Daily Prelims Notes 2 June 2021
- June 2, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
2 June 2021
Table Of Contents
- SINOVAC GETS WHO EMERGENCY APPROVAL
- SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE TOWARDS AFFORDABLE TRANSPORTATION
- PRODUCTION LINKED INCENTIVE (PLI) SCHEME OF PHARMACEUTICALS
- SURGE IN FDI INFLOWS
- DCGI RELAXES NORMS FOR CLEARING VACCINES
- NOMINATION OF MEMBERS FOR RAJYA SABHA SEAT
- J&K MUFTI WHO TRANSLATED QURAN TO GOJRI, DIES
- CROSS REACTIVE CORONA VIRUS ANTIBODY
- ACQUISITION AND TERMINATION OF CITIZENSHIP
- COMMITTEE ON VARIABLE CAPITAL COMPANY
- RDSO BECOMES FIRST INSTITUTION TO BE DECLARED AS SDO UNDER ONE NATION ONE STANDARD MISSION
Subject: Science & tech
Context: Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has approved China’s Sinovac Covid vaccine for emergency use.
About Sinovac Vaccine
- It is an inactivated vaccine.
- It works by using killed viral particles to expose the body’s immune system to the virus without risking a serious disease response.
- The Beijing-based biopharmaceutical company Sinovac is behind the CoronaVac.
- It is the second Chinese vaccine to receive the green light from the WHO, after Sinopharm.
- It is a more traditional method of vaccine that is successfully used in many well-known vaccines like rabies.
- One of Sinovac’s main advantages is that it can be stored in a standard refrigerator at 2-8 degrees Celsius.
- It implies that Sinovac is a lot more useful to developing countries which might not be able to store large amounts of vaccine at low temperatures.
- The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization recommends the vaccine for use in adults 18 years and older, in a two-dose schedule with a spacing of two to four weeks.
Subject: Government Schemes
Context: Recently, the Union Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas & Steel presided over a virtual ceremony in which a number of initiatives were launched to provide major fillip to the SATAT initiative.
- A Cooperation Agreement was signed by Oil and Gas majors including Indian Oil, HPCL, BPCL, GAIL and IGL, for the promotion and development of the SATAT.
- The Cooperation agreement provides for establishing a strong network for marketing the entire produced quantity of CBG Plants through various channels.
- It was launched in 2018 by the Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas in association with Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd.
- It envisages targeting production of 15 MMT of CBG from 5000 plants by 2023.
- It aims to set up Compressed Bio-Gas production plants and make CBG available in the market for use as a green fuel.
Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG)
- Bio-gas is produced naturally (through a process of anaerobic decomposition) from waste / bio-mass sources like agriculture residue, cattle dung, sugarcane press mud, municipal solid waste, sewage treatment plant waste, etc.
- After purification, it is compressed and called CBG, which has high methane content.
- It is exactly similar to the commercially available natural gas in its composition and energy potential.
- It can be used as an alternative, renewable automotive fuel with similar calorific value and other properties similar to CNG.
Subject: Government Schemes
Context: Government of India issued Operational guidelines for Production Linked Incentive Scheme of Pharmaceuticals. The scheme is now open to applications from the industry.
- With an aim to enhance India’s manufacturing capabilities by increasing investment and production in the sector and to contribute to product diversification to high value goods in the pharmaceutical sector, Department of Pharmaceuticals notified the ‘Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for Pharmaceuticals’ 3rd March, 2021.
- The approved outlay of the scheme is Rs 15000 crore.
- The applications are invited in three groups based on the Global Manufacturing Revenue of FY 2019-20 of the applicants. A special carve out for MSMEs has been kept under the scheme.
- All the applications will be submitted through an online portal maintained by SIDBI, the Project Management Agency for the scheme.
- The eligible products have been categorized into three categories. The products covered under the scheme are formulations, biopharmaceuticals, active pharmaceutical ingredients, key starting material, drug intermediates, in-vitro diagnostic medical devices, etc.
- The category-1 and category-2 products attract 10% incentive and category-3 products attract 5% incentive on the incremental sales. Incremental sales of a product mean sales of that product in a year over and above the sales of that product in FY 2019-2020.
Context: Recently, the Ministry of Commerce & Industry has announced that in a pandemic-ravaged year, India managed to rake in the highest ever foreign direct investment during financial year 2020-21 at $81.72 billion.
- Singapore was the biggest investor in India last fiscal, accounting for 29 per cent FDI, followed by the United States at 23 per cent and Mauritius at 9 per cent.
- The US and UK reported 227 per cent and 44 per cent year-on-year increase in FDI in India during FY21.
- Out of top 10 countries, Saudi Arabia was the top investor in terms of percentage increase during FY21.
- It invested $2,816.08 million in comparison to $89.93 million reported in the previous financial year.
- Among states, Gujarat received the highest FDI at 37 per cent of the total equity inflows.
- Maharashtra and Karnataka had the second and third highest flow at 27 per cent and 13 per cent, respectively.
- The computer software and hardware segment received the most FDI in FY21, accounting for 44 per cent of total FDI equity inflow.
