Daily Prelims Notes 15 August 2021
- August 15, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
15 August 2021
Table Of Contents
- Indian Flag
- July 2021 – Hottest month on record
- Yasukuni shrine
- PM Gati Shakti Master Plan
- Incel Movement
- Zika Virus
- Genome Sequencing
- End-to-End Encryption
- Anti-Dumping Duty
- Sedition Law
- Legislative Council
- Presiding Panel or the Vice-Chairman’s Panel
- Rice Fortification
- Objectives Resolution
- Justice Verma Committee
- BRICS Agriculture Research Platform
- Monuments of Victory & Valour
- Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana
- Usha Mehta
Subject – Polity
Context – India celebrates 75th year of its Independence
- The Indian flag was adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on July 22, 1947.
- The first national flag, which consisted of three horizontal stripes of red, yellow and green, is said to have been hoisted on August 7, 1906, at the Parsee Bagan Square, near Lower Circular Road, in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
- Later, in 1921, freedom fighter PingaliVenkayya met Mahatma Gandhi and proposed a basic design of the flag, consisting of two red and green bands.
- After undergoing several changes, the Tricolour was adopted as our national flag at a Congress Committee meeting in Karachi in 1931.
Rules governing the display of the Tricolour –
- The earliest rules for the display of the national flag were originally governed by the provisions of The Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 and The Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971.
- The Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 prohibits the desecration of or insult to the country’s national symbols, including the national flag, the Constitution, the national anthem and the Indian map.
- In 2002, the Flag Code of India came into effect which allowed the unrestricted display of the Tricolour as long as the honour and dignity of the flag were being respected.
- The flag code did not replace the pre-existing rules governing the correct display of the flag; it was, however, an effort to bring together all the previous laws, conventions and practices.
- The Flag Code of 2002 is divided into three parts —
- a general description of the tricolour,
- rules on display of the flag by public and private bodies and educational institutions, and
- rules for display of the flag by governments and government bodies.
- It states that there will be no restriction on the display of the flag by public and private bodies and educational institutions except to the extent as laid down in the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971.
- For official display, only flags that conform to the specifications as laid down by the Bureau of Indian Standards and bearing their mark can be used.
Standard dimensions of the flag –
- The flag code states that the tricolour can be of nine standard dimensions — 6300 x 4200, 3600 x 2400, 2700 x 1800, 1800 x 1200, 1350 x 900, 900 x 600, 450 x 300, 225 x 150 and 150 x 100 (all sizes in mm).
- The tricolour should be rectangular in shape and the length-to-width ratio should always be 3:2.
- The national flag should always be made of hand-spun and hand-woven wool or cotton or silk khadi bunting.
- The flag code mandates that the tricolour should always be distinctly placed and should “occupy the position of honour”. The flag should always be hoisted briskly and lowered slowly and ceremoniously.
2. July 2021 – Hottest month on record
Subject – Environment
Context – July 2021 is the hottest month on record. Significantly, seven of the warmest Julys have occurred since 2015.
- Since 1880, the month of July 2021 was the hottest on Earth. This is what the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) July report on global climate has said.
- While July is typically the hottest month on Earth, July 2021 has earned the number one spot as the world’s warmest July ever recorded in NOAA’s 142-year history of record keeping.
- Report has also said that it is likely that 2021 will feature in the list of the ten warmest years on record.
- The report says that the global land-only surface temperature for July was 40 degrees Celsius above the 20th-century average, making it the highest July land-only surface temperature on record.
- The previous record was held by Julys in 2017 and 2020.
- In particular, Asia’s July 2021 surface temperature was 61 degrees Celsius higher than average. This made it the highest July temperature that Asia has seen since 1910.
- The global temperature increase is crucial because if the planet warms by 1.5 degrees Celsius, about 14 per cent of the Earth’s population may be exposed to severe heat waves at least once every five years, NASA notes.
- At a temperature increase of 2 degrees Celsius, 37 per cent of the global population will be exposed to the same.
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – Yasukuni shrine is a controversial symbol of Japan’s war legacy.
- Nearly eight decades after Japan’s defeat in World War Two, Tokyo’s Yasukuni shrine remains a potent symbol of its wartime legacy in East Asia and a flashpoint for regional tension.
- Established in 1869 in a leafy urban enclave, the shrine is dedicated to 2.5 million Japanese who died in wars beginning in the 19th century and including World War Two.
- Funded by the government until 1945, Yasukuni – its name formed by combining the words for “peace” and “country” – was central to the state religion of Shintoism that mobilised the wartime population to fight in the name of a divine emperor.
