Daily Prelims Notes 21 August 2022
- August 21, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
21 August 2022
Table Of Contents
- The principle of lis alibi pendens and Forum non conveniens
- Grameen Udyami
- Parliamentary ST Cluster Development Project
- What is India’s policy on the Rohingya?
- Improving rice yield with an additional gene
- Rs 6250-cr IPO was approved: PharmEasy’s parent company withdraws DRHP
- Himachal Pradesh prone to natural disasters, says study
- Tamils & the many wars of Independence: pre-1857
Context: The Madras High court only the Karnataka High Court can decide a dispute related to removing a Bengaluru medical college from the ambit of a deemed-to-be university in Chennai.
- Federalism is a part of the basic structure of the Constitution and it applies to the judiciary as well.
- A High Court in one State cannot exercise powers which, under normal circumstances, can be exercised only by the High Court in another State,
The principle of Forumnon conveniens
- Forum non conveniens is a common law legal doctrine through which a court acknowledges that another forum or a court where the case might have been brought is a more appropriate venue for a legal case and transfers the case to such a forum.
- A concern often raised in applications of the doctrine is forum shopping or picking a court merely to gain advantage in a proceeding.
The principle of lis alibi pendens
- The principle of lis alibi pendens (a dispute pending elsewhere) applies to address the problem of potentially contradictory judgments.
- If two courts were to hear the same dispute, it is possible for them to reach inconsistent decisions.
- Lis alibi pendens arises from the international comity and it permits a court to refuse exercising jurisdiction when there is a parallel litigation pending in another jurisdiction.
- The ‘2019 ambit notification’ passed by the Union Ministry of Education declaring that the Bengaluru college would fall within the ambit of the Chennai university.
- The State government had also filed a writ petition before the Karnataka High Court in 2020, challenging the ‘2019 ambit notification’ .A joint writ petition filed against the withdrawal of the ‘2019 ambit notification’
- The Karnataka High court rejected the argument that a part of cause of action had arisen in Chennai due of the location of the university and therefore, the Madras High Court could entertain the case.
- The Madras High court only the Karnataka High Court can decide a dispute related to removing a Bengaluru medical college from the ambit of a deemed-to-be university in Chennai.
- The appropriate court for deciding the lis (dispute) is the Karnataka High Court
Context: Grameen Udyami Project launched in Ranchi to promote skill development and Entrepreneurship amongst the tribal youth, gives boost to Skill India Mission
- Grameen Udyami is a unique multiskilling project, funded by NSDC that aims to train 450 tribal students in Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand.
- The project is being implemented in six states— Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Gujarat. This concept was crystallized by MoS, Shri. Rajeev Chandrasekhar and tribal MPs.
- Grameen Udyami Yojana is implemented under Sansadiya Parisankul Yojana.
The training under the project will be conducted in the following Job roles which are relevant to the local economy.
- Electrician & Solar PV Installation Technician
- Plumbing & Masonry
- 2-Wheeler Repair & Maintenance
- IT/ITES with e-Governance
- Farm Mechanization
Concept: The conference of Honorable MPs was held in Mumbai to discuss the upliftment of tribal communities in January 2020
- Scheduled Tribe organizations called for a ‘Parliamentary ST Cluster Development Project’ which has been initiated in The conference of Honorable MPs was held in Mumbai to discuss the upliftment of tribal communities in January 2020
- Under which, 49 clusters in 15 states of India have been selected by 40 tribal MPs of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. One development associate is appointed by the MPs in each cluster.
Following objectives must be achieved under the project:
- Increase in Rural/Local Economy
- Enhance employment opportunities
- Reduce forced migration due to lack of local opportunities
- Conservation of natural resources
Subject : Polity
Context: Officially, about 1,200 Rohingya have been identified as among the first batch to have arrived in Delhi in 2012. After they protested outside the UNHCR (UN Refugee Agency) office in Delhi, they were provided with refugee cards.
