Daily Prelims Notes 23 March 2021
- March 23, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
23 March 2021
Table Of Contents
- LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL
- GANDHI PEACE PRIZE
- MARINE AIDS TO NAVIGATION BILL
- YEMEN CIVIL WAR
- CHIN COMMUNITY
- PREVENTION OF INSULTS TO NATIONAL HONOUR ACT 1971
- PERIODIC LABOUR FORCE SURVEY
Context: AIADMK’s ally BJP promises legislative council revival in TN.
Abolition or Creation – Article 169
- The Parliament can abolish a legislative council (where it already exists) or create it (where it does not exist) by a simple majority, that is, a majority of the members of each House present and voting, if the legislative assembly of the concerned state, by a special majority, passes a resolution to that effect.
- Special majority implies :
- A majority of the total membership of the assembly and
- A majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of the assembly present and voting.
- Under Article 171 of the Constitution, the Legislative Council of a state shall not have more than one-third of the total strength of the State Assembly, and not less than 40 members.
- Like the Rajya Sabha, the legislative council is a continuing chamber, that is, it is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution. The tenure of a Member of the Legislative Council (MLC) is six years, with one-third of the members retiring every two years.
Manner of Election
- One-third of the MLCs are elected by the state’s MLAs,
- Another 1/3rd by a special electorate comprising sitting members of local governments such as municipalities and district boards,
- 1/12th by an electorate of teachers and another 1/12th by registered graduates.
- The remaining members are appointed by the Governor for distinguished services in various fields namely, literature, science, art, cooperative movement and social service.
LC vis-à-vis Rajya Sabha
- The legislative power of the Councils is limited. Unlike Rajya Sabha which has substantial powers to shape non-financial legislation, Legislative Councils lack a constitutional mandate to do so.
- Assemblies can override suggestions/amendments made to legislation by the Council.
- Again, unlike Rajya Sabha MPs, MLCs cannot vote in elections for the President and Vice President. The Vice President is the Rajya Sabha Chairperson while a member from the Council itself is chosen as the Council Chairperson.
Subject: Current Events
Context: ‘Hero to Indians as well’ Bangabandhu Mujib gets Gandhi Peace Prize.
About Gandhi Peace Prize
- The annual award was instituted by the Government of India in 1995 during the commemoration of the 125th Birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi for those involved in social, economic and political transformation through non-violence.
- The jury for Gandhi Peace Prize is chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and comprises of two ex-officio members, namely the chief justice of India and leader of the single largest opposition party in the Lok Sabha.
- The award carries an amount of Rs 1 crore, a Citation in a scroll, a plaque as well as an exquisite traditional handicraft/handloom item.
- The prize can be given to individuals, associations, institutions or organizations.
- It can be divided between two persons/institutions who are considered by the Jury to be equally deserving of recognition in a given year
- It is open to all persons regardless of nationality, creed, race or sex.
- The prize is not awarded posthumously.
- The Gandhi Peace Prize for the year 2020 is being conferred on Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the culture ministry said .
- The prestigious prize for the year 2019 is being conferred on late Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said of Oman in recognition of his vision to strengthen relations with India, and his efforts to promote peace and non-violence in the Gulf region, the ministry said.
Subject : Legislations
Context :Lok Sabha on Monday passed the Marine Aids to Navigation Bill, 2021 by voice vote.
- It aims to regulate state-of-the-art technologies of marine navigation which was earlier used to tangle in statutory provisions of Lighthouse Act, 1927.
- A navigational aid is any kind of marker which aids the traveler in navigation, usually nautical or aviation travel. Common types of such aids include lighthouses, buoys, fog signals, and day beacons.
- Key Points
- Replacement of Lighthouse Act: It is proposed to replace the nine decades old colonial Lighthouse Act, 1927, to incorporate the global best practices, technological developments and India’s International obligations in the field of aids to marine navigation.
- It also provides for identification and development of heritage lighthouses.
- The Lighthouse Act is an act relating to the provision, maintenance and control of lighthouses. It was enacted by the Brtishers in 1927.
- Empowerment of DGLL: It provides for empowering Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships (DGLL) with additional power and functions such as vessel traffic service, wreck flagging, training and certification, implementation of other obligations under International Conventions, where India is a signatory.
- Offences: It comprises a new schedule of offences, along with commensurate penalties for obstructing and damaging the aids to navigation, and non-compliance with directives issued by the Central Government and other bodies.
- Aids to Navigation Cess: Every ship arriving at or departing from any port in India will have to pay cess at rates notified by the Central government.
