Daily Prelims Notes 15 July 2020
- July 15, 2020
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Bharat Net
- World Youth Skills Day
- How immunity is developed?
- Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights), 2020 Rules
- Pragyata Guideline
- Tablighi Jamaat
- Cytokine storm
1. Bharat Net
The consumption of mobile and broadband data in rural India under the BharatNet scheme more than doubled in last three months compared to the preceding three months from January to March 2020.
- BharatNet is planned to connect all the 2,50,000 Gram Panchayats in the country for providing broadband connectivity in the Gram Panchayats.
- The project has been approved by Union Cabinet on 2011. The project is being executed by a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) namely Bharat Broadband Network Limited (BBNL), which has been incorporated on 25.02.2012 under Indian Companies Act 1956.
- In 2016, Telecom Commission approved to implement the project in phases:
- PhaseI: The target of completing 1,00,000 GPs under phase-I of BharatNet was achieved in December 2017.
- Phase ll: BharatNet Phase-II is planned to connect the remaining 1,50,000GPs,using an optimal mix of media, by 31 Mar, 2019. Phase II is being implemented through three models – state-led model, CPSU model, and private sector model.
- Further, provision has been made for Last Mile Connectivity in all 2,50,000 GPs through viability gap funding.
- Every GP shall have on an average five WiFi Access Points (APs), including 3 APs (on average) for public institutions such as educational centres, health centres, post offices, police stations, etc. A tender for provisioning of WiFi services has been floated by BBNL, after consultation with TSPs and ISPs, for wider participation.
- A lump sum amount is allocated and disbursed from Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) to BBNL for implementation of BharatNet. USOF’s task is to make sure that people in rural areas have access to telecom connectivity at an affordable and reasonable rate. It was established in 2002.
15 July is celebrated as World Youth Skills Day.
- The United Nations invented day aims at spreading awareness of the importance that technical and vocational education, training, and the development of new skills holds in our lives and is relevant to both local and global economies.
- The day highlights the opportunities and challenges that young people face in employment, and this year’s theme is ‘Skills for a Resilient Youth’.
- The Skill India Mission was launched 5 years ago on this day. Therefore, the day marks the 5th anniversary of the launch of Skill India Mission.
- A demographic dividend is the accelerated economic growth that can result from improved reproductive health, a rapid decline in fertility, and the subsequent shift in population age structure.
- Since 2018, India’s working-age population (people between 15 and 64 years of age) has grown larger than the dependant population — children aged 14 or below as well as people above 65 years of age. This bulge in the working-age population is going to last till 2055, or 37 years from its beginning.
National Youth Policy
- The National Youth Policy, 2014 (NYP-2014) seeks to define the Vision of the Government of India for the Youth of the Country and identify the key areas in which action is required, where not enough is being done, to enable youth development and to provide a framework for action for all stakeholders.
- It is intended to serve as a guiding document, and should be reviewed in 5 years, so that GoI may re-focus its priorities for youth development, as may be necessary.
- NYP-2014 provides a holistic Vision for the youth of India which is “to empower the youthof the country to achieve their full potential, and through them enable India to find its rightful place in the community of nations”.
- In order to achieve this Vision, all stakeholders must work towards meeting 5 key objectives. This requires specific action in one or more of 11 priority areas, identified as important for youth development.
National Skill development mission
- The National Skill Development Mission was approved by the Union Cabinet on 2015, and officially launched on 15.07.2015 on the occasion of World Youth Skills Day.
- The Mission has been developed to create convergence across sectors and States in terms of skill training activities.
- Further, to achieve the vision of ‘Skilled India’, the National Skill Development Mission would not only consolidate and coordinate skilling efforts, but also expedite decision making across sectors to achieve skilling at scale with speed and standards.
- It will be implemented through a streamlined institutional mechanism driven by Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE).
- Key institutional mechanisms for achieving the objectives of the Mission have been divided into three tiers, which will consist of a Governing Council for policy guidance at apex level, a Steering Committee and a Mission Directorate (along with an Executive Committee) as the executive arm of the Mission.
- Mission Directorate will be supported by three other institutions: National Skill Development Agency (NSDA), National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), and Directorate General of Training (DGT) – all of which will have horizontal linkages with Mission Directorate to facilitate smooth functioning of the national institutional mechanism. Seven sub-missions have been proposed initially to act as building blocks for achieving overall objectives of the Mission. They are: (i)Institutional Training, (ii) Infrastructure, (iii) Convergence, (iv) Trainers, (v) Overseas Employment, (vi) Sustainable Livelihoods, (vii) Leveraging Public Infrastructure.
Subject: Science and tech
Recent research found that immunity developed by the formation of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 lasts only a few months, and recovered Covid-19 patients are likely to remain susceptible and could get re-infected.
- The analysis found “a potent” level of antibodies produced in 60% of participants during the peak of their infection; and that only 16.7% retained that level of potency 65 days later.
- While the level of antibodies was at a higher level in patients with severe symptoms, the researchers said it is not clear why antibody response correlates with disease severity.
The immune system was separated into two branches: humoral immunity, for which the protective function of immunization could be found in the humor (cell-free bodily fluid or serum) and cellular immunity, for which the protective function of immunization was associated with cells.
- Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to fight antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins.The body makes different immunoglobulin to combat different antigens.
- Antibodies are like fingerprints that give us evidence that a pathogen (the coronavirus in this case) has caused an infection and that the immune system has responded.
