Daily Prelims Notes 19 June 2020
- June 19, 2020
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Coal Gasification
- Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan
- UNSC Non-Permanent members and election
- Rule of Law Index
- Garib Kalyan Anna Yojna
- India China Agreement
- Rajya Sabha elections
- TrueNat test
Subject: Science and tech
Prime minister has announced target to gasify 100 million tonnes (MT) of coal by 2030 which will be a big boost to coal gasification in India and fulfil vision of ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ using clean coal technology.
- Coal gasification is the process of converting coal into synthesis gas (also called syngas), which is a mixture of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
- The syngas can be used in a variety of applications such as in the production of electricity and making chemical products, such as fertilisers
- The coal gasification process holds good potential in the future, with coal being the most abundantly available fossil fuel across the world, and that even low-grade coal can be used in the process.
- Underground coal gasification eliminates mining needs.
- Compared to traditional coal mining and processing, the underground coal gasification eliminates surface damage and solid waste discharge, and reduces sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.
- Underground combustion produces NO2 and SO2 and lowers emissions, including acid rain.
Despite hosting the world’s fourth-largest coal reserves, India imports around 235 million tonnes (mt) of coal a year which is second-largest in the world
Government launched a massive rural public works scheme ‘Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan’.
- The livelihood opportunities will come up in 116 districts spread over six states namely Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha who have received substantial numbers of migrants through the Common Service Centres and KrishiVigyanKendras
- This campaign of 125 days, which will work in mission mode, will involve intensified and focused implementation of 25 different types of works to provide employment to the migrant workers on one hand and create infrastructure in the rural regions of the country on the other hand, with a resource envelope of Rs. 50,000 crore.
- The Abhiyaan will be a coordinated effort between 12 different Ministries/Departments, namely, Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, Road Transport & Highways, Mines, Drinking Water & Sanitation, Environment, Railways, Petroleum & Natural Gas, New & Renewable Energy, Border Roads, Telecom and Agriculture.
India is elected to the non-permanent seat of the Security Council for the term 2021-22 with overwhelming support. India gets 184 out of the 192 valid votes polled
- The UNSC is composed of 15 members: five permanent members, and 10 non-permanent members who are elected by the General Assembly.
- The non-permanent members are elected for two-year terms — so every year, the General Assembly elects five non-permanent members out of the total 10.
- These 10 seats are distributed among the regions of the world: five seats for African and Asian countries; one for Eastern European countries; two for Latin American and Caribbean countries; and two for Western European and Other Countries.
- India has earlier been a non-permanent member of the Security Council in 1950-51, 1967-68, 1972-73, 1977-78, 1984-85, 1991-92 and 2011-12.
- Even a country has been endorsed by its group, it still needs to secure the votes of two-thirds of the members present and voting at the General Assembly session — which is a minimum of 129 votes, if all 193 member states participate.
The Supreme Court on writ petition refused to direct government to set up expert panels to boost India’s prospects in the Rule of Law Index
- The Rule of Law Index is a quantitative assessment tool by the World Justice Project (WJP) designed to offer a detailed and comprehensive picture of the extent to which countries adhere to the rule of law in practice.
- India ranked 69th in 2020 in the Rule of Law Index
- Index relies on more than 130,000 household and 4,000 expert surveys to measure how the rule of law is experienced and perceived by the general public worldwide. Index findings have been cited by heads of state, chief justices, business leaders, and public officials, including media coverage in more than 190 countries worldwide.
- It measures countries’ rule of law performance across nine factors: Constraints on Government Powers, Absence of Corruption, Open Government, Fundamental Rights, Order and Security, Regulatory Enforcement, Civil Justice, Criminal Justice and informal justice.
Punjab Chief Minister Amarinder Singh has urged centre to extend the benefits under the Pradhan MantriGarib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY) for another six months
- Scheme covers 80 crore individuals, i.e, roughly two-thirds of India’s population.
- Each one of them would be provided double of their current entitlement over next three months. This additionality would be free of cost.
- To ensure adequate availability of protein to all, 1 kg per family, would be provided pulses according to regional preferences for next three months. These pulses would be provided free of cost by the Government of India.
China through its military action at Galwan in Ladakh, which resulted in three killed on the Indian side, has violated three key bilateral agreements — 1993, 1996 and 2013 that have been central to maintaining peace and tranquility on the disputed Line of Actual Control.
- The 1993 agreement clearly states that in case personnel from either side cross the Line of Actual Control, “upon being cautioned by the other side, they shall immediately pull back to their side of the Line of Actual Control”.
- China has not done that either in Galwan or Pangong Tso.
- The 1993 agreement, in fact, clearly states that both sides will “jointly check” the alignment of LAC where there is a doubt.
- Three years later, both sides went into further specifics, making it clear that troops on both sides shall “exercise self-restraint” in case of a face-off situation and start “immediate consultations” through diplomatic channels.
- Article VI of the 1996 agreement between India and China on “Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) in the military field along the Line of Actual Control in the India China border areas” says, “Neither side shall open fire, cause bio degradation, use hazardous chemicals, conduct blast operations or hunt with guns or explosives within two kilometres from the line of actual control. This prohibition shall not apply to routine firing activities in small arms firing ranges.
- The two sides agree that they shall not follow or tail patrols of the other side in areas where there is no common understanding of the Line of Actual Control in the India-China border areas.”
Voting for 18 Rajya Sabha seats which deferred due to the nationwide lockdown held on June 19.
- Members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of the Assemblies of States and Union territories in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.
- Parliament passed a law in 2003 requiring MLAs to show their votes to their party before voting in a Rajya Sabha election, which made it open ballot.
- In 2003, Representation of People Act amended to done away with domicile requirement.
- In 2006, the Supreme Court said that the practice of cross voting would not attract the penalty under the anti-defection law.
8. TrueNat test
Subject: Science and tech
Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) approved the use of TrueNat machines, manufactured by a Goa-based company, for carrying out confirmatory tests for Covid-19 disease.
- The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes Covid-19, does not have a DNA, but an RNA molecule. The reverse transcription process (the RT in RT-PCR) converts the RNA into the DNA molecule before the gene can be captured in the test.
- The reverse transcription process (the RT in RT-PCR) converts the RNA into the DNA molecule before the gene can be captured in the test.
- Then, researchers can amplify certain regions of the genome by using a technique known as polymerase chain reaction.
- This, in effect, gives researchers a large sample that they can then compare to the new coronavirus, known as SARS-CoV-2.
- TrueNat is a chip-based, battery-operated RT-PCR kit
- In this process RNA is extracted. In the miniature well, the reagent activates the RNA, it is the chip that is fed with all the calculations of the viral load that helps in detecting whether a person is carrying the virus or not.
- Unlike in the conventional RT-PCR tests, the reagents do not require extreme temperatures in this process, and the quantity of swab required for testing is also much less.