- Currently, the Central government, as per the provisions of the Lighthouse Act, levies light dues on all the foreign going ships arriving at or departing from any port in India.
- Light dues are the charges levied on ships for the maintenance of lighthouses and other aids to navigation.
Subject : Polity
Context : Access to justice still a challenge for millions : Justice Ramana
- It has been constituted under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987, to provide free legal services to weaker sections of society.
- It aims to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reasons of economic or other disabilities. The ‘Nyaya Deep’ is the official newsletter of NALSA.
- It has also been providing assistance to prisoners who were eligible to be released on parole or interim bail under the relaxed norms, through its panel lawyers.
Composition of NALSA:
- The Chief Justice of India shall be the Patron-in-Chief, as per section 3(2) of Legal Service Authorities Act.
- The Second senior-most judge of Supreme Court of India is the Executive-Chairman.
Functions performed by NALSA:
- It organize LokAdalat for amicable settlement of disputes.
- It Identify specific categories of the marginalised and excluded groups and formulates various schemes for the implementation of preventive and strategic legal service programmes.
- It provides free legal aid in civil and criminal matters for the poor and marginalised people who cannot afford the services of a lawyer in any court or tribunal.
State Legal Services Authorities:
- It has been constituted to give effect to the policies and directions of the NALSA and to give free legal services to the people and conduct LokAdalat in the State.
- It is headed by Hon’ble the Chief Justice of the respective High Court who is the Patron-in-Chief of the State Legal Services Authority.
District Legal Services Authority:
- It has been constituted to implement Legal Services Programmes in the District.
- It is situated in the District Courts Complex in every District and chaired by the District Judge of the Respective District.
Constitutional Basis of Legal System:
- Article 39A of the Constitution of India provides that State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disability.
- Articles 14 and 22(1) also make it obligatory for the State to ensure equality before law and a legal system which promotes justice on a basis of equal opportunity to all.
- Legal aid strives to ensure that constitutional pledge is fulfilled in its letter and spirit and equal justice is made available to the poor, downtrodden and weaker sections of the Society.
Subject: Intenational Relations
Context: Riyadh proposes ceasefire plan to Yemen’s Houthi rebels.
- Since 2014, Yemen has been facing a multi-sided conflict involving local, regional, and international actors.
- The Houthis, a group of Zaidi Shia Muslims who ruled a kingdom there for nearly 1,000 years, used widespread anger against President Hadi’s decision to postpone long-awaited elections and his stalled negotiations over a new constitution.
- They marched from their stronghold of Saada province to the capital Sanaa and surrounded the presidential palace, placing Hadi under house arrest.
Saudi Arabia’s Intervention:
- A military coalition led by Saudi Arabia intervened in Yemen in March 2015, at Hadi’s request, after the Houthis continued to sweep the south and threatened to conquer the last government stronghold of Aden, prompting one of the world’s worst humanitarian crises ever.
- Yemen Houthi rebels and Saudi Arabia-backed forces loyal to the President of Yemen agreed to a United Nations-mediated ceasefire agreement in 2018.
Resurgence of Houthi Attacks:
- In 2019, the Yemen’s Shia Houthi rebels, violating the ceasefire, attacked Aramco crude oil production in Saudi Arabia.
Subject : Society
Context: No request received for asylum from Chin community, says Mizoram government.
- The State government has said that asylum would be considered if there was a formal request cleared by the Centre.
- People belonging to Myanmar’s Chin community were seeking to migrate to Mizoram to escape a military crackdown, primarily because of the Chin National Army (CNA), an extremist group seeking self-determination in Chin State across the border.
- The Chin community and the Mizos in India belong to the Zo ethnic group, which share the same ancestry.
- Asylum, in international law, means the protection granted by a state to a foreign citizen against his own state.
Context: Cutting cake depicting national flag not unpatriotic or an insult , rules Madras High Court.
The Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971
- Prevent dishonour: The act was legislated to prevent dishonour to National symbols which shall include the Indian Constitution, National anthem and National Flag.
- Fundamental Duties: The Act is in consonance to Article 51 (A)(a) of the Indian Constitution which lays down the fundamental duty to respect and abide constitution, national anthem and national flag.
- It extends to the whole of India.
- Disqualification: President, Vice president, Prime minister, Speaker of the Lok Sabha, etc are liable for disqualification upon committing any violation of the constitution under this Act read with sections 7 & 8k of Representation of the People Act, 1951.
What are some of the punishable offences?
