Daily Prelims Notes 11 June 2021
- June 11, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
11 June 2021
Table Of Contents
- Brood X: The lives and encounters of America’s largest group of cicadas
- Money Supply and Money Multipler
- Turtle researchers opposes NITI Aayog’s plans to develop two islands in the Union Territory (UT) of Andaman and Nicobar.
- Food unit bills to carry FSSAI license details
- Finance Minstry releases 9871 cr as third instalment of revenue grant to 17 states
- Appointment of Chief Justice of High Court
- COSMOL Platform through I -STEM
- e – Sanjeevani has done 60 lakh consultations
- PAKKE TIGER RESERVE
- NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR THE EMPOWERMENT OF PERSONS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES (NIEPID)
- Bengal issues high tide warning for coastal areas
Context: US President Joe Biden’s first trip abroad was delayed unexpectedly when a swarm of cicadas bombarded the plane Air Force One, which was about to take off for the UK. Biden had to swat a cicada away when it landed on him at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland
- Swarms of these insects have been spotted in a number of American states. These are part of a group named Brood X, based on their life cycles and periodic appearances.
- The cicadas in Brood X number in billions and come out of their underground homes every 17 years.
- Brood X are the biggest of the fifteen known Cicadas. They are now to emerge in Ohio, Indiana, Maryland, Washington DC, Indiana. Cicadas molt as they emerge from underground.
- Molt is to shed skin or hair or feathers paving way for the new growth. The molts add up nutrients to he soil. The total biomass of cicadas is greater then the biomass of cattle the area can support if it were to turned into pastures.
- There are more than three thousand Cicadas on the earth. However, only seven are periodical. Some believe that the long underground periods are to avoid predators.
- As they emerge from the underground, they live in trees feeding on leaves. The desert Cicadas regulate their body temperatures by evaporative cooling. Evaporative coiling is similar to sweating.
Subject : Economics
Context: C Rangarajan, D K Srivastava write: A word of caution, though: With higher expenditure, financed through borrowings, the impact of liquidity expansion on inflation needs to be monitored.
- The total stock of money in circulation among the public at a particular point of time is called money supply.
- It needs to be noted that total stock of money is different from total supply of money.
- Supply of money is only that part of total stock of money which is held by the public at a particular point of time.
- The circulating money involves the currency, printed notes, money in the deposit accounts and in the form of other liquid assets.
- RBI publishes figures for four alternative measures of money supply, viz. M1, M2, M3 and M4.
M1 = CU + DD
M2 = M1 + Savings deposits with Post Office savings banks
M3 = M1 + Net time deposits of commercial banks
M4 = M3 + Total deposits with Post Office savings organisations (excluding National Savings Certificates)
- CU is currency (notes plus coins) held by the public and DD is net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
- The word ‘net’ implies that only deposits of the public held by the banks are to be included in money supply.
- The interbank deposits, which a commercial bank holds in other commercial banks, are not to be regarded as part of money supply.
- M1 and M2 are known as narrow money. M3 and M4 are known as broad money.
- These gradations are in decreasing order of liquidity.
- M1 is most liquid and easiest for transactions whereas M4 is least liquid of all.
- M3 is the most commonly used measure of money supply. It is also known as aggregate monetary resources.
Money Multiplier Effect :
- Money multiplier is a term in monetary Economics that is a phenomenon of creating money in the economy in the form of credit creation, based on the fractional reserve banking system.
- Money multiplier is also known as the monetary multiplier. It is the maximum limit to which money supply can be affected by bringing about changes in the amount of money deposits.
- Money multiplier effect is seen in commercial banks as they accept deposits and after keeping a certain amount as a reserve, distribute the money as loans for injecting liquidity in the economy.
- The amount of money that should be kept by commercial banks in their reserve for withdrawal purposes by the customers is referred to as the reserve ratio or required reserve ratio or cash reserve ratio.
- Mathematically, money multiplier formula can be represented as
Money Multiplier = 1/ r
Where r = Required reserve ratio or cash reserve ratio
- It means that if the reserve ratio is higher, then the money multiplier will be lower and the banks need to keep more reserves. As a result, they will not be able to lend more money to individuals and businesses.
- Similarly, a lower reserve ratio results in a higher money multiplier which allows a lesser amount of money to be kept as a reserve and more lending opportunities to the public.
Subject : Environment
Context : Turtle researchers have banded together to launch a signature campaign against the NITI Aayog’s plans to develop two islands in the Union Territory (UT) of Andaman and Nicobar. They say the islands’ rich biodiversity will be greatly affected if the plans reach fruition.
- The campaign has been launched under the leadership of the Students’ Sea Turtle Conservation Network (SSTCN), Chennai, to oppose the plans for Little Andaman and Great Nicobar islands.
- The islands provide nesting sites for leatherback turtles and are also home to indigenous peoples like the Shompen and the Onge.
- This made these nesting sites globally significant and internationally important for marine ecological health and global leatherback numbers in the Indian Ocean and the Western Pacific Ocean, the letter added.