Subject – Economy
Context -On India’s 75th Independence Day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced that the Centre will launch ‘PM Gati Shakti Master Plan’, a Rs. 100 lakh-crore project for developing ‘holistic infrastructure’.
- In his speech, PM Modi pegged the project as a source of employment opportunities for the youth in future.
- PM Modi said that the Gati Shakti plan will help raise the global profile of local manufacturers and help them compete with their counterparts worldwide. It also raises possibilities of new future economic zones.
Subject – Governance
Context – The movement came into the spotlight yet again in the UK’s Plymouth, where a 22-year-old man named Jake Davidson shot dead five people, including a toddler, in what is widely being called the worst incident of its kind in British history since 2010.
- The ‘incel’ movement, a dangerous online subculture comprising men who identify as ‘involuntary celibates’ and regularly express deeply misogynistic views about women, is slowly becoming a threat to law and order, experts have warned.
- Men who are part of this movement harbour a deep resentment towards both women and other men who are sexually active.
- The blame women for their own lack of sexual and social status.
- An extreme section of Incels even advocate violence against women. However, not all members of the subculture are violent, experts say.
- The ‘black pill’ theory, often associated with incels, promotes the defeatist idea that your fate is sealed at birth and no matter what changes you try to make, your sexual capital cannot be altered.
- ‘Red pillers’, on the other hand, believe the world is biased toward women, and see feminism as female supremacy. They believe there is a systemic bias in favour of women.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Kerala declares Zika outbreak under control.
- Zika is a viral infection, It spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito, which also spreads dengue and chikungunya.
- It is a contagious disease, infected people can transmit Zika sexually. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) of Zika virus disease is estimated to be 3-14 days
- It was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys, Zika was detected in humans five years later.
- Sporadic cases have been reported throughout the world since the 1960s, but the first outbreak happened only in 2007 in the Island of Yap in the Pacific.
- A major outbreak in Brazil led to the revelation that Zika can be associated with microcephaly, a condition in which babies are born with small and underdeveloped brains.
- In India, Zika virus was first recorded in 1952-53. The latest major outbreak was in 2018, when 80 cases were reported in Rajasthan.
- It results involve microcephaly, especially when pregnant women are infected.
- It has been reported a steep increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome — a neurological disorder that could lead to paralysis and death, according to the WHO.
The symptoms of Zika virus
- Most people infected with the virus do not develop symptoms.
- The symptoms are similar to those of flu, including fever body ache, headache etc.
- The symptoms worsen, people should seek medical advice, the occasional rash like in dengue, while some patients also have conjunctivitis.
- Zika virus usually require rest, consumption of plenty of fluids, and common pain and fever medicines
- Zika has no treatment or vaccine.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Most States ‘still lax in Covid genomic analysis’.
- Genome sequencing is figuring out theorder of DNA nucleotides, or bases, in a genome—the order of Adenine, Cytosine, Guanines, and Thymine that make up an organism’s DNA.
- For RNA viruses like SARS-CoV2, mutation is a normal process. It happens often when they replicate themselves in the cells. Sometimes, such mutations around the spike protein region — which the virus uses to gain entry into the human cells — can be a concern. So, there is a need to regularly monitor such mutations.
- Proper collection and genomic sequencing of these samples are important for detecting the emergence of variants that have potential to set off another wave of the pandemic.
Indian SARS-CoV2 Genomics Sequencing Consortium (INSACOG)
- This is a network of 28 national laboratories — jointly set up by the Health Ministry, the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the Indian Council of Medical Research — has been sequencing samples collected from all over the country since the emergence of alpha variant (B.1.1.7) in the UK.
- INSACOG is a multi-laboratory, multi-agency, Pan-India network to monitor genomic variations in the SARS-CoV-2 by a sentinel sequencing effort
Subject – Governance
Context – Facebook is offering the option of end-to-end encryption of voice and video calls on FB Messenger, along with updated controls for disappearing messages.
- End-to-end encryption (E2EE) is a secure line of communication that blocks third-party users from accessing transferred data. When the data is being transferred online, only the sender and recipient can decrypt it with a key.
- Encryption technology involves scrambling or jumbling of the data being transferred in such a way that it can be deciphered only by the sender and the receiver.
- End-to-end encryption technology is much safer because it do away with the requirement of third parties.
- In the first step, when a sender sends a message, it is in the form of Plaintextthat is ordinary readable text.
