Daily Prelims Notes 2 April 2021
- April 2, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
2 April 2021
Table Of Contents
- NATIONAL COMMISSION BACKWARD CLASSES
- C BAND SPECTRUM
- N – LRSI
- EXERCISE SHANTIR OGROSHENA
- DADASAHEB PHALKE AWARD
- FAIR & RENUMERATIVE PRICES
- DOCTRINE OF COLOURABLE LEGISLATION
Subject: International Organisations
Context: India Committed to Cooperation under BIMSTEC Framework: S Jaishankar
- The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is a regional multilateral organization.
- Its members lie in the littoral and adjacent areas of the Bay of Bengal constituting a contiguous regional unity.
- Out of the 7 members,
- Five are from South Asia – Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal,and Sri Lanka.
- Two are from Southeast Asia – Myanmar, Thailand.
- BIMSTEC not only connects South and Southeast Asia, but also the ecologies of the Great Himalayas and the Bay of Bengal.
- It mainly aims to create an enabling environment for rapid economic development; accelerate social progress; and promote collaboration on matters of common interest in the region.
Genesis of BIMSTEC
- This sub-regional organization came into being in 1997 through the Bangkok Declaration.
- Initially, it was formed with four Member States with the acronym ‘BIST-EC’ (Bangladesh, India, Sri-Lanka and Thailand Economic Cooperation).
- It became renamed ‘BIMST-EC’ in 1997, following the inclusion of Myanmar.
- With the admission of Nepal and Bhutan in 2004, the name of the grouping was changed to ‘Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation’ (BIMSTEC).
Subject : National Organisations
Context : Backward classes panel urges govt to carry out OBC count in Census .
- 102nd Constitution Amendment Act, 2018 provides constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC).
- It has the authority to examine complaints and welfare measures regarding socially and educationally backward classes.
- Previously NCBC was a statutory body under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.
Structure of NCBC
- The Commission consists of five members including a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal.
- The conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members is determined by President.
- Article 340 deals with the need to, inter alia, identify those “socially and educationally backward classes”, understand the conditions of their backwardness, and make recommendations to remove the difficulties they face.
- 102nd Constitution Amendment Act inserted new Articles 338 B and 342 A.
- The amendment also brings about changes in Article 366.
- Article 338B provides authority to NCBC to examine complaints and welfare measures regarding socially and educationally backward classes.
- Article 342 A empowers President to specify socially and educationally backward classes in various states and union territories. He can do this in consultation with Governor of concerned State. However, law enacted by Parliament will be required if list of backward classes is to be amended.
Powers and Functions
- The commission investigates and monitors all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the socially and educationally backward classes under the Constitution or under any other law to evaluate the working of such safeguards.
- It participates and advises on the socio-economic development of the socially and educationally backward classes and to evaluate the progress of their development under the Union and any State.
- It presents to the President, annually and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards. The President laid such reports before each House of Parliament.
- Where any such report or any part thereof, relates to any matter with which any State Government is concerned, a copy of such report shall be forwarded to the State Government.
- NCBC has to discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and development and advancement of the socially and educationally backward classes as the President may, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by rule specify.
- It has all the powers of a civil court while trying a suit.
Subject : Science & tech
Context : Intelsat reported a 7% drop in revenue for 2020 after declines in multiple business units, underlining the importance of C-band clearing proceeds for the satellite operator’s recovery efforts.
- The C band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz (GHz).
- However, this definition is the one used by radar manufacturers and users, not necessarily by microwave radio telecommunications users.
- The C band (4 to 8 GHz) is used for many satellite communications transmissions, some Wi-Fi devices, some cordless telephones as well as some surveillance and weather radar systems.
Subject : Important Reports
Context : M.P., West Bengal, Odisha top in land records digitisation: N-LRSI index
- NCAER (National Council of Applied Economic Research) has released India’s first land records and services index, which evaluates the quality of land records in the country and the extent of their digitalization.
- The N-LRSI( NCAER Land Record Services Index) aims at filling the gaps in economic research, policy analysis, and systematic data on land.
- Land access is a crucial factor for poverty alleviation and boosting economic growth. In order to resolve disputes and effectively use asset, land records are essential.
- The 2020 N-LRSI is based on data collected over 2019-20 on two aspects of the supply of land records: extent of digitalization and quality of land records.
- The first component, which aims to assess whether a state has made all its land records digitally available, has three dimensions—the text of the land records (also called the record of rights), the official map associated with a land , and the property registration process.
- The second component of the Index aims to assess if the land records are comprehensive and reliable–are ownership details updated as soon as a sale occurs, the extent of joint ownership, type of land use, land area on the record and on the map, and are encumbrances being recorded.
