Daily Prelims Notes 28 August 2022
- August 28, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
28 August 2022
Table Of Contents
- Need for more frequent labour data by govt flagged, with focus on rural
- Durga Puja in Kolkata’ was inscribed on the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
- Intergovernmental Committee of UNESCO’s 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage
- Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar Campaign
- Association of Renewable Energy Agencies of States (AREAS)
- Governors as chancellors: The points of conflict
- PM Modi spins charkha at ‘Khadi Utsav’ in Ahmedabad
- Intel agencies seek law on crypto deals
- More Muslim women are opting for khhula- their right to ‘instant divorce’
- Are Earth’s natural climatic patterns changing?
- The Centre is learnt to have held discussions at the highest level to look into the delay in frequency of the release of government employment-unemployment data, with one of the main concerns pertaining to the time lag in the release of the official Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) as against privately-conducted surveys such as the one brought out by Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE).
Periodic Labour Force Survey
- The National Statistical Office (NSO) under the Ministry of Statistics of Programme and Implementation (MoSPI) conducts the PLFS for rural and urban areas.
- The survey was launched in 2017 and the first annual report was released (July 2017-June 2018), covering both rural and urban areas, in May 2019
- Labour data for rural areas is published annually, while that for urban areas is released every quarter. There is a gap of at least a year in the release of the annual PLFS report.
- PLFS was initially conducted using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) application developed by the World Bank with high expectations to improve the time lag to a great extent.
- Labour Force Participation Rate: It is the percentage of people in the labour force (those who are working or seeking or available for work) in the population.
- Worker Population Ratio is the percentage of employed people.
- Unemployment rate shows the percentage of people unemployed among the labour force.
- Unemployed: A person who is unable to get work for even an hour in the last seven days despite seeking employment is considered unemployed.
Context: Union Finance and Agriculture Ministers and Karnataka CM address the Millets Conclave at Raichur
Concept: Millets are often referred to as Superfood and its production can be seen as an approach for sustainable agriculture and a healthy world.
- These are essential climate resilient staple food crops grown in dryland agriculture that has occupied 68 per cent of the area under cultivation and produced 44 per cent of food requirements.
- Cultivating millets requires less water than rice, sugarcane and wheat, and will be suitable for small farmers.
- India is the largest consumer and accounts for 38 per cent of global demand.
- The three major millet crops currently grown in India are jowar (sorghum), bajra (pearl millet) and ragi (finger millet).
- Along with that, India grows a rich array of bio-genetically diverse and indigenous varieties of “small millets” like kodo, kutki, chennaand
- Major producers include Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
Government Initiatives to promote consumption of Millets
- The government included the cereals in the (Targeted) Public Distribution System under the sub-mission ‘Nutri-cereals’ in
- Millets are also covered in the Price Support Scheme and the MSP of pearl and small millets range between ₹2,000 and ₹3,150 a quintal.
- The Union Agriculture Ministry, in April 2018, declared millets as “Nutri-Cereals”, considering their “high nutritive value” and also “anti-diabetic properties”.
- 2018 was also observed as ‘National Year of Millets”.
Section : Art and Culture
Context: Ministry of Culture celebrates the successful inscription of ‘Durga Puja in Kolkata’ on the Representative List of ICH of Humanity in 2021 in the presence of senior representatives of UNESCO
- Durga Puja in Kolkata’ was inscribed on the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity during its 16th session held in Paris, France from 13th to 18th December 2021.
- The Committee commended the inclusive nature of Durga Puja celebrations and for related initiatives involving marginalized groups, as well as women in their participation in safeguarding the element.
- It not only is a celebration of feminine divinity but is a consummate expression of dance, music, crafts, rituals, practices culinary and cultural aspects. The festival transcends the boundaries of caste, creed, and economic classes and joins the people together in its celebration.
- India now has 14 intangible cultural heritage elements on the prestigious UNESCO Representative List of ICH of Humanity.
UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritages in India
About Durga Puja
- Durga Puja, also known asDurgotsava or Sharodotsava, is an annual Hindu festival originating in the Indian subcontinent which reveres and pays homage to the Hindu goddess Durga and is also celebrated because of Durga’s victory over Mahishasur.
- Durga Puja is a five-day festival which begins on the fifth night of the nine-day Navratri festival and ends on the tenth day, which is Dashami. During this time, people collectively worship and invoke Goddess Durga, who is regarded as the feminine energy of the cosmos, also known as ‘Shakti’.
- Though originating in West Bengal, which has the largest Bengali community in the country, the festival is celebrated in many other parts of India, and also the world.
- The festival is observed in the Indian calendar month of Ashwin, which corresponds to September–October in the Gregorian calendar.
- It is a classic fusion of religion and culture.
- Durga puja is an important festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism.
Subject : Polity
Context: On 7th July 2022, India was elected as a member of the Intergovernmental Committee of UNESCO’s 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage for the 2022-2026 cycle.
- The Convention of the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage was adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 2003 and entered into force in 2006.
- It comprises 24 members and is elected in the General Assembly of the Convention according to the principles of equitable geographical representation and rotation. Members of the Committee are elected for a term of four years.
- Objectives : To safeguard the expressions of intangible cultural heritage,To ensure respect for the intangible cultural heritage,To raise awareness at the local, national and international levels
- Other Publications are Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, Register of good safeguarding practices.
India ‘s election:
- India was elected as a member of the Intergovernmental Committee of UNESCO’s 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage for the 2022-2026 cycle.
- The elections for the Intergovernmental Committee were held during the 9th General Assembly of the 2003 Convention held at UNESCO headquarters, Paris, from 5th to 7th July 2022.
- India won the elections by a comfortable majority of 110 votes out of the 155 State Parties present and voting.
- With India getting elected to this body it aims to strengthen the scope and impact of the Convention and mobilize the capacity of different actors worldwide in order to effectively safeguard intangible heritage across the globe.
- For its current term, India has formulated a clear vision for the protection and promotion of the intangible cultural heritage of humanity.
- Some of the priority areas that India will focus upon include fostering community participation, strengthening international cooperation through intangible heritage, promoting academic research on intangible cultural heritage, and aligning the work of the Convention with the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
Subject : schemes
Context: Union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change Participates in Swachh Sagar, Surakshit Sagar Campaign at Puducherry
- It is the longest running coastal cleanup campaign in the world with the highest number of people participating in it, which will culminate on “International Coastal Clean-up Day” (17th September 2022).Globally, “International Coastal Clean Up Day” is celebrated on the third Saturday of September, every year.
- It aims to increase public awareness about the accumulation and negative impacts of litter in oceans, on coastlines and on beaches.
- An app “Eco Mitram” has been launched to spread awareness about the campaign and also for the common people for voluntary registration for the beach cleaning activity.
- Running a cleanliness campaign along India’s entire coastline.
- To reduce marine litter.
- Minimising the use of plastics.
- Encouraging segregation of waste at source and waste management.
Context:Association of Renewable Energy Agencies of States (AREAS)’s 8th Foundation Day celebration held today in Kochi. Shri BhagwanthKhuba, Minister of State for New and Renewable Energy inaugurated the function.
- MNRE took an initiative in this regard in consultation with SNAs, and Association of Renewable Energy Agencies of States (abbreviated as “AREAS) has been formed and registered as a society on 27 August 2014 under Society Registration Act 1860.
- All State Nodal Agencies for Renewable Energy are members of AREAS.
- Hon’ble Union Minister in-charge of New & Renewable Energy is the Ex-Officio Patron of the Association and Secretary, MNRE is the ex-officio President of the Association. All SNAs are the member of the Association.
- Transaction of business of the AREAS to be carried out by an Executive Committee (EC) which is presided over by the President of the AREAS.
- AREAS has been granted registration on 25th July 2016, as General Public Utility Trust/Society of the Income Tax act, 1961 to allow for its exemption from taxation.
