Daily Prelims Notes 24 October 2022
- October 24, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
24 October 2022
Table Of Contents
- LVM3-M2 One Web India-1 Mission
- Migrant labour
- Monetary policy operations
- Ordinance to hike SC and ST reservation gets Gov nod
- Districts as export hub scheme
- Centre cancels FCRA licence of Rajiv Gandhi Foundation
- Arab Summit
- Santhal Rebellion
1. LVM3-M2 One Web India-1 Mission
Subject : Science and Technology
UK-based One Web launched 36 satellites in collaboration with ISRO, at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
- Starting in 1999, ISRO had so far put into orbit 345 foreign satellites ( mission took the tally to 381).
- Recently ,Starlink also applied for the licence to bring satellite broadband connectivity to India.
About the LVM3-M2 OneWeb India-1 Mission
- Lift vehicle–GSLV MkIII — renamed for this mission as Launch Vehicle Mark-3 (LVM3-M2).
- The GSLV MkIII is a three-stage rocket with the first stage fired by solid fuel, the second by liquid fuel and the third is the cryogenic engine.
- It is the first dedicated commercial satellite mission of New Space India Ltd (NSIL).
- It is a set of 36 satellites belonging to Network Access Associated Ltd (OneWeb).
- OneWeb is a joint venture between India’s Bharti Global and the UK government.
- The mission involves separation of all 36 satellites into 601 km orbit with a minimum 137 m distance between any payload satellite.
- Many firsts of the mission
- First Commercial Mission of LVM3.
- First Multi-Satellite mission with 36 OneWeb Satellites onboard.
- First launch of LVM3 to Low Earth Orbit.
- First Indian rocket with six ton payload.
- First NSIL Mission with LVM3.
- First OneWeb Mission with NSIL/DoS.
- The mission will enable the company to start offering satellite broadband services in the country by 2023.
- provide high-speed internet services in remote areas, where terrestrial networks cannot be set up — middle of the ocean, the Himalayas (even on top of Mount Everest)
- Starlink is a SpaceX project to build a broadband network with a cluster of orbiting spacecraft that could eventually number thousands.
- The Starlink satellites carry Hall thrusters, which use electricity and krypton gas to generate an impulse, to manoeuvre in orbit, maintain altitude and guide the spacecraft back into the atmosphere at the end of their mission.
- The Starlink network is one of several ongoing efforts to start beaming data signals from space.
NewSpace India Ltd (NSIL):
- NSIL is a Central Public Sector Enterprise of the Government of India.
- It was established in 2019 under the administrative control of the Department of Space.
- NSIL is the commercial arm of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with the primary responsibility of enabling Indian industries to take up high technology space related activities.
- Headquarters: Bengaluru
- Owning satellites for Earth Observation and Communication applications and providing space-based services
- Building satellites and launching them as per demand
- Providing Launch Services for satellite belonging to customer
- Building launch vehicles through Indian Industry and launch as per satellite customer requirement
- Space based Services related to Earth Observation and Communication satellites on commercial basis
- Satellite building through Indian Industry
- Technology Transfer to Indian Industry
Subject :International relations
A regional alliance between South Asian and Gulf countries is the only way to stop the exploitation of low-skilled migrant worker
- The Gulf alone accounts for close to 50 per cent of Indian migrants.
- “Kafala” or sponsorship system in the Gulf that enables employers to wield significant power over the lives of migrant workers.
- Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have been accused of not providing healthcare services, employment and social protection for workers especially during Covid-19.
- The Return Migration Survey conducted among 2,000 Vande Bharat returnees to Kerala revealed that among 47 per cent lost their jobs, 39 per cent reported non-payment of wages and reduction in wages.
- As per the Guardian reports, 6,500 migrant workers from South Asia have died in Qatar in the last 10 years.
- The highest death count was of Indians — 2,711 workers — followed by migrants from Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
- The ‘kafala’ system is a system that lays down obligations in the treatment and protection of foreign ‘guests’. Kafala means ‘to guarantee’ or ‘to take care of’ in Arabic.
