Daily Prelims Notes 22 September 2022
- September 22, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
22 September 2022
Table Of Contents
- ISRO successfully tests hybrid propulsion system to aid future technologies
- Green Firecrackers
- National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease and Stroke
- Live Streaming for SC proceedings
- Ratan Tata, Justice KT Thomas and former LS Deputy Speaker Kariya Munda have joined PM CARES Fund as trustees
- Ecosystem services
- Chief Justice of India as the Master of Roaster
- Supreme Court bench relating to the procedural norms for imposing the death sentence.
Subject: Science & technology
Context: ISRO had successfully demonstrated a hybrid propulsion system that used a solid fuel and liquid oxidiser.
- The test was conducted at ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC) at Mahendragiri, in Tamil Nadu supported by Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC).
- The motor used liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidizer and Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) as fuel.
- The 30kN hybrid motor tested at IPRC is scalable and stackable.
- Using liquids helps in throttling and control over the flow rate of LOX.
- Unlike conventional solid motors, hybrid technology permits restarting and throttling capabilities on the motor.
- Although both HTPB and LOX are green, LOX is safer to handle.
- Unlike solid-solid or liquid-liquid combinations, a hybrid motor utilizes solid fuel and liquid oxidizer.
- The test aims to discover a new propulsion system for the upcoming launch vehicles.
Subject : Science & technology
Context: Amid the ban on crackers till January 1, 2023, Delhi traders ask for an exemption on green firecrackers.
About Green Crackers
- Green crackers’ are low-emission fireworks. Green crackers were researched and developed by CSIR-NEERI (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research – National Environmental Engineering Research Institute).
- Green Crackers do not comprise of harmful chemicals like arsenic, lithium, barium, and lead.
- They release water vapour which does not allow the dust to rise and thereby reducing the emissions.
- The manufacturing cost of these crackers will almost be the same, or may even cost less than the traditional crackers
- To differentiate green crackers from the regular ones, the system of Quick Response (QR) coding has been developed
- These green crackers have been named based on the three: Safe Water Releaser (SWAS), Safe Thermite Cracker (STAR), and Safe Minimal Aluminium (SAFAL)
- These crackers are believed to cause 30 per cent less particulate matter pollution as compared to traditional crackers.
- The approval for these crackers is given by Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation (PESO), Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industries.
Subject : Health
About NPCDCS Scheme
- The objective of the NPCDCS scheme to increase awareness of risk factors, to set up infrastructure (like NCD clinics, cardiac care units) and to carry out opportunistic screening at primary health care levels.
- In response to the WHO Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020,India is the first country to adopt the National Action Plan with specific national targets and indicators aimed at reducing the number of global premature deaths from NCDs by 25% by 2025.
- Integration of NPCDCS with the National Health Mission (NHM) resulted into augmented infrastructure and human resources particularly in the form of frontline workers- the ANM and the Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA).
- Prevention and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic Kidney disease (CKD), and better management of co-morbidities such as diabetes and tuberculosis are also considered under the programme.
- Integration of Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH) NPCDCS is a further step for promoting healthy lifestyle changes among the population.
- Health promotion through social media is also being used to generate awareness about prevention and control of NCDs, such as use of mobile technology in applications called mDiabetes for diabetes control, mCessation to help quit tobacco, and no more tension as a support for mental stress management.
About Non-Communicable diseases (NCDs)
- Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are medical conditions or diseases that are not caused by infectious agents.
- These are chronic diseases of long duration, and generally slow progression and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors.
- These diseases are those chronic conditions that lead to high levels of disability and death among children, adolescents and young adults if left undiagnosed or untreated.
- NCDs include heart diseases, cancers, diabetes, asthma among others.
- Globally, NCDs are the main cause of morbidity and mortality.
- They account for 71% of global mortality, according to World Health organisation (WHO).
Subject : Polity
Context: History was made on August 26 when the proceedings from the Chief Justice’s Court in the Supreme Court (SC) were live streamed..
- In the Swapnil Tripathi judgment, in September 2018, the SC had cleared the deck for live streaming of cases of national and constitutional importance.