Significance of increase in FDI inflows
- It reflects the confidence of international investors in India’s market as FDI inflows play an important role as India faces huge infrastructure funding requirements to boost growth.
- Increased Employment and Economic Growth: The increased FDI boosts the manufacturing as well as the services sector which in turn creates jobs, and helps reduce unemployment among the educated youth.
- Human Resource Development: The skills gained and enhanced through training and experience boost the education and human capital quotient of the country.
- Development of Backward Areas: The FDI enables the transformation of backward areas in a country into industrial centres which in turn provides a boost to the social economy of the area.
- Provision of Finance & Technology: The introduction of newer, enhanced technologies and processes results in their diffusion into the local economy, resulting in enhanced efficiency and effectiveness of the industry.
- Increase in Exports: The creation of 100% Export Oriented Units and Economic Zones have further assisted FDI investors in boosting their exports from other countries.
- Exchange Rate Stability: The constant flow of FDI into a country translates into a continuous flow of foreign exchange which helps the country’s Central Bank maintain a comfortable reserve of foreign exchange.
Context: India’s apex drug regulator Tuesday waived the requirement for foreign companies to conduct post-launch bridging trials and test the quality and stability of their Covid-19 vaccines here if they have approvals from specific countries or health bodies
Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI)
- DCGI under gamut of Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) is responsible for approval of licenses of specified categories of drugs such as blood and blood products, vaccines, IV fluids and sera in India.
- DCGI lays down standards and quality of manufacturing, selling, import and distribution of drugs in India.
- It acts as appellate authority in case of any dispute regarding quality of drugs.
- It prepares and maintains national reference standard.
- It brings about uniformity in enforcement of Drugs and Cosmetics Act.
- It trains Drug Analysts deputed by State Drug Control Laboratories and other Institutions.
Context: After an unsuccessful contest for a seat in the West Bengal Assembly, Swapan Dasgupta, who had resigned from his nominated membership of the Rajya Sabha to fight the elections on a BJP ticket, was Tuesday re-nominated to the Upper House.
Nominated members in RS
- Article 80(1)(a) of Constitution of India makes provision for the nomination of 12 members to the Rajya Sabha by the President of India in accordance with provisions of Arts.80(3).
- Article80(3) says that the persons to be nominated as members must be possessing special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following namely : Literature, science, art and social service.
- As per the Fourth Schedule to the Constitution of India on 26 January 1950, the Rajya Sabha was to consist of 216 members of which 12 members were to be nominated by the President and the remaining 204 elected to represent the States.
- The present strength, however, is 245 members of whom 233 are representatives of the states and union territories and 12 are nominated by the President.
- The Rajya Sabha is not subject to dissolution; one-third of its members retire every second year.
- The 12 nominated members of the Rajya Sabha are persons who are eminent in particular fields, and are well known contributors in the particular field.
- The nominated members are usually amongst persons having special knowledge or practical experience in literature, science, art and social service.
Subject : Culture
Context : Mufti Faiz-ul-Waheed, a renowned Islamic scholar who was the first to translate the Quran into the Gojri language and helped hundreds of tribal students pursue medical and engineering education across Jammu and Kashmir, died of post-Covid.
- Spoken by the Gujjars and Bakerwals of J&K, Gojri, which is not taught at school, continues to be marginal even though its speakers are the third largest ethnic group in the state after the Kashmiris and the Dogras.
- Gujjars and Bakerwals are the third largest ethnic group after the Kashmiris and the Dogras.
- About 20 percent of the total population of 1.25 crore speak Gojri, which, along with 38 languages in India, clamours for inclusion into the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.
- The government of India is obliged to develop an 8th Schedule language so that “it grows rapidly in richness and becomes effective means of communicating modern knowledge”.
- Gujjar Tribe is found in India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
- Although traditionally they have been involved in agriculture (most famously, dairy and livestock farming).
- Gurjars are a large heterogeneous group that is internally differentiated in terms of culture, religion, occupation, and socio-economic status.
- They variously follow Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism.
- Gurjars are linguistically and religiously diverse.
- Although they are able to speak the language of the region and country where they live, Gurjars have their own language, known as Gujari.
- The communities have also developed fluency in other languages such as Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi, Pastho, Pahari languages like Kangri and Dogri.
- The Gujjar are an endogamous community but observe exogamy at the clan and, often, village levels.
- The Bakarwal (also Bakharwal, Bakrawallah and Bakerwal) are a mostly Muslim nomadic tribe based in the PirPanjal and Himalayan mountains of South Asia.
- They are traditionally, and still mainly, goatherds and shepherds.
- They reside in the entire Kashmir region between India and Pakistan, and in the Nuristan province of Afghanistan.
Subject : Science & tech
Context : In a new study that appears in Nature Communications, scientists investigated how the immune system’s previous exposure to cold-causing coronaviruses impact immune response to Covid-19
- Besides SARS-CoV-2, which causes Covid-19, there are other coronaviruses that people are exposed to. Some of them cause less severe illnesses, such as the common cold.
- They discovered one cross-reactive coronavirus antibody that’s triggered during a Covid-19 infection.
- In later tests, the antibody also neutralised SARS-CoV-1, the coronavirus that causes SARS.