- Second, as soon as the data gets onto the network, it gets encrypted that is aprocess of converting ordinary readable text into a code with the help of special keys (a very long string of numbers generated by the software).
- Third when the same data reaches its intended destination, it is decryptedthat is a process of converting back the coded data to readable text with the help of special keys.
- Finally, the intended receiver gets the message in the form of Cipher textthat is the readable text obtained after decryption.
Subject – Economy
Context – The Finance Ministry has revoked the definitive antidumping duty that was originally imposed in August 2016 on certain Viscose Staple Fibre (VSF) from China and Indonesia.
- Anti-dumping duties are imposed when it is conclusively proved that a particular item is being exported at a price lower than what is prevailing in the domestic market of the exporter and is leading to disruption in the domestic market, injuring the local producers
- An anti-dumping duty is a protectionist tariff that a domestic government imposes on foreign imports that it believes are priced below fair market value.
- Dumping is a process where a company exports a product at a price lower than the price it normally charges in its own home market.
- The duty is aimed at ensuring fair trading practices and creating a level-playing field for domestic producers vis-a-vis foreign producers and exporters.
- The duty is imposed only after a thorough investigation by a quasi-judicial body, such as Directorate General of Trade Remedies, in India.
- The imposition of anti-dumping duty is permissible under the World Trade Organization (WTO) regime
Sunset review investigation
- Under the Customs Tariff Act, 1975, as amended from time to time and the Customs Tariff (Identification, Assessment and Collection of Anti-Dumping Duty on Dumped Articles and for Determination of Injury) Rules 1995, the Designated Authority is the Directorate General of Trade Remedies.
- Anti-Dumping Duty is applicable only for a selective period. If dumping still continues, the industry can apply for a sunset review at the end of 5 years.
- Globally, once a sunset review is applied for, the duty is extended for 1 year pending investigation.
- In India, industries have been asked to apply for sunset review 9 months before the expiry of the duty.
- This made the Indian players getting deprived of protection for a year compared to their peers across the world.
Different from Countervailing Duties – ADD is a customs duty on imports providing a protection against the dumping of goods at prices substantially lower than the normal value whereas countervailing duty is a customs duty on goods that have received government subsidies in the originating or exporting country.
Subject – Art and Culture
Context – India working for return of Karmapa
- The Karmapa is the leader of the Karma Kagyu branch of Buddhism.
- Since the 12th century the Karmapas have been the heads of the Karma Kaygü lineage and responsible for the continuation of this direct transmission lineage.
- The present Karmapa is OgyenTrinleyDorje, is the 17th in the line of Karmapa incarnations.
- The 17th Karmapa has a strong following in Sikkim where he remained popular despite having stayed away from India for the past four years.
Karma Kagyu school:
- The Karma Kagyu lineage belongs to one of the 4 main schools of Tibetan Buddhism. As a lineage of direct oral transmission it places particular emphasis on meditation and the realization of the direct experience of mind gained through the guidance of a teacher.
- The Karma Kagyu lineage has its roots in the teachings of the historical Buddha and developed into a practical way to enlightenment in India and Tibet.
- For over a 1000 years Buddhist Masters (Mahasiddhas) such as Naropa and Maitripain India as well as the famous Tibetan Yogis Marpa and Milarepa shaped the lineage as a practical everyday practice for lay people.
Subject – Polity
- Sedition, which falls under Section 124A of the Indian Penal Code, is defined as any action that brings or attempts to bring hatred or contempt towards the government of India and has been illegal in India since 1870.
Historical Background of Sedition Law:
- Sedition laws were enacted in 17th century England when lawmakers believed that only good opinions of the government should survive, as bad opinions were detrimental to the government and monarchy.
- This sentiment (and law) was borrowed and inserted into the Section 124A of IPC in 1870, by the British.
- British used Sedition law to convict and sentence freedom fighters. It was first used to prosecute Bal Gangadhar Tilak in 1897.
- Mahatama Gandhi, too, was later tried for sedition for his articles in Young India.
Supreme Court Observations
- In 1962, the Supreme Court decided on the constitutionality of Section 124A in KedarNath Singh v State of Bihar.
- It upheld the constitutionality of sedition, but limited its application to “acts involving intention or tendency to create disorder, or disturbance of law and order, or incitement to violence”.
- It distinguished these from “very strong speech” or the use of “vigorous words” strongly critical of the government.
- In 1995, the Supreme Court, in Balwant Singh v State of Punjab, held that mere sloganeering which evoked no public response did not amount to sedition.