- It held that the live streaming proceedings is part of the right to access justice under Article 21 of the Constitution.
Rationale behind the move
- The case for live streaming of SC cases of constitutional/national importance is quite strong.
- Such cases impact various aspects of people’s lives.
- Therefore, the public’s ability to participate in this conversation by watching these proceedings will increase legal literacy.
- It will also potentially enhance the public’s continuous engagement with the Constitution and laws.
- Such direct engagement is better than a process mediated through some Delhi-based lawyers or court reporters, especially when inexpensive technology allows such live access.
- An argument in favour of live streaming is that it will bring discipline and improve how judges and lawyers conduct the proceedings, as they are aware that the public is watching.
Areas of Concern
- The live streaming of the Courts are susceptible to abuses.
- It can involve national security concerns and can amount to a violation of the fundamental right to privacy in matrimonial disputes and rape cases.
- The unauthorised reproduction of the live streaming videos is another cause for concern as its regulation will be very difficult at the government’s end.
- Concerns have also been raised about the commercial aspect of the whole issue. The agreements with broadcasters should be on a non-commercial basis. No one should profit from the arrangement.
- Infrastructure, specially internet connectivity is also the biggest challenge in implementing the live proceedings of Courts.
- The e-Courts mission project was conceptualized on the basis of the “National Policy and Action Plan for Implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Indian Judiciary – 2005” submitted by e-Committee, Supreme Court of India with a vision to transform the Indian Judiciary by ICT enablement of Courts.
- The e-Courts project, is a Pan-India project, monitored and funded by the Department of Justice, Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India for the District Courts across the country.
Subject: Government Schemes
- Prime Minister’s Citizen Assistance and Relief in Emergency Situations Fund, or the PM CARES Fund, was set up to tackle distress situations such as that posed by the COVID19 pandemic.
- The fund receives voluntary contributions from individuals and organisations and does not get any budgetary support. Donations have been made tax exempt, and can be counted against a company’s corporate social responsibility (CSR)
- It is also exempt from the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010, and accepts foreign contributions, although the Centre has previously refused foreign aid to deal with disasters such as the Kerala floods.
- The Prime Minister chairs the fund in his official capacity, and can nominate three eminent persons in relevant fields to the Board of Trustees. The Ministers of Defense, Home Affairs and Finance are ex officio Trustees of the Fund.
Subject : Environment
Ecosystems support plant and animal life by maintaining the overall balance in nature. When functioning well, ecosystems also bring multiple benefits to people. These benefits range from provision of basic commodities, such as food and fuel, to spiritual benefits – for example, the aesthetically pleasing landscapes that we all enjoy.
The benefits that people get from nature are known as ecosystem services.
Ecosystem services can be roughly divided into:
- Supporting services – those services creating conditions necessary for the provision of all other ecosystem services, for example photosynthesis or soil formation
- Provisioning services – all products coming from ecosystems, for example food, fiber, fuel, herbs and medicinal plants, genetic resources, drinking water
- Regulating services – the capacity of ecosystems to regulate important natural processes, for example regulation of climate, quality and quantity of water, etc.
- Cultural services – non-material benefits from ecosystems, for example the aesthetic and recreational value of landscapes
- Payments for ecosystem services (PES) occur when the beneficiaries or users of an ecosystem service make payments to the providers of that service. In practice, this may take the form of a series of payments in return for receiving a flow of benefits or ecosystem services. The basic idea is that whoever provides a service should be paid for doing so
- Arranging payments for the benefits provided by forests, fertile soils and other natural ecosystems is a way to recognize their value and ensure that these benefits continue well into the future.
Payments for Ecosystem Services encourage the maintenance of natural ecosystems through environmentally friendly practices that avoid damage for other users of the natural resources. In addition to preserving natural resources, this method improves rural areas and rural lifestyles.
To tackle high raw material costs, several fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies in India are downsizing product packets, while keeping the price unchanged.
- In economics, shrinkflation is the practice of reducing the size or quantity of a product while the price of the product remains the same or slightly increases.