- Besides Little Andaman Island, Great Nicobar Island holds one of the most important global leatherback nesting sites: Galathea Bay, within the Galathea Bay wildlife sanctuary.
- The National Marine Turtle Action Plan released February 1, 2021, has listed Galathea Bay as one of the ‘Important Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Areas’ and ‘Important Marine Turtle Habitats’ in India.
Leatherback sea turtle
- Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelyscoriacea) is largest of the seven species of sea turtles on the planet and also the most long-ranging, being found in all oceans except the Arctic and the Antarctic.
- Within the Indian Ocean, they nest only in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- It is the only living species in the genus Dermochelys and family Dermochelyidae.
- It can easily be differentiated from other modern sea turtles by its lack of a bony shell, hence the name. Instead, its carapace is covered by skin and oily flesh.
- They are listed in Schedule I of India’s Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, according it the highest legal protection.
Subject : National organisations
Context : Food safety regulator FSSAI has mandated food business operators to mention FSSAI licence or registration number on cash receipts or purchase invoice with effect from October 1.
- Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is an autonomous statutory body.
- The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under Food Safety and Standards , 2006 which consolidates various acts & orders that have hitherto handled food related issues in various Ministries and Departments.
- FSSAI has been created for laying down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.
- Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India is the Administrative Ministry for the implementation of FSSAI.
Subject : Economics
Context : With the release of this instalment, total ₹29,613 crore has been released in the first three months of the current financial year as Post Devolution Revenue Deficit Grant to states
- The Centre provides PDRD grant to states under Article 275 of the Constitution.
- The grants are released as per the recommendations of the Finance Commission in monthly instalments to meet the gap in Revenue Accounts of states post devolution.
- The 15th Finance Commission has recommended PDRD grants to 17 states — Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.
- The eligibility of states to receive this grant and the quantum of grant was decided by the Commission based on the gap between assessment of revenue and expenditure of the state
- Assessed devolution for financial year 2021-22 was also taken into account by the Commission.
- The 15th Finance Commission has recommended total PDRD grant of ₹1,18,452 crore to 17 states in 2021-22. The grant is released to states in 12 monthly instalments.
Article 275 of the Constitution:
- It provides for the payment of such sums as Parliament may by law provide as grants-in aid to such States as Parliament may determine to be in need of assistance.
- The grants are paid out of the Consolidated Fund of India in each year, and different sums may be fixed for different States.
- These grants are to be of the nature of capital and recurring sums as may be necessary.
- These aim to enable that State to meet the costs of such schemes of development as may be undertaken by it with the approval of the Government of India for the purpose of promoting the welfare of the Scheduled Tribes in that State or raising the level of administration of the Scheduled Areas there in to that of the administration of the rest of the areas of that State.
- Grants are primarily intended to correct Inter-State disparities in financial resources and to coordinate the maintenance and expansion of the welfare schemes of the State Governments on a uniform national level.
Subject : Polity
Context : Recently, the President of India appointed Shri Justice Sanjay Yadav as the Chief Justice of the Allahabad High Court.
- Every high court (whether exclusive or common) consists of a chief justice and such other judges as the president may from time to time deem necessary to appoint.
- The Constitution does not specify the strength of a high court and leaves it to the discretion of the president.
- The President determines the strength of a high court from time to time depending upon its workload.
Provisions for appointing Chief Justice of High Court
- The chief justice is appointed by the President after consultation with the chief justice of India and the governor of the state concerned.
- The judges of a high court are appointed by the President.
- The President, in exercise of the power conferred by clause (1) of Article 217 of the Constitution of India, can appoint the Chief Justice of a High Court.
- The Chief Justice of High Court is appointed as per the policy of having Chief Justices from outside the respective States.
- The Collegium takes the call on the elevation.
- High Court judges are recommended by a Collegium comprising the CJI and two senior-most judges.
Subject : Governance
Context : Recently, the Office of Principal Scientific Advisor to GoI has announced that India will now be able to access the COMSOL Multiphysics software suite at no cost through the I-STEM portal academic users.
Indian Science Technology and Engineering facilities Map (I-STEM)
- It is an initiative of Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Govt. of India under the PM-STIAC mission.
- The I-STEM National Web Portal was launched formally in 2020.
- It protects the IP involved in building the I-STEM Portal.
- The objectives of I-STEM are:
Strengthen the R&D ecosystem by connecting researchers with resources;
Promoting technologies and scientific equipment development indigenously; and
Providing necessary supplies and supports to researchers
- It hosts the database of facilities across India so that a researcher desirous of using ny of them can search for the same and make a booking online for using it.
- It lists more than 25,000 pieces of equipment from 850 institutions across the country, and has more than 20,000 Indian researchers.
- It features a Digital Catalogue of indigenously developed technologies and products, as well as host the platform for the various City Knowledge and Innovation Clusters.
About COMSOL Platform
- It is developed by the COMSOL Group.
- It is used worldwide as an indispensable tool for a variety of computer simulations for R&D as well as for learning and instruction.