Subject – Polity
Context – Hours after HC remarks on nomination of MLCs, Maharashtra Governor meets Amit Shah.
- India has a bicameral system of legislature. Just as Parliament has two Houses, the states can also have a Legislative Council in addition to the Legislative Assembly through Article 169 of the Constitution.
- Six States having a Legislative Council: Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka.
- In 2020, Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly passed the resolution for abolition of the Legislative Council. This resolution is yet to be cleared by the Parliament of India to finally abolish the council.
- In 2019, the Jammu & Kashmir Legislative Council was abolished through the J&K Reorganisation Bill, 2019, which reduced the State of J&K to the Union Territories of J&K and Ladakh.
- Also recently, the West Bengal government has decided to set up a Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad).
Article 169 (Creation and Abolition) – The Parliament can abolish a Legislative Council (where it already exists) or create it (where it does not exist) by a simple majority, that is, a majority of the members of each House present and voting, if the legislative assembly of the concerned state, by a special majority, passes a resolution to that effect.
- Under Article 171of the Constitution, the Legislative Council of a state shall not have more than one-third of the total strength of the State Assembly, and not less than 40 members.
- Like the Rajya Sabha, the legislative council is a continuing chamber, that is, it is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution. The tenure of a Member of the Legislative Council (MLC) is six years, with one-third of the members retiring every two years.
Manner of Election:
- One-third of the MLCs are elected by the state’s MLAs,
- Another 1/3rdby a special electorate comprising sitting members of local governments such as municipalities and district boards,
- 1/12thby an electorate of teachers and another 1/12th by registered graduates.
- The remaining members are appointed by the Governor for distinguished services in various fields namely, literature, science, art, cooperative movement and social service.
Role of Legislative Council:
- It can ensure individuals who might not be cut out for the elections are able to contribute to the legislative process (like artists, scientists, etc).
- It can keep an eye on hasty decisions taken by the Legislative Assembly.
13. Presiding Panel or the Vice-Chairman’s Panel
Subject – Polity
Context – Opposition RS members refuse to chair the House
- The Chairman shall, from time to time, nominate from amongst the members of the Council a panel of not more than six Vice-Chairmen, any one of whom may preside over the Council in the absence of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman when so requested by the Chairman, or in his absence, by the Deputy Chairman.
- A Vice-Chairman nominated under sub-rule (1) shall hold office until a new panel of Vice-Chairmen is nominated.
Subject – Science and Tech
Context – Using nanorobots in dental procedures
- Nano-robots are tiny robots small enough to enter the human body are being developed by researchers for a variety of purposes including treating cancer, drug delivery and even the growth of new cells and tissues.
Subject – Governance
Context – Addressing the nation from the Red Fort on the 75th Independence Day, PM Modi said “Be it the rice distributed through ration shops or the rice provided to children in the mid-day meal, the rice available through every scheme will be fortified by the year 2024”.
- Fortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the content of an essential micronutrient, i.e. vitamins and minerals (including trace elements) in a food, so as to improve the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit with minimal risk to health.
- Rice fortification is the practice of increasing the content of essential micronutrients in rice and to improve the nutritional quality of the rice.
- Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has formulated a comprehensive regulation on fortification of foods namely ‘Food Safety and Standards (Fortification of Foods) Regulations, 2016’.
- These regulations set the standards for food fortification and encourage the production, manufacture, distribution, sale and consumption of fortified foods.
- Rice is the world’s most important staple food. An estimated 2 billion people eat rice every day, forming the mainstay of diets across large of Asia and Africa.
- Regular milled rice is low in micronutrients and serves primarily as a source of carbohydrate only. The fortification of rice is a major opportunity to improve nutrition.
- Fortified rice contains Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Iron and Zinc.
- According to the FSSAI norms, 1 kg fortified rice shall contain iron (28mg-42.5mg), folic acid (75-125 microgram) and Vitamin B-12 (0.75-1.25 microgram). In addition, rice may also be fortified with micronutrients, singly or in combination, at the level– zinc(10mg-15mg), Vitamin A (500-750 microgram RE), Vitamin B1 (1mg-1.5mg), Vitamin B2 (1.25mg-1.75mg), Vitamin B3 (12.5mg-20mg) and Vitamin B6 (1.5mg-2.5mg) per Kg.
Subject – Polity
- The Objective Resolution was moved on December 13, 1946 by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru,which provided the philosophy and guiding principles for framing the Constitution and later took the form of Preamble of the Constitution of India.