- Under the system, a migrant worker’s immigration status is legally bound to an individual employer or sponsor (‘kafeel’) during the contract period. The migrant worker cannot enter the country, transfer employment nor leave the country for any reason without first obtaining explicit written permission from the kafeel.
Abu Dhabi Dialogue
- It is a regional forum for cooperation between Asian countries that are the origin of and destination for labour.
- The Abu Dhabi Dialogue is composed of 18 countries. 11 countries of origin: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam; and seven countries of destination: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Republic of Korea, Japan and Singapore act as Observer States.
- The ADD serves as a platform for countries of origin and destination to discuss the management of temporary contractual labour mobility in Asia.
- It is an action-oriented dialogue with four main areas for partnerships between Member States:
- Share information on labour market trends, skills profiles, temporary contractual workers and remittances policies and flows
- Harmonize labour supply and demand
- Prevent illegal recruitment and protect migrant workers
- Develop a framework that manages temporary contractual labour and advance the mutual interests of Member States
Consular Grievances Monitoring portal named MADAD (Help)– Because You Are Us.
- MADAD is an e-portal that helps Indian citizens living abroad to file consular grievances online on the services offered by the Indian Missions and Posts abroad.
- It was launched by the External Affairs Minister at the MEA headquarters in New Delhi.
- Features of MADAD
- MADAD allows direct registration of the grievances by the members of the public and effective monitoring of the grievance handling process thereafter, until it is redressed.
- It incorporates several innovative features including flexible architecture to handle a variety of grievances, linking of similar grievances on the basis of passport number to avoid duplication and automatic escalation and enhancement of priority.
- The authorities will be assigned responsibility through a colour-coded dashboard. This dashboard will change its colour if the response is not given in a stipulated time.
- It also has a colour code system of red-amber-green pattern. It will keep a check on performances of authorities in redressing grievances. The green colour indicates cases are cleared, while the pending cases will be indicated in red colour.
First International Migration Review Forum (IMRF)
- The goal of IMRF is to review the progress made at the local, national, regional and global levels in implementing the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM).
- Global Compact for Migration (GCM)-is the first-ever intergovernmental agreement on UN agreement on a common approach to managing international migration.
- The GCM defines 23 objectives covering all aspects of migration (“360-degree” approach) with an array of possible actions, drawn from best practice, that States may choose to utilise to implement their national migration policies.
- In 2018, UN Member States agreed to review the progress made at the local, national, regional and global levels in implementing the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) in the framework of the United Nations through a State-led approach and with the participation of all relevant stakeholders.
- The quadrennial IMRF will be hosted by the President of the UN General Assembly.
- It consists of four interactive multi-stakeholder round tables, a policy dialogue, and a plenary.
- The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) is the Coordinator of the UN Network on Migration which ensures effective and coherent system-wide support for the implementation of the GCM and supports the organisation of the four-day IMRF.
There could be changes, both in technical settings as well as the overall operating framework of monetary policy operations.
Monetary policy trends:
- Traditional/normal times–
- Open Market Operations with the stated objectives to manage liquidity and indirect impact on yield curve.
- At the same time, specific frictions in other markets are managed through operations such as LTROs
- Pandemic—forward guidance on an accommodative stance due to lower growth prospects.
- Direct quantitative easing– Government Securities Acquisition Programme (GSAP 1) in April 2021.
- However, as inflation started to rise along economic recovery, the RBI curtailed the same.
- Post Pandemic Cost Push inflation
- Forward guidance–Withdrawal of accommodation and aligning inflation outcome closer to the target.
Issues in monetary policy operation—as the global economy enters a new era of higher inflation with potentially lower trend line growth.
- Management of surplus liquidity– Liquidity management operations are required to ensure the operating target is aligned to MPC’s policy rate.
