Daily Prelims Notes 12 June 2020
- June 12, 2020
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Indian gaur
- North Korea and South Korea
- NHRC, UBI, Universal periodic review
- NIRF ranking
- International Religious Freedom Report, 2019
- Lonar Lake
1. Indian gaur
Population estimation of Indian gaur has been carried out in Nilgiris forest division.
- Gaur, or Indian Bison, is a close wild relative of domestic cattle.
- The best habitat for gaur is forested hills and grassy areas of south to south east Asia, with undisturbed tracts of forest, water sources and abundant forage in the form of coarse grasses, shrubs and trees
- It is native to South and Southeast Asia and has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
- It is state animal of Goa
- Gaur is highly threatened by poaching for trade to supply international markets and loss of habitats.
- The Western Ghats and their outflanking hills in southern India constitute one of the most extensive extant strongholds of gaur, in particular in the Wayanad – Nagarhole – Mudumalai – Bandipur complex. And also spotted in Tadoba Andhari Tiger Project , Periyar Tiger Reserve , Silent Valley National Park, Kanha National park and Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary
Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve
- The NBR harbors a wide spectrum of ecosystem types such as tropical evergreen forests, Montane sholas and grasslands, semi-evergreen forests, moist deciduous forests, dry deciduous forests and thorn forests.
- Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Nature Park is the most popular biosphere reserves in India and the major National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary of South India.
- Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve area is located at the foothills of the famous Nilgiris hills or Blue Mountains at the meeting point of two majestic mountain ranges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats and shares boundaries with Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala states.
- The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve includes many National parks and wildlife sanctuaries and also declared a Tiger Reserve.
- Important faunal elements which need protection are Tiger, Elephant, Gaur, Lion tail macaque, Sambar, Wild Boar, NilgiriTahr etc.
- It includes the Aralam, Mudumalai, Mukurthi, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Silent Valley national parks, as well as the Wayanad and Sathyamangalam wildlife sanctuaries.
North Korea has severed its contact with South Korea and branded South Korea as Enemy. It is response to failure of South Korea to stop activists from floating anti-Pyongyang leaflets across their tense border.
- North and South Korea have been divided for more than 70 years, ever since the Korean Peninsula became an unexpected casualty of the escalating Cold Warbetween two rival superpowers: the Soviet Union and the United States.
- In August 1945, the two allies divided control over the Korean Peninsula. Over the next three years (1945-48), the Soviet Army and its proxies set up a communist regime in the area north of latitude 38˚ N, or the 38th parallel. South of that line, a military government was formed, supported directly by the United States.
- In 1948, the United States called for a United Nation-sponsored vote for all Koreans to determine the future of the peninsula. After the North refused to participate, the South formed its own government in Seoul, led by the strongly anti-communist Syngman Rhee.
- The North responded in kind, installing the former communist guerrilla Kim Il Sung as the first premier of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the capital of Pyongyang.
- The Korean War (1950-53) did little to resolve the question of which regime represented the “true” Korea.
- The armistice that ended that conflict in 1953 left the peninsula divided much as before, with a demilitarized zone (DMZ) running roughly along the 38th parallel.
U.S. President has issued an executive order authorizing sanctions against individuals involved in an International Criminal Court (ICC) investigation over U.S. forces committed war crimes in Afghanistan
- The International Criminal Court (“the ICC” or “the Court”) is a permanent international court established to investigate, prosecute and try individuals accused of committing the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole, namely the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and the crime of aggression
- On 17 July 1998, 120 States adopted the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court establishing the
- The International Criminal Court is not a substitute for national courts. According to the Rome Statute, it is the duty of every State to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over those responsible for international crimes.
- The International Criminal Court can only intervene where a State is unable or unwilling genuinely to carry out the investigation and prosecute the perpetrators.
- The ICC is an independent body whose mission is to try individuals for crimes within its jurisdiction without the need for a special mandate from the United Nations.
NHRC has submitted mid-term Universal Periodic Review to United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) where it mentioned India is considering for Universal basic income.
- The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a unique process which involves a review of the human rights records of all UN Member States.
- The UPR is a State-driven process, under the auspices of the Human Rights Council, which provides the opportunity for each State to declare what actions they have taken to improve the human rights situations in their countries and to fulfill their human rights obligations.
- The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October, 1993. The statute under which it is established is the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993
- It is in conformity with the Paris Principles.
- The NHRC is an embodiment of India’s concern for the promotion and protection of human rights.
- The Commission consists of a Chairperson, full-time Members and seven deemed Members. The statute lays down qualifications for the appointment of the Chairperson and Members of the Commission. Constitution of NHRC
- Judge of the Supreme Court is eligible to be appointed as Chairperson of the Commission in addition to the person who has been the Chief Justice of India;
- Term of the Chairperson and Members of the Commission is three years or 70 years whichever is earlier and shall be eligible for re-appointment.
- The chairman and members are appointed by the president on the recommendations of a six-member committee consisting of the prime minister as its head, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, the Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, leaders of the Opposition in both the Houses of Parliament and the Central home minister.
- The president can remove the chairman or any member from the office under the following circumstances:
(a) If he is adjudged an insolvent; or
(b) If he engages, during his term of office, in any paid employment outside the duties of his office; or
(c) If he is unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body; or
(d) If he is of unsound mind and stand so declared by a competent court; or
(e) If he is convicted and sentenced to imprisonment for an offence.
- In addition to these, the president can also remove the chairman or any member on the ground of proved misbehaviour or incapacity. However, in these cases, the president has to refer the matter to the Supreme Court for an inquiry. If the Supreme Court, after the inquiry, upholds the cause of removal and advises so, then the president can remove the chairman or a member.
- The salaries, allowances and other conditions of service of the chairman or a member are determined by the Central government.
Universal basic income (UBI) is a model for providing all citizens of a country or other geographic area with a given sum of money, regardless of their income, resources or employment status. The purpose of the UBI is to prevent or reduce poverty and increase equality among citizens.
5. NIRF ranking
National Institute Ranking Framework (NIRF) ranking list for 2020 has been released in which IIT-M topped the list.
- The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) was approved by the MHRD and launched on 2015.
- This framework outlines a methodology to rank institutions across the country. The methodology identifies the broad parameters for ranking various universities and institutions.
- The parameters broadly cover “Teaching, Learning and Resources,” “Research and Professional Practices,” “Graduation Outcomes,” “Outreach and Inclusivity,” and “Perception”.
India rejects US government report on religious freedom
- The US Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) had in its April report called for India to be designated a “country of particular concern”, along with China, Iran, Russia and Syria.
- CAA, NRC, J&K status are cited as reason for India’s status in the report
- India said that there is no locus standi for a foreign entity to pronounce on the state of Indian citizens’ constitutionally protected rights.
- And added there is robust public discourse in India and constitutionally mandated institutions that guarantee protection of religious freedom and rule of law
7. Lonar Lake
The colour of water in Lonar Lake has changed to pink
- The low level of water may lead to increased salinity and change in the behaviour of algae because of atmospheric changes. This may be the reason for colour change. This is not the first time that the colour of water has changed
- It is also known as Lonar crater, which was formed after a meteorite hit the Earth some 50,000 years ago
- It is a notified national geo-heritage monument.
- Geological Survey of India (GSI) declares geo-heritage sites/ national geological monuments for protection and maintenance