- All three have also undertaken tests after 1996; India and Pakistan in May 1998 and North Korea six times between 2006 and 2017.
- The CTBT has therefore not entered into force and lacks legal authority.
Treaty on Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons
- The Treaty on Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons was adopted on July 7, 2017. The treaty entered into force on January 22, 2021. The treaty is the first legally binding international agreement that aim to eliminate nuclear weapons completely.
- The treaty was approved by the United Nations General Assembly in 2017. However, only 120 members have signed the treaty. The major nuclear powers of the world including India have not supported the treaty. The other major nuclear powers that did not support the treaty were China, US, France, Japan, North Korea, Russia, Pakistan and Israel.
- The treaty prohibits the use of nuclear weapons on national territories.
- The signatories should provide adequate assistance to individuals affected by the testing of nuclear weapons. They should also take required environmental remediation in areas under its jurisdiction that was contaminated as result of nuclear weapon testing.
- A state party joining the treaty should declare if it has eliminated its previous nuclear weapon programme. The party should also disclose if it holds nuclear weapons of other countries in its territories. In case if the party holds other countries’ nuclear weapons it must remove them before signing the treaty.
- The non-nuclear weapon states should have a minimum safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency.
- The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) was created following the explosion in 1974 of a nuclear device by a non-nuclear-weapon State (India), which demonstrated that nuclear technology transferred for peaceful purposes could be misused.
- It is a group of nuclear supplier countries that seeks to contribute to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons through the implementation of two sets of Guidelines for nuclear exports and nuclear-related exports.
- The grouping has 48 participating governments and the NSG Guidelines are implemented by each member in accordance with its national laws and practices.
- The NSG takes decisions by consensus.
- The Australia Group (AG) is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonisation of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons.
- The formation of the Australia Group (AG) in 1985 was prompted by Iraq’s use of chemical weapons during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)
- Coordination of National export control measures assists Australia Group members to fulfil their obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention and Biological & Toxin Weapons Convention.
- The Australia Group has a list of 54 compounds that are identified to be regulated in global trade. This list includes more items than the Chemical Weapons Convention.
- It has 43 members (including the European union). The members work on a consensus basis. The annual meeting is held in Paris, France.
- India joined the Australia Group (AG) on 19 January 2018.
- The Australia Group decided to admit India as the Group’s 43rd Participant through a consensus decision.
Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
- It is an informal and voluntary partnership among 35 countries to prevent the proliferation of missile and unmanned aerial vehicle technology capable of carrying greater than 500 kg payload for more than 300 km.
- The members are thus prohibited from supplying such missiles and UAV systems that are controlled by the MTCR to non-members.
- The decisions are taken by consensus of all the members.
- It was established in April 1987 by G-7 countries – USA, UK, France, Germany, Canada, Italy, and Japan.
- In 1992, the focus of the regime extended to on the proliferation of missiles for the delivery of all types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), i.e., nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
- It is not a legally-binding treaty. Hence, no punitive measures could be taken against non-compliance to the guidelines of the regime.
- These efforts of non-proliferation of ballistic missile systems had further been strengthened by “The International Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation”, also known as the Hague Code of Conduct (HCOC), which was established on 25 November 2002 as an arrangement to prevent the proliferation of ballistic missiles with 136 UN member countries including India.
- India was inducted into the Missile Technology Control Regime in 2016 as the 35th member.
- China is not a member of this regime.
- The Wassenaar Arrangement is a voluntary export control regime. The Arrangement, formally established in July 1996, has 42 members who exchange information on transfers of conventional weapons and dual-use goods and technologies.
- Dual-use refers to the ability of a good or technology to be used for multiple purposes – usually peaceful and military.
- Wassenaar Arrangement’s Secretariat is in Vienna, Austria.
- It has 42 member states comprising mostly NATO and EU states.
- India was inducted to the Wassenaar Arrangement on 7 December, 2017 as the 42nd member.