On the matter of National Anthem:
- whoever intentionally prevents the singing of the Indian National Anthem or causes disturbance to any assembly engaged in such singing shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
On the matter of national flag:
- Dipping the Indian National Flag in salute to any person or thing
- Using the Indian National Flag as a drapery in any form whatsoever except in state funerals
- Putting any kind of inscription upon the Indian National Flag;
- Allowing the Indian National Flag to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water intentionally
- Using the Indian National Flag as a receptacle for receiving, delivering or carrying anything except flower petals in state funerals
Using the Indian National Flag
- as covering for a statue or a monument or a speaker’s desk or a speaker’s platform
- draping the Indian National Flag over the hood, top, and sides or back or on a vehicle, train, boat or an aircraft or any other similar object;
- using the Indian National Flag as a covering for a building;
- Intentionally displaying the Indian National Flag with the “saffron” down.
Context: CPI(M) general secretary Sitaram Yechury, in a letter to Chief Election Commissioner Sunil Arora, has urged the panel to carry out a 100% tally of all EVM machines with Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) for the coming Assembly elections.
- The Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) is a method of providing feedback to voters using a ballot less voting system.
- The VVPAT is an independent printer system attached with Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) that allows the voters to verify that their votes are cast as intended.
- It generates a paper slip every time a voter casts his vote, recording the party to whom the vote was made. The VVPAT slip is kept in a sealed cover.
- VVPAT slip counting takes place in the VVPAT counting booths under the close monitoring of the returning officer and direct oversight of the observer.
How does the VVPAT work?
- The voting in India is done using the Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) that is designed with two units: the control unit and the balloting unit.
- The balloting unit of the machine has a list of candidate names and party symbols with a blue button next to it. The voter can press the button next to the candidate’s name they wish to vote for.
- When the voter casts the vote on the EVM, printer-like VVPAT apparatus linked to the EVM generates a slip showing serial number, name and symbol of the candidate to whom the vote was made.
- With this slip, the voter can verify his casted vote.
- This VVPAT slip is displayed for 7 seconds before it’s automatically cut.
- The slip, once viewed, is cut and dropped into the drop box in the VVPAT machine and a beep will be heard.
- The VVPAT machines can only be accessed by the election officers in the rarest of rare cases.
Subject : International Organisations
Context: The vote on a critical resolution against Sri Lanka at the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) in Geneva has been postponed to Tuesday, as Colombo stepped up efforts to garner international support ahead of the voting which is being seen as an acid test for President Gotabaya Rajapaksa.
- The Human Rights Council is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the world.
- The Council was created by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006. It replaced the former United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
- The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) serves as the Secretariat of the Human Rights Council.
- OHCHR is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.
- It is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly (UNGA).
- The UNGA takes into account the candidate States’ contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights, as well as their voluntary pledges and commitments in this regard.
- The Council’s Membership is based on equitable geographical distribution. Seats are distributed as follows:
African States: 13 seats
Asia-Pacific States: 13 seats
Latin American and Caribbean States: 8 seats
Western European and other States: 7 seats
Eastern European States: 6 seats
- Members of the Council serve for a period of three years and are not eligible for immediate re-election after serving two consecutive terms.
Procedures and Mechanisms:
- Universal Periodic Review: UPR serves to assess the human rights situations in all United Nations Member States.
- Advisory Committee: It serves as the Council’s “think tank” providing it with expertise and advice on thematic human rights issues.
- Complaint Procedure: It allows individuals and organizations to bring human rights violations to the attention of the Council.
- UN Special Procedures: These are made up of special rapporteurs, special representatives, independent experts and working groups that monitor, examine, advise and publicly report on thematic issues or human rights situations in specific countries.
Subject : Current Events
Context: Only 2.4% of India’s workforce is formally trained as per the Periodic Labour Force Survey of 2018-19.
- Ministry cites contractors’ preference to employ informal workers on lower wages in contrast to government’s push to train and certify skilled workers
- All workers executing government contracts must have official certification for their skills, the government has decided.
What is PLFS?
- PLFS is India’s first computer-based survey which gives estimates of key employment and unemployment indicators like the labour force participation rate, worker population ratio, proportion unemployed and unemployment rate in rural households annually and on a quarterly basis for the urban households.
- The PLFS also gives the distribution of educated and unemployed people, which in turn can be used as a basis for skilling of youth to make them more employable by industry.
- The survey was launched in 2017 and the first annual report was released (July 2017-June 2018), covering both rural and urban areas, in May 2019.
- Labour Force Participation Rate: It is the percentage of people in the labour force (those who are working or seeking or available for work) in the population.
- Worker Population Ratio is the percentage of employed people.
- Unemployment rate shows the percentage of people unemployed among the labour force.
- Unemployed: A person who is unable to get work for even an hour in the last seven days despite seeking employment is considered unemployed.