- The Foreigners Regional Registration Office (FRRO), responsible for tracking foreigners and their visas, has been requesting space at a new location for the Rohingya from the Delhi government since 2021. The FRRO is under the administrative control of the MHA.
What is the process of deportation?
- According to the MHA, illegal immigrants are detected, detained and deported under provisions of the Passport Act, 1920 or the Foreigners Act, 1946.
- The powers to identify and deport them have also been delegated to State governments and Union Territories. Once a ‘foreigner’ has been apprehended by the police for staying illegally, without any document, he or she is produced before the local court. If the accused is found guilty, they can be imprisoned for three months to eight years. After completing their sentence, the court orders deportation. The foreign inmates are moved to detention centres till the country of origin verifies and accepts them.
What is India’s stand on refugees?
- India is not a signatory to the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and the 1967 Protocol. All foreign undocumented nationals are governed as per the provisions of The Foreigners Act, 1946,The Registration of Foreigners Act, 1939,The Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 and The Citizenship Act, 1955.
- The MHA informed Parliament on April 5 that “foreign nationals who enter into the country without valid travel documents are treated as illegal immigrants.” In 2016, Mr. Rijiju told the Lok Sabha that “there is no national law on refugees at present. Only Standard Operating Procedures are issued by the MHA to deal with foreign nationals in India, who claim to be refugees.”
- The e-FRRO scheme is aimed at building a centralized, transparent online platform for the foreigners to avail visa related services and to provide Faceless, Cashless and Paperless services to the foreigners with user friendly experience.
- Under the scheme, foreigners would be able to get as many as 27 Visa and Immigration related services in India from the comfort of their place of stay. Using the e-FRRO application, foreigners can apply online on the portal and obtain the service(s) through email/post without appearing in person at the FRO/FRRO office.
- The Constitution deals with citizenship from Articles 5 to 11 under Part II. However, it contains neither any permanent nor any elaborate provisions in this regard.
- It only identifies the persons who became citizens of India on 26th January 1950 (i.e. when the Constitution commenced).
- It empowers the Parliament to enact a law to provide for matters relating to citizenship. Accordingly, the Parliament has enacted the Citizenship Act, 1955, which has been recently amended in 2015.
Subject :Science and Technology
- The Green Revolution of the 1960s brought about a marked improvement in the yield of agricultural crops such as rice and wheat.
- New Research report points out that giving a Chinese rice variety a second copy of one of its own genes has boosted its yield by up to 40%.
- When a second copy of a single gene (called OsDREB1C) is added to rice, it improves photosynthesis and nitrogen use, speeds up flowering and absorbing nitrogen more efficiently — offering larger and more abundant grains.
- A key point is that the researchers have added the same gene again, and not any foreign one.
- This is best described as genetic modulation. It is not a genetic modification (GM) and neither is the result a transgenic plant, carrying elements from another donor.
GM crop Regulation in India
- India has exempted crops with certain kinds of genetic modifications from the regulations previously imposed on the commercialisation of all genetically modified crops
- For example, BT cotton involves the transfer of the gene from the bacterium called Bacillusthurigiensis (BT) to be transferred to normal cotton.
- India’s Agriculture Ministry has pointed out in 2019 that they have allowed transfer of this foreign gene to normal cotton, produce the BT cotton, which is then manufactured and sold both in India and abroad.
- Rice is a staple food for most of the population in India.
- It is a kharif crop which requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall above 100 cm.
- In the areas of less rainfall, it is grown with the help of irrigation.
- In southern states and West Bengal, the climatic conditions allow the cultivation of two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year.
- In West Bengal farmers grow three crops of rice called ‘aus’, ‘aman’ and ‘boro’.
- About one-fourth of the total cropped area in India is under rice cultivation.
- Leading producer states: West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab.
- High Yielding States: Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, West Bengal and Kerala.
- India is the second-largest producer of rice after China.
- India is the world’s largest exporter of rice. It exported 18.75 million metric tons to over 150 countries during the year 2021-22, thereby earning $6.11 billion.
Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee
- The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) functions under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC).
- It is responsible for the appraisal of activities involving large-scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recombinants in research and industrial production from the environmental angle.
- The committee is also responsible for the appraisal of proposals relating to the release of genetically engineered (GE) organisms and products into the environment including experimental field trials.
- GEAC is chaired by the Special Secretary/Additional Secretary of MoEF&CC and co-chaired by a representative from the Department of Biotechnology (DBT).
Section: Money Market
Context: Fearing volatility in stock markets, API Holdings, the parent company of healthtech unicorn PharmEasy, has withdrawn its draft red herring prospectus (DRHP) that it had filed with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi), the company informed its shareholders in a note.
What is DRHP?
- A Draft Red Herring Prospectus (DRHP) is a legal preliminary document. It serves as an important communication link between the IPO-bound company and its investors and stakeholders.
- A company which wants to raise funds from public via public issues is needed to file a draft prospectus with SEBI(Securities and Exchange Board of India).
- This prospectus has most information related to company’s operations, its directors, its past record etc. except some key details such as issue price. There is a bold disclaimer which mentions that the information is preliminary and subject to change.
What SEBI does with DRHP?
- SEBI reviews and ensures that adequate disclosures are made by the issuer to enable investors to make an informed investment decision in the issue.
- It must be clearly understood that SEBI does not ‘vet’ and ‘approve’ the offer Also, SEBI does not recommend the shares or guarantee the accuracy or adequacy of DRHP.
- SEBI’S observations on the draft offer document are forwarded to the merchant banker, who incorporates the necessary changes and files the final offer document with SEBI, Registrar of Companies (RoC) and stock exchanges.
- After reviewing the DRHP, the market regulator gives its observations which need to be implemented by the company. Once the observations are implemented, it gets final approval & the document then becomes RHP (Red Herring Prospectus).
- When RHP’s registration with RoC becomes effective, a final prospectus which contains IPO price and issue size is released.
Section: Physical Geography Context:
Context: As Himachal Pradesh experiences the fury of nature in the form of landslides, cloud bursts, flash floods, snow avalanches and droughts year after year, natural hazards have become a matter of immediate concern, the hilly region’s latest State of Environment report shows.
The report, released by the Department of Environment, Science and Technology.
What is Landslide?
A landslide is defined as the movement of a mass of rock, debris, or earth, down a slope due to the action of gravity. Areas with steep slopes, for example, mountainous regions, are particularly susceptible to landslide hazards. Earth flow, mass movement, mudflow, rotational slip, and avalanches are all examples of landslides.
Types of Landslides
- Falls: It happens due to the abrupt movements of the mass of geologic materials, such as rocks and boulders, that become detached from steep slopes or cliffs.
- Topples: It happens due to the forward rotation of a unit or units about some pivotal point, under the actions of gravity and forces exerted by adjacent units or by fluids in cracks.
- Slides: In this type, rocks, debris, or soil slide through slope forming material.
- Spread: It usually occurs on very gentle slopes or flat terrain.
NDMA Landslide Zonation Map of India
National Landslide Risk Management Strategy
- National Landslide Risk Management Strategy was made by NDMA.
- It clearly brings out the message for the need to strengthen and mainstream landslide disaster preparedness, mitigation, response and relief mechanism through mapping, early warning system (EWS), awareness generation, capacity building, formulation of mountain zone regulations / policies and mitigation of problematic landslides.
National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)
- The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) was constituted under an Act of Parliament with a vision to play the role of a premier institute for capacity development in India and the region.
- The efforts in this direction that began with the formation of the National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM) in 1995 gained impetus with its redesignation as the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) for training and capacity development.
- Under the Disaster Management Act 2005, NIDM has been assigned nodal responsibilities for human resource development, capacity building, training, research, documentation and policy advocacy in the field of disaster management.