- It has also received approval of the Income Tax Act, 1961 on 25th July 2016 to allow for specified tax benefit to Donors. These exemptions/benefits are valid from Annual Year 2016-17 onwards.
- Vice President to be elected by the members and Joint Secretary, MNRE to be the ex-officio member of EC. In addition, Executive Director, two SNAs from each zone (North, South, East, West and North-East, and UTs) are also members of the Executive Committee.
Under AREAS the following three Standing Committees are constituted:
- Standing Committee on Technology and Resource Assessment
- Standing Committee on Policy and Finance
- Standing Committee on IT & IMS
Section: Modern India
- In the initial years of our Republic, there were hardly any conflicts between governors as chancellors and state governments. The Congress was in power at the national and state level. The President, bound by the Prime Minister’s advice, appointed individuals closely linked to the party as governors.
- The Bengal Council of Education championed the setting up of a university that had the power to grant degrees in arts, science, law, medicine and civil engineering. The council suggested that the government model the university along the lines of the University of London, an examination and degree-awarding institution. Nine years later, the government in India accepted this proposal with some modifications.
- The ‘Despatch of 1854 on the General Education in India’ famously called Wood’s Despatch, suggested the creation of universities in India.
- It recommended that the universities consist of a chancellor, vice-chancellor and fellows, who would constitute a senate.
- It stated further that the ‘offices of chancellor and vice-chancellor will naturally be filled by persons of high station, who have shown an interest in the cause of education…’. Acting on this suggestion, the Governor General decided that he would be the chancellor of the university at Calcutta, and the governors for Bombay and Madras would be the chancellors for the universities in the two presidency towns.
- These three universities were set up in 1857 at Calcutta,Bombay,Madras, by separate laws passed by the Legislative Council of India.
- After Independence, a committee headed by Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan observed that the practice of the governor being a chancellor had worked well in states with only one university.
- The commission left it to the states to decide whether they wanted the governor to be the chancellor, especially if the state had multiple universities. States opted to stick to the status quo, and while enacting legislation for universities in their states, they made the governor their chancellor.
- In 2010, the Punchi commission(Centre-state relations) stated that when governors act as chancellors, it opens their office to controversies and public criticism.
- earlier this year, the West Bengal Legislature passed a law making the Chief Minister the chancellor of 31 state universities.
Wood’s Despatch on Education in 1854 l
- It laid the foundation on which the educational system has since developed. Various problems related to education in India had become one of the key concerns of the British government by 1853.
- For the first time, Wood’s Despatch recommended the establishment of a Department of Public Instruction in each of Bengal’s five provinces: Bombay, Madras, Punjab, and the North-Western provinces.
- The expansion of mass education was another major recommendation of the Despatch.
- Because it was discovered that the common people lacked educational opportunities, much emphasis was placed on increasing the number of primary, middle, and high schools.
- The establishment of universities in the three Presidency towns of Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras was recommended by the Despatch. The universities were to be modeled after the University of London.
- Departments of Arabic, Sanskrit, and Persian, as well as law and civil engineering, were to be established at the universities.
- Wood’s Despatch advocated for the establishment of a grant-in-aid system in Indian education.
- The Wood’s Despatch emphasized the importance of teaching English while also emphasizing the importance of teaching Indian languages.
- The Despatch recommended that the government always support women’s education.
- The Wood’s Despatch recommended that teacher training schools be established in each province. Engineering, medicine, and law teachers should be trained in special schools.
- The Wood’s Despatch advocated for the establishment of a nationwide network of graded schools.
The Governor’s appointment, his powers and everything related to the office of Governor have been discussed under Article 153 to Article 162 of the Indian Constitution.
- The appointment and powers of government can be derived from Part VI of the Indian constitution. Article 153 says that there shall be a Governor for each State. One person can be appointed as Governor for two or more States.
- The governor acts in ‘Dual Capacity’ as the Constitutional head of the state and as the representative.