- The antibodies usually remain in the blood for a period of time and quickly activate the immune system when the body is exposed to the pathogen again.
- Some antibodies not only recognise when the pathogen returns, but also protect the body for a lifetime from re-infection, as in the case of measles. However, in the case of seasonal flu, the antibodies give protection for a very small period.
The five subclasses of antibodies are:
- Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is found in high concentrations in the mucous membranes, particularly those lining the respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears.
- Immunoglobulin G (IgG), are involved in the secondary immune response (IgM is the main antibody involved in primary response). IgG can bind pathogens, like for example viruses, bacteria, and fungi, and thereby protects the body against infection and toxins. Comprising up to 80% of the antibodies found in the human body, IgG is the smallest, yet most abundant human antibody, and that of other mammals. IgG can be found in all bodily fluids, and is the only antibody that can protect a foetus by passing through the mother’s placenta.
- Immunoglobulin M (IgM), is the largest antibody, and it is the first antibody to appear in the response to initial exposure to an antigen. B-cells create IgM antibodies as a first line of defense. Their large size gives them excellent binding avidity, and can pick up trace amounts of infection to mark for recognition by phagocytes. IgM is primarily found in serum and due to its size, it cannot diffuse well, and is found in the interstitium only in very low quantities.
- Immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is associated mainly with allergic reactions (when the immune system overreacts to environmental antigens such as pollen or pet dander). It is found in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes.
- Immunoglobulin D (IgD), which exists in small amounts in the blood, is the least understood antibody.
- Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies.
- Cellular immunity is a protective immune process that involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-sensitized cytotoxic T cells and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to antigen.
- Cellular immunity is most effective against cells infected with viruses, intracellular bacteria, fungi and protozoans, and cancerous cells.
4. Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights), 2020 Rules
Central government has published an updated draft of ‘Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Rules, 2020’
- It envisages that every establishment shall implement all measuresto ensure non-discrimination against any transgender person in any matter relating to employment including, but not limited to, infrastructure adjustments, recruitment, promotion and other related issues. The government has sought comments from stakeholders within the next 30 days.
- The draft rules mandate every establishment to publish an equal opportunity policy for transgender persons which will be displayed on its website or at visible places within its premises.
- The policy will contain details of infrastructural facilities (such as unisex toilets), measures put in for safety and security (transportation and guards) and amenities (such as hygiene products) to be provided to the transgender persons to enable them to effectively discharge their duties.
- It also talks about adequate steps to be taken by the government to prohibit discrimination against transgender in any government or private organisation or establishment, including in the areas of education, employment, healthcare, public transportation, participation in public life, sports, leisure and recreation and opportunity to hold public or private office.
Human resource and Development Minister has released guidelines for online education ‘Pragyata’
- The guidelines have been issued to ensure the safety and academic welfare of the students. The guidelines issued by MHRD entail suggestions for administrators, school heads, teachers, parents and students on the following areas:
- Need assessment
- Concerns while planning online and digital education like duration, screen time, inclusiveness, balanced online and offline activities, etc level-wise
- Modalities of intervention including resource curation, level-wise delivery, etc.
- Physical, mental health and well being during digital education
- Cyber safety and ethical practices including precautions and measures for maintaining cyber safety
- Collaboration and convergence with various initiatives
- These guidelines, prepared by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), are only advisory in nature, and State governments have been asked to build on them and formulate their own rules, based on local needs.
- The ministry has recommended a cap on the screen time for students. As per the guidelines, online classes for pre-primary students should not be for more than 30 minutes. It further mentions that two online sessions of up to 30-45 minutes each should be conducted for classes 1 to 8 and four sessions for classes 9 to 12.
Subject: Arts and culture
A Delhi court granted bail to 200 Indonesians who were chargesheeted for attending TablighiJamaat congregation allegedly in violation of visa norms and violating government guidelines issued in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak.
- Tablighi Jamaat literally the Outreach Society, is an Islamic missionary movement that focuses on urging Muslims to return to practising their religion during the lifetime of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and particularly in matters of ritual, dress and personal behaviour.
- It has been called “one of the most influential religious movements in 20th century Islam”.
- Its roots lie in the Deobandi version of the Hanafi school of jurisprudence.
- It was launched by Deoband cleric and prominet Islamic scholar Maulana Muhammad IlyasKhandhalaw in 1927 in Mewat. Its emergence also coincided with Hindu proselytising movements.
- Its stated primary aim is spiritual reformation of Islam by reaching out to Muslims across social and economic spectra and working at the grassroots level, to bring them in line with the group’s understanding of Islam.
- The Tablighi Jamaat members have declared they are not political. They have also decried violence in the name of religion. They say the Prophet Mohammed has commanded all Muslims to convey the message of Allah, and the Tablighis take this as their duty. They divide themselves into small Jamaats (societies) and travel frequently across the world to spread the message of Islam to Muslim houses
Subject: Science and tech
Itolizumab and Tocilizumab which are not yet been proven effective beyond doubt in reducing Covid-19 deathsare being considered for averting a cytokine storm in Covid patients.
- A cytokine storm is the hyper-reaction of the immune system, which then starts attacking the patient’s own organs and can prove fatal.
- Cytokines are signaling proteins that are released by cells at local high concentrations.
- It is characterised by the overproduction of immune cells and the cytokines themselves because of a dysregulation in the process.