- The researchers determined that this type of cross-reactive antibody is likely produced by a memory B cell that’s initially exposed to a coronavirus that causes the common cold, and is then recalled during a COVID-19 infection.
- Memory B cells “remember” initial disease threats and can circulate in the bloodstream for decades, ready to be called back into action if the threat emerges again.
- These cells are responsible for producing targeted antibodies.
Subject : Polity
Context : The citizenship of fugitive businessman MehulChoksi, whose purported ‘eloping’ to Dominica from Antigua where he had fled to escape the Indian law in 2018 after an alleged multicrore scam, holds the key to his extradition back home.
- The Citizenship Act, 1955 has rules for acquisition and loss of citizenship in India. Articles 5 to 11 in Part 2 of the Indian constitution has the provisions of citizenship.
Acquisition and Determination of Indian Citizenship
- There are four ways in which Indian citizenship can be acquired: birth, descent, registration and naturalisation. The provisions are listed under the Citizenship Act, 1955.
- By Birth:
- Every person born in India on or after 26.01.1950 but before 01.07.1987 is an Indian citizen irrespective of the nationality of his/her parents.
- Every person born in India between 01.07.1987 and 02.12.2004 is a citizen of India given either of his/her parents is a citizen of the country at the time of his/her birth.
- Every person born in India on or after 3.12.2004 is a citizen of the country given both his/her parents are Indians or at least one parent is a citizen and the other is not an illegal migrant at the time of birth.
- By Registration: Citizenship can also be acquired by registration. Some of the mandatory rules are:
- A person of Indian origin who has been a resident of India for 7 years before applying for registration.
- A person of Indian origin who is a resident of any country outside undivided India.
- A person who is married to an Indian citizen and is ordinarily resident for 7 years before applying for registration.
- Minor children of persons who are citizens of India.
- By Descent:
- A person born outside India on or after January 26, 1950 is a citizen of India by descent if his/her father was a citizen of India by birth.
- A person born outside India on or after December 10, 1992, but before December 3, 2004 if either of his/her parent was a citizen of India by birth.
- If a person born outside India or or after December 3, 2004 has to acquire citizenship, his/her parents have to declare that the minor does not hold a passport of another country and his/her birth is registered at an Indian consulate within one year of birth.
- By Naturalisation:
- A person can acquire citizenship by naturalisation if he/she is ordinarily resident of India for 12 years (throughout 12 months preceding the date of application and 11 years in the aggregate) and fulfils all qualifications in the third schedule of the Citizenship Act.
- The Act does not provide for dual citizenship or dual nationality. It only allows citizenship for a person listed under the provisions above ie: by birth, descent, registration or naturalisation.
Termination of Indian Citizenship
- The Citizenship Act, 1955 cites three reasons for the termination of citizenship;
- Voluntary Renunciation
- By Termination
- By Deprivation
Subject : Economics
Context : Recently, the expert committee on Variable Capital Company (VCC) submits its report to the International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA).
- The Committee of Experts to examine the feasibility of the Variable Capital Company (VCC) was constituted by International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA).
- It aims to examine the suitability of the Variable Capital Company as a vehicle for fund management in the International Financial Services Centre in India.
- It was set up to explore the potential for allowing another legal structure i.e. variable capital company (VCC) as an additional option through which asset managers could pool the investors’ funds.
- It examined the relevance and adaptability of the VCC for the IFSC in India or alternative structures to attract fund business in the IFSC.
The pooling of funds in India is undertaken through three types of entities, namely:
- Limited liability companies governed under the Companies Act, 2013;
- Limited liability partnerships under the Limited Liability Partnership Act; and
- Trusts governed under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882.
Variable Capital Company (VCC)
- It is a new corporate structure for investment funds.
- It has a variable capital structure that provides flexibility in the issuance and redemption of its shares.
- It can be set up as a single standalone fund or an umbrella fund with two or more sub-funds, each holding a portfolio of segregated assets and liabilities.
- It is basically an alternative form of corporate vehicle that dispenses with some of the key limitations of companies and LLPs.
- It can be used for both open-ended and closed ended alternative and traditional fund strategies.
Subject : Government Schemes
Context : Recently, the Research Design & Standards Organization (RDSO) of Indian Railways has become the first institution to be declared SDO (Standard Developing Organization) under “One Nation One Standard” mission.
One Nation One Standard Mission
- It is a scheme which provides for “Recognition of SDO”.
- It is an initiative of Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).
- It is envisioned on the line of ‘one nation one ration card’ in order to ensure quality products in India.
Significance of One Nation One Standard Mission
- It aims at aggregating and integrating the existing capabilities and dedicated domain specific expertise available with various organizations in the country engaged in standards development.
- It will enable convergence of all standard development activities in the country resulting in “One National Standard for One Subject”.
- It aims to usher in more faster transition from development of technology & innovation stage to actual use on ground.
- It aims to make India the leader in setting global benchmarks in setting standards.
About Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)
- It is the National Standard Body of India established under the BIS Act 2016.
- It came into existence, through an act of parliament in 1987.
- It is established for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization and marking and quality certification of goods.