- Monetary-fiscal conflict–Market stabilisation scheme (MSS) remains essential to deal with surplus liquidity which is in conflict with the cheaper borrowing rate– the operating policy stance as determined by the repo rate.
- Market Stabilization scheme (MSS) is a monetary policy intervention by the RBI to withdraw excess liquidity (or money supply) by selling government securities in the economy.
- The MSS was introduced in April 2004 to withdraw huge liquidity in the economy as a result of RBI buying large amounts of foreign currencies.
Open market operations in Details:
- They are one of the three major monetary tools (besides reserve ratio and policy rates) to influence money supply in the market and achieve the desired trend in interest rate.
- Monetary tools such as repo rate, reverse repo, marginal standing facility rate and bank rate are policy rates while
- CRR and SLR are the reserve ratios.
- OMOs are the purchase and sale of G-Secs by the RBI on the Centre’s behalf to streamline money supply and interest rates.
- Government securities are debt instruments issued by the RBI, on behalf of the government, for borrowing money. These could be treasury bills which are money market, short-term debt instruments or dated securities which are long-term instruments. Government securities are a promissory note with guaranteed payment at a zero-coupon rate and issued at a discounted rate.
- RBI conducts OMOs via commercial banks and eligible participants are required to key in their bids on RBI’s core banking electronic solution platform E-Kuber.
What are the main objectives of OMOs?
OMOs aim to control the supply of money or existing liquidity in the economy.
- In case of an inflationary situation, RBI adopts a contractionary monetary policy i.e., it sells government securities and absorbs the excess money from the financial flow.
- Amid a recessionary trend, RBI is keen to boost money supply in the market and ensure adequate credit availability for investment and production. So, it buys securities, increasing the money supply.
What is the function of the bond market?
- Bond prices and interest rates have a negative relationship as money supply and treasury bills move in different directions.
- Thus, purchase of bonds via an OMO raises the price of bonds and reduces rates.
- Open market purchases increase money supply, thus making money less valuable resulting in reduction of rates in the money market and vice versa.
- When the RBI hints at a surplus liquidity stance, short-term rates tend to go down and prices in the money market rise, while, when RBI signals tightening of liquidity in the system, short-term rates surge and prices of money market instruments fall.
The G-Sec Acquisition Programme (G-SAP)
- It is an unconditional and a structured Open Market Operation (OMO), of a much larger scale and size.
- The word ‘unconditional’ here connotes that RBI has committed upfront that it will buy G-Secs irrespective of the market sentiment.
- Objective: To achieve a stable and orderly evolution of the yield curve along with management of liquidity in the economy.
- By purchasing G-secs, the RBI infuses money supply into the economy which inturn keeps the yield down and lower the borrowing cost of the Government.
4. Ordinance to hike SC and ST reservation gets Gov nod
Context :Karnataka governor Thawarchand Gehlot gave his assent to the state government’s ordinance to increase the quota of the Scheduled Caste (SC) and the Scheduled Tribe (ST) communities in jobs and the education sector.
- Passage of the ordinance increases the state’s quota in educational institutions and government jobs for Scheduled Castes from 15 per cent to 17 per cent, and for Scheduled Tribes from 3 per cent to 7 per cent.
- However, it is still unclear if the government is planning to adjust the increase in the quota under the existing 50 per cent reservation cap. The additional quota takes the total reservation in the state to 56 percent.
Reservation in Employment
- Under Article 16, there were 3 sub-clauses dealing with the job reservation. They are,
- Article 16(1): It provides for equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to ’employment or appointment’ to any office under the State.
- Article 16(2):It provides that there cannot be any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them.
- Article 16(3):It provides an exception by saying that Parliament may make a law “prescribing” a requirement of residence for jobs in a particular state. This power vests solely in the Parliament, not state legislatures.
- Article 371:Some states have special protections under Article 371. Andhra Pradesh under Section 371(d) has powers to have “direct recruitment of local cadre” in specified areas.