Geological Survey of India (GSI),Ministry of Mines in collaboration with the British Geological Survey (BGS) under the National Environmental Research Council (NERC), UK funded, multi-consortium LANDSLIP project has developed a prototype regional Landslide Early Warning System (LEWS) for India, and the same is currently being evaluated and tested by GSI in two pilot areas in India(Darjeeling district. West Bengal, and the Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu).GSI has not developed any early warning system for glacier related disasters in the country. GSI has conducted studies on melting of the glaciers by assessment of mass balance studies and monitoring the recession/ advancement of selected Himalayan glaciers.
GSI through the LANDSLIP project is engaged in developing an experimental regional Landslide Early Warning System (LEWS) based on rainfall thresholds since 2017. The LANDSLIP research has developed a prototype model in 2020 based on the terrain-specific rainfall thresholds for two test areas (Darjeeling district, West Bengal, and the Nilgiris district, Tamil Nadu).
LANDSLIP has been funded under the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC)/Department for International Development (DFID) Science for Humanitarian Emergencies & Resilience (SHEAR) programme.
SHEAR aims to support improved disaster resilience and humanitarian response by advancing monitoring, assessment and prediction of natural hazards and risks across sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, and, through working with users, bringing this into use to reduce the impacts of disasters.
Subject : History
Section: Modern History
In his Independence Day speech, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M K Stalin chronicled the lives of a dozen Tamil freedom fighters, each of whom took on the British in their own Dravidian territories before 1857 — the year that is usually marked as the start of the Indian freedom struggle.
- Stalin began with the story of PuliThevar, who ruled Nerkattumseval, near Tenkasi in southern Tamil Nadu, and who, in 1755, told the East India Company that “not even a grain can be paid as tax”.
‘Maaveeran (Great Warrior)’ Marudhanayagam
- Another historical character Stalin spoke about was ‘Maaveeran (Great Warrior)’ Marudhanayagam, a 17th-century warrior who emerged as a commander of sepoys under the British, served as the ‘governor’ of Madurai and even defeated Hyder Ali in a battle.
- In 1764, Marudhanayagam, from Panaiyur adjacent to Sivagangai, took on the British in a spirited battle and was killed in 1764 after he refused to surrender.
- Kattabomman, an 18th-century king of Panchalankurichi in Tamil Nadu, is a household name in the state, someone whose daring resistance to the East India Company is often invoked to arouse Tamil pride.
- In 1799, Kattabomman was hanged to death for waging a war against the British. In his speech, Stalin had quoted Kattabomman, who famously said, “Ask me to donate, I will. Ask me to pay tax, I will not.”
- He fought 1st Poligar war against British in 1799.
Sundaralingam and Vadivu
- Sundaralingam, captain of Kattabomman’s army, and his cousin Vadivu, who had launched a suicide attack on the British.
- The first Indian queen who fought the British
- She mobilised a battalion of women to capture Sivagangai from the British.
- VeluNachiyar’s army commander, who set herself ablaze and jumped into the armoury of the East India company — and who is often called the “first woman martyr” in Indian history.
ChinnaMarudhu and PeriyaMarudhu
- They were brothers who faced British cannons with their valaris (a traditional, deadly weapon shaped like a boomerang).
DheeranChinnamalai and Pollan
- DheeranChinnamalai who was sent to the gallows in 1805, and his captain and spy, Pollan, who was shot dead by the British.
- Chinnamalai is one of the commanders in the Polygar Wars, notably during the Second Polygar War that took place in 1801–1802
- The Vellore Mutiny predated the Indian Revolt of 1857 by about 50 years. It erupted on 10th July 1806 in Vellore, present-day Tamil Nadu, and lasted only for a day, but it was brutal and shook the British East India Company. It was the first major mutiny by the Indian sepoys in the East India Company.
- The immediate causes of the mutiny revolved mainly around resentment felt towards changes in the sepoy dress code, introduced in November 1805. Hindus were prohibited from wearing religious marks on their foreheads while on duty, and Muslims were required to shave their beards and trim their moustaches.