- It is a general-purpose simulation software package for modelling designs, devices, and processes in all fields of engineering, manufacturing, and scientific research.
- It can be used on its own or expanded with functionality from any combination of add-on modules for simulating electromagnetics, structural mechanics, acoustics, fluid flow, heat transfer, and chemical engineering.
- It is hosted on a secure Azure Cloud and to be used simultaneously by up to 60 users located anywhere in the country.
Subject : Governance
Context : Recently, the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has announced that ‘eSanjeevani’ has crossed another milestone by completing 6 million (60 lakh) consultations through more than 375 online OPDs.
- It is Ministry of Health & Family Welfare’s National Telemedicine Service.
- It is operational in 31 States/Union Territories.
- It is first of its kind online OPD service offered by a country government to its citizens.
- It is conceptualised as a doctor to doctor telemedicine platform in November 2019 for implementation at 155,000 Health and Wellness Centres under Ayushman Bharat Scheme in a Hub & Spokes model.
- It supports two types of telemedicine services viz. Doctor-to-Doctor (eSanjeevani) and Patient-to-Doctor (eSanjeevani OPD) Tele-consultations.
- The eSanjeevani AB-HWC is the doctor to doctor telemedicine platform.
- It has been implemented at around 20,000 Health and Wellness Centres as spokes and over 1800 hubs in around 30 States.
- The eSanjeevani OPD (Patient-to-Doctor) was rolled out in 2020 in order to provide free online medical consultation to sick people at their residence.
- It was developed by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC).
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
- It is the premier R&D organization of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) for carrying out R&D in IT & E (Information Technologies and Electronics).
9. PAKKE TIGER RESERVE
Subject : Environment
Context : More than 200 contingency workers of the Pakke Tiger Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh went on an indefinite strike over non-payment of wages since December 2020.
Pakke Tiger Reserve
- Pakke Tiger Reserve (declared in 1999 – 2000) lies in the foothills of the eastern Himalaya in the East Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. It is also known as Pakhui Tiger Reserve.
- It falls within the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot.
- It is home to over 2000 species of plants, 300 species of birds, 40 species of mammals, 30 species of amphibians and 36 species of reptiles. Many species of the flora and fauna are globally threatened, and PTR is one of the last remaining strongholds left for these species.
- It is known for its amazing sightings of four resident hornbill species.
Subject : National Organisations
Context : The Union Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment inaugurated the Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Bhawan (Hostel Building) of NIEPID Secunderabad.
- It is an Autonomous Body under the administrative control of Deparment of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities (Divyangjan), Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment
- It is dedicated to provide quality services to Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (Divyangjan) in the National interest.
- It was formerly known as National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped.
- It was established in the year 1984
- HQ: Secunderabad (Telangana).
- NIEPID has three regional centers located at Noida/ New Delhi, Kolkata, & Mumbai.
Subject : Geography
Context : The West Bengal government issued an alert in the coastal areas and evacuated a few thousand people from islands exposed to the Bay of Bengal over fears of fresh inundation due to a high tide on Friday.
- The Periodic rise and fall of the sea level due to the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun, once or twice a day, is called tides.
- Ocean Tides are one type of wave characterized by rhythmic rise and fall of ocean water twice a day.
- Tides make ocean water move vertically.
- The study of tides is complex, spatially, and temporally; as it has great variation in frequency, magnitudes, and height.
Cause of tides
- The gravitational pull of the Moon.[ Strong factor]
- Gravitation pull of Sun. [ Less factor]
- Centrifugal force, the force that works as a counterbalance of gravity.
- Gravitation pull and centrifugal force are responsible for the creation of two major tides on earth.
- On the moonward side of the earth, tidal bulge is caused by the gravitational pull from the Moon, and the opposite side of the earth’s bulge caused by centrifugal force.
- Highest tides experienced on Bay of Fundy in Canada; it is approx 15-16 m high.
Types of tides:
Based on the frequency of tide, the following are the types of tides:
- Semi-diurnal tide: Two high and two low tides with the same height on each day.
- Diurnal tides: Only one high tide and one low tide with the same height each day.
- Mixed Tides: Tides having variation in height is called mixed tide.
Types of tides based n the Sun, Moon, and earth Position:
- Spring Tides : During full moon and new moon days. The sun, moon, and earth are the same line and tides are highest.
- Neap Tides : When the moon is the first and last quarter, ocean water gets diagonally opposite direction resulting in low tides. These are called neap tides.
The factors affecting the height of the tides:
- When the Moon is closed to earth at Perigee position; experiences higher tides or greater than the normal tides.
- When the Moon is the farthest from the earth at apogee position; experiences less than average tides bulge.
- When the Earth is closed to Sun at Perihelian position; experiences higher tides or greater than the normal tides.
- When the Earth is the farthest from the Sun at the aphelian position; experiences less than average tides bulge.
- Ebb: It is the time between the high tide and low tides when water is falling.
- Flood or flow : It is the time between the low tide and high tides when water is rising.