Reservation in Education
- Article 15 (4) was introduced by the 1st Amendment Act, 1951. It confers the power on the state to make special provisions in favor of socially and educationally backward classes of citizens.
- This provision has a wider scope than the benefits that can be extended to the backward classes in the form of reservation of seats in higher education institutions, scholarship, hostel facilities, fee concession, etc.
- Article 15 (5) was introduced by the 93rd Amendment Act, 2005.
- It confers the power on the state to provide by law reserving seats in favour of backward classes of citizens in educational institutions including private educational institutions whether aided or unaided by the state by excluding minority educational institutions.
- This provision had been made use by central and state governments to extend reservation to backward classes including not more than 27% seat reserved in favour of OBC in educational institutions such as IIT, NIT, IIM but not in research oriented institution such as Indian Institute of Science, Bhabha Atomic Research Center etc.
Indra Sawhney & Others vs Union of India, 1992:
- The Supreme Court while upholding the 27% quota for backward classes, struck down the government notification reserving 10% government jobs for economically backward classes among the higher castes.
- SC in the same case also upheld the principle that the combined reservation beneficiaries should not exceed 50% of India’s population.
- The concept of ‘creamy layer’ also gained currency through this judgment and provision that reservation for backward classes should be confined to initial appointments only and not extend to promotions.
Breach of the Limit by the States:
- Notwithstanding the judgement passed by the Supreme Court, since Indira Sawhney judgment 1992, many states have passed laws breaching the limit of 50% such as Maharashtra, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
- Tamil Nadu Reservation Act, 1993 provides 69% reservation in State government jobs and educational institutions.
- In January 2000, the Governor of the erstwhile state of Andhra Pradesh declared 100% reservation to Scheduled Tribes (ST) candidates in posts of school teachers in Scheduled Areas.
- However, it was ruled as unconstitutional by the apex court.
- The Maharashtra State Reservation for Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC) Act of 2018, which provides 12% to 13% quota benefits for the Maratha community, takes the reservation percentage in the State across the 50% mark, was enacted
Other Constitutional Provisions Governing Reservation in India
- Part XVI deals with reservation of SC and ST in Central and State legislatures.
- Article 15(4) and 16(4) of the Constitution enabled the State and Central Governments to reserve seats in government services for the members of the SC and ST.
- The Constitution was amended by the Constitution (77th Amendment) Act, 1995 and a new clause (4A) was inserted in Article 16 to enable the government to provide reservation in promotion.
- Later, clause (4A) was modified by the Constitution (85th Amendment) Act, 2001 to provide consequential seniority to SC and ST candidates promoted by giving reservation.
- Constitutional 81st Amendment Act, 2000 inserted Article 16 (4 B) which enables the state to fill the unfilled vacancies of a year which are reserved for SCs/STs in the succeeding year, thereby nullifying the ceiling of fifty percent reservation on total number of vacancies of that year.
- Article 330 and 332 provides for specific representation through reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Parliament and in the State Legislative Assemblies respectively.
- Article 243D provides reservation of seats for SCs and STs in every Panchayat.
- Article 233T provides reservation of seats for SCs and STs in every Municipality.
- Article 335 of the constitution says that the claims of STs and STs shall be taken into consideration constituently with the maintenance of efficacy of the administration
Ordinance Making Power of Governor
- Article 213 states that the Governor of the state may issue ordinances when the state legislative assembly (or either of the two Houses in states with bicameral legislatures) is not in session.
Properties of the Ordinance
- An ordinance can be retrospective, which means that it can be enacted prior to its approval.
- An ordinance passed while legislative assembly is in session is deemed null and void.
- To stay a law, the Ordinance must be approved by legislature within six weeks of its reassembly. Its existence is terminated if the legislature does not act within six weeks of its reassembly.
- Acts, laws, and events that occurred as a result of the ordinance remain in effect until it expires.
- Ordinances can only be passed on subjects where state legislature has the authority to pass laws.