- This Resolution was unanimously adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 January 1947.
- It forms the basis of Preamble of Indian Constitution.
The Resolution states –
- To foster unity of the nation and to ensure its economic and political security, to have a written Constitution, and to proclaim India as a Sovereign, Democratic Republic.
- To have a federal form of government with the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States.
- To guarantee and secure justice, equality, freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship, vocation, association and action to all the people of India.
- To provide adequate safeguards for minorities, backward and tribal areas and depressed and other backward classes.
- To maintain the integrity of the territory of the Republic and the sovereign rights on land, sea and air according to the law of civilized nations.
- To attain rightful and honoured place in the world and make willing contribution to the promotion of world peace and the welfare of mankind.
Subject – Governance
The Justice JS Verma committee was set up after the Nirbhaya incident of December 2012 and submitted its recommendations on strengthening the laws to curb crimes against women.
18. BRICS Agriculture Research Platform
Subject: International relations
Context: The Ministers of Agriculture of the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of South Africa deliberated virtually on the theme “BRICS Partnership for Strengthening Agro Biodiversity for Food and Nutrition Security”.
- BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) Agriculture Research Platform has been developed by India to promote cooperation in the areas of agricultural research, extension, technology transfer, training and capacity building.
- The intention to make the BRICS Agriculture Research Platform functional and encourage research cooperation to improve the use and application of agricultural technologies for meeting the needs of producers and processors was also expressed.
- BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
- In 2001, the British Economist Jim O’Neill coined the term BRIC to describe the four emerging economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
- The grouping was formalised during the first meeting of BRIC Foreign Ministers’ in 2006.
- South Africa was invited to join BRIC in December 2010, after which the group adopted the acronym BRICS.
- The Chairmanship of the forum is rotated annually among the members, in accordance with the acronym B-R-I-C-S.
19. Monuments of Victory & Valour
Context: The inauguration of a photo exhibition of Monuments of Victory & Valour by the National Monuments Authority (NMA), , the Minister for Tourism, Culture and Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) on the occasion of Independence Day will include photos of the Kakaitya Kala Thoranam, the fort of Jhansi Laxmi Bhai and the VijayaStambh in Chittorgarh
Kakatiya Kala Thoraman
- Kakatiya Kala Thoraman happens to be a historical arch in the Indian state of Telangana whose architecture is highly inspired by the Kakatiya dynasty
- It is believed to be built in the 12th century and, it has found a place in the tentative list of the UNESCO world heritage site.
- The gate was the part of the Swayambhusiva temple in the times gone by and was destroyed by the Muslim invader names as Ulugh Khan in the year 1323.
- The kakatiya Kala thoranam was located inside the Warangal fort.
- The historical arches of the Warangal Fort has been adopted as the symbol of the Kakatiya Dynasty and has been officially incorporated as the Emblem of Telangana for the state of Telangana
- The VijayaStambha is an imposing victory monument located within Chittor Fort in Chittorgarh, Rajasthan, India.
- The tower was constructed by the Hindu king Rana Kumbha of Mewar in 1448 to commemorate his victory over the combined armies of Malwa and Gujarat sultanates led by Mahmud Khilji.
- The tower is dedicated to Hindu God Vishnu, The topmost storey features an image of the Jain Goddess, Padmavati
- The inscribed slabs in the uppermost storey containing a detailed genealogy of the rulers of Chittaur. It commemorates the victory over the sultanates led by Mahmud Khilji.
- Jhansi Fort or Jhansi kaKila is a fortress situated on a large hilltop called Bangira, in Uttar Pradesh, Northern India.
- It served as a stronghold of the Chandela Kings in Balwant Nagar from the 11th through the 17th century.
- The fort of Maharani Jhansi has strategic importance since the earliest of times. It was built by Raja Bir Singh JuDeo (1606-27) of Orchha on a rocky hill called Bangra in the town of Balwantnagar (presently known as Jhansi).
- The fort has ten gates ( Darwaza). It symbolises her valour against the British in the war of independence in 1857
20. Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana
Subject: Government Schemes
Context: The Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying organized a webinar on Quality Seed Production for Brackish water Aquaculture with special focus on shrimp aquaculture today, under the chairmanship of Shri Jatindra Nath Swain, Secretary, Department of Fisheries
- The PMMSY will be implemented as an umbrella scheme with two separate Components namely Central Sector Scheme (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS).