- In some cases, the term may indicate lowering the quality of a product or its ingredients while the price remains the same.
- It also includes products being reformulated. For example, Cadbury Dairy Milk stopped using foil which it used to prevent chocolate from losing its quality and flavour in order to save expense.
- Example- Shrinkflation is mostly common in the FMCG industry, especially in the food and beverages sector.
- Firms such as Hindustan Unilever, Nestle, Dabur, P&G, Coca-Cola, and Pepsico have adopted this method.
- British economist Pippa Malmgren is generally credited for inventing the term in 2009.
- It is a form of hidden inflation when the absolute price of the product doesn’t go up, but the price per unit of weight or volume has increased.
- Higher production cost-Increases in the cost of ingredients or raw materials, energy commodities, and labor increase production costs and subsequently diminish producers’ profit margins.
- Intense competition in the market-The food and beverage industry is generally an extremely competitive one, as consumers are able to access a variety of available substitutes. Therefore, producers look for options that will enable them to keep the favor of their customers and maintain their profit margins at the same time.
- Deceives consumers into believing that the brands are not affected by inflation.
- Thus, it reduces brand loyalty as consumers feel cheated and loose sentiment/ trust towards a producer’s brand.
- Saving manufacturers more money in the long run-since container and vessel sizes are reduced by very small amounts
- Underestimation of inflation- Price points become misleading when the basket of goods cannot always be measured by considering the product size.
- In India, the Right to Information has been recognised as a consumer right under the Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
- It means that the consumer has the right to know the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard, and price of goods.
- The Central Consumer Protection Authority can bring some guidelines to inform consumers when the weight of a product is reduced.
Sustained decline in a few major markets will most likely pressure domestic markets sooner or later. Thus, the theory of India’s decoupling from the global market can be a myth.
- Indian stocks have outperformed overseas markets for a couple of months, this gives the impression that the Indian market may have decoupled from global markets.
- However, the past indicates India did outperform global indices in1999 and 2007, but bears caught up in the post 2000 and 2008 crisis.
- Higher energy price challenge-severe repercussions for India’s balance of payments.
- Overseas recession risk -on the backdrop of monetary policy tightening in the USA and Europe.
- The Indian economy is too interlinked with the global economy
Coupling vs Decoupling:
- In a globalised world, one part of the world affects countries all over. So, essentially all economies are connected. This is called ‘coupling’.
- When one economy collapses, it brings down overall world economic growth. The world markets that are too inter-connected are called ‘coupled economies’.
- However, there are countries which are shielded from such an effect. These economies do not grow or slow down in sync with the world. They are called ‘decoupled’ economies.
- Decoupling and coupling during financial crises is typified by the decoupling hypothesis that, in 2007, held that Latin American and Asian economies, especially emerging ones, had broadened and deepened to the point that they no longer depended on the United States economy for growth, leaving them insulated from a slowdown there, even a fully fledged recession.
Decoupling other aspects:
- In financial markets, decoupling occurs when the returns of one asset class diverge from their expected or normal pattern of correlation with others.
- Example- Decoupling would happen if oil moves in one direction while natural gas moves in the opposite direction.
- In economics and environmentalism, decoupling happens when an economy is able to grow without causing more environmental pressure or damage. Such a type of decoupling is known as eco-economic decoupling.
- Decoupling also refers to the gaps between formal policies and actual practices in organizations. It may result from a conflict of interest.
RBI announces Variable Rate Repo (VRR) auction of one-day tenor under Liquidity Adjustment Facility to inject ₹50,000-crore liquidity to help the banking system tide over the liquidity deficit and also soften call money rates.
Liquidity in the banking system went into deficit mode after remaining in surplus mode for almost 40 months.
Impact of liquidity deficit:
- Interbank call money rate rose above the repo rate:
- Given the liquidity shortage short-term lending rates would increase at a faster pace than long term lending rates.
Call money rate
- It is the rate at which short term funds are borrowed and lent in the money market.
- The duration of the call money loan is 1 day.