- Ordinances cannot be used to revoke the fundamental rights of the citizens guaranteed by the Indian Constitution.
- The ordinance would also be declared null and void if both houses( if present or legislative assembly alone) passed a resolution opposing it.
5. Districts as export hub scheme
Subject :Government Schemes
Context : Districts as export hubs scheme may be announced in Budget 2023-24.
- The government’s ambitious project for developing districts as export hubs by promoting one item with potential for increased exports from the identified districts, is likely to be announced in the Union Budget for 2023-24.
- It has been decided to invite applications from various districts using the ‘challenge method’.
- The Centre has to do preparatory work to fix parameters for selection, and then assign scores for the parameters. The proposals which score the highest will be selected for the first phase
- While the Centre’s outlay for development of 50 districts as export hubs in the first phase is likely to be between Rs 1,500-2,000 crore, the final decision will only be taken by the Cabinet.
- The scheme to develop export hubs in various districts may be designed as a Centrally-sponsored scheme (CSS) under which the Centre’s contribution could be 60 per cent of the funds, while the rest could come from the states.
What is Challenge method?
- Swiss Challenge method is one of the ways of awarding government contracts to private players.
- Without an invitation from government, a private player can submit a proposal to government for development of an infrastructure project with exclusive intellectual property rights.
District Export Hub Initiative
- Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
- It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
- The Scheme will be part of the new Foreign Trade Policy(FTP).
- Aim: To help producers across 200 districts scale up manufacturing and find foreign buyers for their goods.
- Implementing Body: Directorate General of Foreign Trade(DGFT).
- Under the scheme, District Export Promotion Committees(DEPCs) have been constituted in most of the districts and products and services with export potential have been identified in each district.
6. Centre cancels FCRA licence of Rajiv Gandhi Foundation
- Recently, theMinistry of Home Affairs has cancelled the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA) licence of Rajiv Gandhi Foundation (RGF) and Rajiv Gandhi Charitable Trust (RGCT) for alleged violations of the provisions of the Act.
What is FCRA:
- The law sought to regulate foreign donations to individuals and associations so that they functioned in a manner consistent with the values of a sovereign democratic republic.
- The law was enacted during the Emergency in 1976 amid apprehension that foreign powers were interfering in India’s affairs by pumping in funds through independent organisations.
- These concerns had been expressed in Parliament as early as in
- It is implemented by the Union Home Ministry.
What are the provisions of the Act:
- The FCRA requires every person or NGO seeking to receive foreign donations to be
- To be registered under the Act
- To open a bank account for the receipt of the foreign funds in State Bank of India, Delhi
- To utilise those funds only for the purpose for which they have been received and as stipulated in the Act
- To file annual returns and not to transfer the funds to another NGO
- The Act prohibits the receipt of foreign funds by candidates for elections, journalists or newspaper and media broadcast companies, judges and government servants, members of legislature and political parties or their office-bearers, and organisations of a political nature.
How is FCRA registration granted:
- FCRA registrations are granted to individuals or associations that have definite cultural, economic, educational, religious, and social programmes.
- NGOs that want to receive foreign funds must apply online with the required documentation.
- Authority– The Ministry of Home Affairs makes inquiries through the Intelligence Bureau into the antecedents of the applicant and approves or rejects the application within 90 days.
- In case of failure to process the application in the given time, the MHA is expected to inform the NGO of the reasons for the same.
- Eligibility- Under the FCRA, the applicant
- Should not be fictitious or benami
- Should not have been prosecuted or convicted for indulging in activities aimed at conversion through inducement or force, either directly or indirectly, from one religious faith to another
- Should not have been prosecuted for or convicted of creating communal tension or disharmony
- Should not have been found guilty of diversion or misutilisation of funds
- Should not be engaged or likely to be engaged in the propagation of sedition
- Validity– Once granted, FCRA registration is valid for five years and NGOs are expected to apply for renewal within six months of the date of expiry of registration.