- Under the Central Sector Scheme Component an amount of Rs. 1720 crores has been earmarked. Under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) Component, an investment of Rs. 18330 crores has been envisaged, which in turn is segregated into Non-beneficiary oriented and Beneficiary orientated sub-components/activities under the following three broad heads:
- Enhancement of Production and Productivity
- Infrastructure and Post-harvest Management
- Fisheries Management and Regulatory Framework
- Cluster or area-based approach would be followed with requisite forward and backward linkages and end to end solutions.
- Thrust will be given for infusing new and emerging technologies like Re-circulatory Aquaculture Systems, Biofloc, Aquaponics, Cage Cultivation to enhance production and productivity, quality, productive utilization of waste lands and water for Aquaculture.
- Special focus on Coldwater fisheries development and expansion of Aquaculture in Brackish Water and Saline Areas.
- Activities like Mariculture, Seaweed cultivation and Ornamental Fisheries having potential to generate huge employment will be promoted.
- Focused attention would be given for fisheries development in Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Islands, Northeast, and Aspirational Districts through area specific development plans.
- PMMSY envisages promotion of high value species, establishing a national network of Brood Banks for all commercially important species, Genetic improvement and establishing Nucleus Breeding Center for self-reliance in Shrimp Brood stock, organic aquaculture promotion and certification, good aquaculture practices, end to end traceability from ‘catch to consumer’, use of Block Chain Technology, Global Standards and Certification, Accreditation of Brood banks, Hatcheries, Farms, residues issues and aquatic health management supported by a modern laboratory network.
- Collectivization of fishers and fish farmers through Fish Farmer Producer Organizations (FFPOs) to increase bargaining power of fishers and fish farmers is a key feature of PMMSY.
- Aquaparks as hub of fisheries and aquaculture activities with assured, affordable, quality inputs under one roof, post-harvest infrastructure facilities, business enterprise zones, logistic support, business incubation centers, marketing facilities etc.
- Youth would be engaged in fisheries extension by creation of 3347 Sagar Mitras in coastal fisher villages.
- Major investments in construction and modernization of Fishing Harbours and Landing centers for hygienic handling of fish, urban marketing infrastructure to deliver quality and affordable fish, development of state of the art whole sale fish markets, retail markets, E-marketing and E-trading of Fish etc.
- Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana(PMMSY) and the sub-component supported under PMMSY for development of brackish water aquaculture in coastal States and in inland saline water in North Indian States.
- Usha Mehta(25 March 1920 – 11 August 2000) was a Gandhian and freedom fighter of India.
- In 1928, eight-year-old Usha participated in a protest march against the Simon Commission
- She used to mobilize friends and organize Prabhatpheris along with them dressed in national tricolour. They also used to picket liquor shops. She met Mahatma Gandhi as a young girl and took a vow to wear khadi life long
- She also began studying law, but ended her studies in 1942 to join the Quit India Movement.
- On 14 August 1942, Usha and some of her close associates began the Secret Congress Radio, a clandestine radio station. It went air on 27 August. Secret Congress Radio also kept the leaders of the freedom movement in touch with the public
- The Chittagong Bomb Raid, Jamshedpur strike and running of parallel governments in Bihar and Maharashtra were some of the major developments that the secret Radio broadcast to the masses.
- However, the police found them on 12 November 1942 and arrested the organizers, including Usha Mehta.
- All were later imprisoned at Yeravda Jail in Pune.
- In March 1946, she was released, the first political prisoner to be released in Bombay, at the orders of Morarji Desai, who was at that time the home minister in the interim government.
- She continued to spread the Gandhian ideals and was honoured with Padma Vibhushan in 1998.
Refer Quit India Movement 08 August 2021 Daily Prelims Notes
Herbert Baker Parliament design:
- Originally called the House of Parliament, it was designed by the British architects’ Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker in 1912-1913.
- It was held as part of their wider mandate to construct a new administrative capital city for British India.
- The perimeter of the building is circular, with 144 columns on the outside.
- The building is surrounded by large gardens and the perimeter is fenced off by sandstone railings (jali).
- Construction of the House began in 1921 and it was completed in 1927.
- The existing building draws inspiration from Ekattarso Mahadeva Temple (in M.P.) and was built under the British Empire for its Imperial Legislative Council in 1927.
- The opening ceremony, which then housed the Imperial Legislative Council, was performed on 18 January 1927 by Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India.
- Following the end of British rule in India, it was taken over by Constituent Assembly of India which was succeeded by the parliament of India once Constitution of India came into force in 1950.