National Council for Applied and Economic Research (NCAER)
- Established in 1956, NCAER is India’s oldest and largest independent, non-profit, economic policy research institute.
- It is one of a handful of think tanks globally that combine rigorous analysis and policy outreach with deep data collection capabilities, especially for household surveys.
Subject : Defence
Context : Recently, the Ministry of Defence has announced that the Indian Army will participate in the Exercise Shantir Ogroshena-2021.
About Exercise ShantirOgroshena
- The Exercise ShantirOgroshena (Front Runner of the Peace) is a multinational military exercise.
- The 2021 edition of Exercise ShantirOgroshena will be held in Bangladesh to commemorate the birth centenary of Bangladesh ‘Father of the Nation’ Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
- The theme of the exercise is “Robust Peace Keeping Operations”.
- The military observers from USA, UK, Turkey, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Singapore will also be in attendance throughout the exercise.
- The participants of Exercise ShantirOgroshena -2021 will be the DOGRA Regiment of Indian Army along with contingent of Royal Bhutan Army, Sri Lankan Army and Bangladesh Army.
Subject : Current Events
Context : The Prime Minister Narendra Modi has congratulated Rajinikanth after he has been conferred with the DadasahebPhalke Award for the year 2019.
- DadasahebPhalke award is India’s highest award in cinema.
- It is presented annually at the National Film Awards ceremony by the Directorate of Film Festivals (an organisation set up by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting).
- The award prize consists of a golden lotus, a cash prize of ₹10 lakh and a shawl.
- The award is given to people for their “outstanding contribution to the growth and development of Indian cinema”.
- It was first presented in 1969. The first recipient of the award was actress Devika Rani, “the first lady of Indian cinema.”
- DadasahebPhalke (1870–1944), was an Indian film-maker who directed India’s first full-length feature film, Raja Harishchandra (1913).
- He is regarded as “the father of Indian cinema.”
Subject : Economy
Context : Maharashtra sugar mills demand transport subsidy, FRP payment in parts for survival of industry.
- Fair and remunerative price (FRP) is the minimum price at which rate sugarcane is to be purchased by sugar mills from farmers.
- The FRP is fixed by Union government on the basis of recommendations of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).
- The ‘FRP’ of sugarcane is determined under Sugarcane (Control) Order, 1966.
- Recommended FRP is arrived at by taking into account various factors (cost of production, demand-supply situation, domestic & international prices, inter-crop price parity etc.
- FRP assures margins to farmers, irrespective of whether sugar mills generate a profit or not.
- This will be uniformly applicable all over the country. Besides FRP, some states such as Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, UP and TN announce a State Advised Price, which is generally higher than the FRP.
Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP)
- The Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) is an attached office of the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India. It came into existence in January 1965.
- It is an advisory body whose recommendations are not binding on Government.
Subject : Economy
Context :Manipal Hospitals in talks to sell minority stake to govt-backed NIIF and raise around Rs 2,000 crore.
National Investment and Infrastructure Fund
- The government had set up the ₹40,000 crore NIIF in 2015 as an investment vehicle for funding commercially viable greenfield, brownfield and stalled infrastructure projects.
- The Indian government is investing 49% and the rest of the corpus is to be raised from third-party investors such as sovereign wealth funds, insurance and pension funds, endowments, etc.
- NIIF’s mandate includes investing in areas such as energy, transportation, housing, water, waste management and other infrastructure-related sectors in India.
- NIIF currently manages three funds each with its distinctive investment mandate. The funds are registered as Alternative Investment Fund (AIF) with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
The three funds are:
- Master Fund: It is an infrastructure fund with the objective of primarily investing in operating assets in the core infrastructure sectors such as roads, ports, airports, power etc.
- Fund of Funds: Managed by fund managers who have good track records in infrastructure and associated sectors in India. Some of the sectors of focus include Green Infrastructure, Mid-Income & Affordable Housing, Infrastructure services and allied sectors.
- Strategic Investment Fund: Is registered as an Alternative Investment Fund II under SEBI in India. The objective is to invest largely in equity and equity-linked instruments. It will focus on green field and brown field investments in the core infrastructure sectors.
Subject : Polity
Context: The Places of worship Act of 1991, is appropriately called an Act of colourable legislation. As the Courts have held, “you cannot do indirectly which you are prohibited from doing directly”.
Doctrine of Colourable Legislation
- Legislation is considered as colourable when a legislature having no power or legislative competence enacts legislation that is so camouflaging that it appears to fall within its legislative competence.
- The objective lies in the fact that what the legislature can’t legislate directly; it cannot go beyond its competency to legislate it indirectly. This principle is known as the doctrine of colourable legislation.