- Banks resort to these types of loans to fill the asset liability mismatch, comply with the statutory CRR and SLR requirements and to meet the sudden demand of funds.
- RBI, banks, primary dealers etc are the participants of the call money market.
- Demand and supply of liquidity affect the call money rate.
- A tight liquidity condition leads to a rise in call money rate and vice versa.
- It represents the unsecured segment of the overnight money market and is best reflective of systemic liquidity mismatches.
|The money market primarily facilitates lending and borrowing of funds between banks and entities like Primary Dealers (PDs).|
Banks and PDs borrow and lend overnight or for the short period to meet their short term mismatches in fund positions. This borrowing and lending is on an unsecured basis.
The Mumbai Interbank Overnight Rate–MIBOR:
- Based on the recommendation of the Committee for the Development of Debt Market, the National Stock Exchange (NSE) launched the Mumbai Interbank Offer Rate (MIBOR) and Mumbai Interbank Bid Rate (MIBID) in June, 1998.
- It is the rate at which banks borrow unsecured funds from one another in the interbank market.
- The rate is computed by polling a representative panel of 30 banks and primary dealers and summarizing the quotes that they provided.
The FBIL overnight MIBOR
- Financial Benchmarks India Private Ltd (FBIL), from July 22nd, 2015, has taken over the administration of the benchmark for the overnight interbank rate to be based on the actual traded rate, thereby, replacing the existing ‘FIMMDA-NSE Overnight MIBID-MIBOR’ by ‘FBIL Overnight MIBOR’.
- It is an entity formed by FIMMDA, Foreign Exchange Dealers Association of India (FEDAI) and Indian Banks Association (IBA).
- The benchmark rate is calculated on the basis of the actual call money transactions data obtained from the NDS-call platform of Clearing Corporation of India Ltd (CCIL). The CCIL acts as the Calculating Agent.
- It is based on trade-weighted interbank call money transactions.
- Thus, the reference rate is based on the actual traded rates as opposed to polled rates, which are used to determine the FIMMDA NSE MIBOR/MIBID rates.
|‘VRR Auction’ stands for Variable rate repo auction. Repo is the rate at which RBI lends short term loans to Banks. A part of it is done at a fixed rate and some of it is a variable rate.|
Context: New CJI appointed
Master of Roaster:
- Master of the Roster’ refers to the privilege of the Chief Justice to constitute Benches to hear cases.
- The Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court declared that the Chief Justice is the master of the roster and he alone has the prerogative to constitute the Benches of the Court and allocate cases to the Benches so constituted.
- No Judge can take up the matter on his own, unless allocated by the Chief Justice of India.
- The provisions of the Supreme Court Rules, 2013 empowers the Chief Justice to allocate cases exercising his discretionary powers.
- Rules were framed under Article 145 of the Constitution to specifically empower the Chief Justice to nominate Benches for hearing cases or appeal.
- The Supreme Court also held that the Chief Justice in his individual capacity is the Master of Roster and it cannot be read as a Collegium of first three or five Judges.
The Supreme Court recently referred to a larger Bench issue relating to procedural norms for imposing the death sentence. The intervention is seen as a major step in plugging gaps in the way in which trial courts award the death sentence.
Procedure for awarding death sentence:
Section 235 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) requires a judge to hear the accused after conviction on the question of sentence, and then pass sentence on him according to law.
Previous SC judgements:
- Bachan Singh v State of Punjab(1980)– a separate sentencing hearing should be held, where a judge would be persuaded on why the death sentence need not be awarded.
- Dattaraya v State of Maharashtra(2020)– For effective hearing under Section 235(2) of the CrPC, the suggestion that the court intends to impose death penalty should specifically be made to the accused, to enable the accused to make an effective representation against death sentence, by placing mitigating circumstances before the Court.
- The SC order referring the issue to a larger bench lists social milieu, the age, educational levels, whether the convict had faced trauma earlier in life, family circumstances, psychological evaluation of a convict and post-conviction conduct, as relevant circumstances that should be accounted for at the sentencing hearing.