- In case of failure to apply for renewal, the registration is deemed to have expired.
What are the basis for the cancellation of approval:
- Registration can be cancelled on account of the following reasons
- If it finds it to be in violation of the Act
- If an inquiry finds a false statement in the application
- If the NGO is found to have violated any of the terms and conditions of the certificate or renewal
- If it has not been engaged in any reasonable activity in its chosen field for the benefit of society for two consecutive years
- If it has become defunct
- If in the opinion of the Central Government, it is necessary in the public interest to cancel the certificate
- If an audit finds irregularities in the finances in terms of misutilisation of foreign funds
- The person or NGO concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of being heard.
- Re-registration– Once the registration of an NGO is cancelled, it is not eligible for re-registration for three years.
- Suspension– The ministry also has powers to suspend an NGO’s registration for 180 days pending inquiry, and can freeze its funds.
- All orders of the government can be challenged in the High Court
Subject: International relations
- Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman will not attend an upcoming Arab summit in Algeria in compliance with doctors’ recommendations to avoid travel.
What is Arab League:
- The Arab League is a union of Arabic-speaking African and Asian countries.
- It was formed in Cairo in 1945 to promote the independence, sovereignty, affairs, and interests of its member countries and observers.
- The organization began with six founding members i.e Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria and now comprises 22 different member nations and four observer states.
- The League is bound by a charter and has a council in place to ensure that its goals are met.
Each member state has one vote in the Council of the Arab League, and decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them.
Context: Australian historian and author Peter Stanley’s new book Hul! Hul! provides a unique insight into the oft-overlooked Santal rebellion of 1855, led by the brothers Sidhu and KanhuMurmu.
The Santhal revolt (also known as the Hulrevolt ) started on 30th June 1855, with the help of prominent leaders like Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand, and Bhairav, and also their two sisters Phulo and Jhano, all of them played an important role in the movement.
- The Santhals were the tribal people inhabiting the forest of Rajmahal hills.
- In 1832, East India Company demarcated the Damin-i-Koh from the region of Jharkhand and gave it to Santhals to settle with a promise of non-interference in their land.
- But with changing times and the rising demand of the Britishers, the rent to the Santhals raised to an exorbitant rate. Ultimately, the Santhals were trapped in a situation where they had the only option to revolt against the Britishers and the Zamindars, leading to Santhal Rebellion.
Causes of Santhal Rebellion
Economic: Money lenders exploited the Santhals by exorbitant cost . Land rent also increased.
Religious: The Christian Missionaries were targeting tribes in India and threatening the traditional beliefs and code of conduct of Santhals also.
Political:The traditional Manjhi System and Parha Panchayat System of Santhals were affected heavily by British Regulations and laws.
- Depressed and anguished, the Santhals engaged in guerrilla warfare and took the revolt in 1855-56. The Santhals formed their own troops which included farmers and marched against their oppressors. The Santhal army destroyed the postal communications along with the rail line.
- Two brothers Sidhu and KanhuMurmu along with their sisters Phulo and JhanoMurmu, led the rebellion. They militarised over 10,000 people. Storehouses and warehouses were also burgled and were doused in the fire. They headed towards the headquarters in Calcutta (now Kolkata).
- However, when the news of their rebellion reached the government, they sent the military to gun down the Santhals. Heavy weapons loaded were used in revenge to bows and arrows. Elephants were used to destroy their houses.
- The brother duo Sidhu and Kanhu were arrested and executed. At the same time, Phulo and JhanoMurmu entered the enemy camp undercover and slew 21 soldiers before they died. Unfortunately, the rebellion had a brutal end. The British army set villages ablaze, killed and even raped over 15,000 Santhals to crush their fight.
- The Santhals couldn’t succeed against the complete power of the government and was repressed.
The British passed the Santhal Parganas Tenancy Act in 1876 which offered some protection for the tribals against exploitation.