- He is the part of federal system of Indian polity and acts as a bridge between union and state governments.
- Article 157 and Article 158 of the Constitution of India specify eligibility requirements for the post of governor. They are as follows:
- A governor must:
- Be a citizen of India.
- Be at least 35 years of age.
- Not be a member of the either house of the parliament or house of the state legislature.
- Not hold any office of profit.
- The term of governor’s office is normally 5 years but it can be terminated earlier by:
- Dismissal by the president on the advice of the council of minister headed by the prime minister of the country.
- Dismissal of governors without a valid reason is not permitted. However, it is the duty of the President to dismiss a governor whose acts are upheld by courts as unconstitutional and malafide.
- Resignation by the governor.
- Article 163: It talks about the discretionary power of governor.
- Article 256: The executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of such directions to a State as may appear to the Government of India to be necessary for that purpose.
- Article 257: The executive power of the Union shall also extend to the giving of directions to a State as to the construction and maintenance of means of communication declared in the direction to be of national or military importance
- Article 355: It entrusts the duty upon Union to protect the states against “external aggression” and “internal disturbance” to ensure that the government of every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of Constitution.
- Article 356: In the event that a state government is unable to function according to constitutional provisions, the Central government can take direct control of the state machinery. The state’s governor issues the proclamation, after obtaining the consent of the President of India.
- Article 357: It deals with Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under Article 356 by the central government.
Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi tried his hands on the charkha while attending a ‘Khadi Utsav’ event in Ahmedabad on Saturday.
- 8 different schemes of Khadi & Village Industries are now merged under two heads i.e.‘Khadi Vikas Yojana’ and ‘Gramodyog Vikas Yojana’:
- Khadi Vikas Yojana includes Market Promotion & Development Assistance (MPDA), Interest Subsidy Eligibility Certificate (ISEC), Workshed, Strengthening Weak Infra, Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana, Khadi Grant.
- Gramodyog Vikas Yojanaa [Village Industries Grant].
Rozgar Yukt Gaon
- It is an initiative by the Cabinet Committee for Economic Affairs and focuses on empowering Khadi artisans by providing resources to produce and sell their products.
- The committee has proposed to bring a change in the business model of Khadi enterprises, replacing the Subsidy-based model with the Enterprise-based model.
- Under this scheme, the tools and equipment like Charkha, loom and warping units used in producing Khadi will be distributed amongst 50 villages.
Market Promotion and Development Assistance (MPDA)
- Market Promotion and Development Assistance (MPDA) scheme is regulated by the Ministry of MSME (Micro Small and Medium Enterprises).
- It is aimed at developing new avenues for the promotion of the Khadi Industry in India.
- A grant of 977 crores was sanctioned to help revive the production, selling and marketing of Khadi and small enterprises at the rural level.
Interest Subsidy Eligibility Certificate (ISEC)
- Launched in May 1977, the scheme helped the enterprises involved in the production of Khadi and Polyvastra gain capital from the banks.
- The rural enterprises shall be granted bank loans at only 4 per cent of interest and the remaining interest amount will be subsidized by KVIC (Khadi and Village IndustriesCommission).
Boosting Agarbatti Udyog (2020)
- In 2020, the ministry of MSME provided another shot in the arm for the Gramodyog Vikas Yojana when a new programme was sanctioned to boost Agarbatti manufacturing in rural areas.
- The Agarbatti artisans will be trained by the KVIC (Khadi and Village Industries Commission) to help build the enterprise-led business model in the rural sector.
- Raw material, tools and equipment to produce Agarbatti will also be provided by KVIC.
- This move by the ministry is aimed at reviving the Agarbatti Udyog and scope of employment in the rural enterprises.
Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC)
- It is a statutory body established under the Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act, 1956. It functions under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises.
- Social objective of providing employment
- Economic objective of producing saleable articles
- The wider objective of creating self-reliance amongst the poor and building up a strong rural community spirit
- The SPIN (Strengthening the Potential of India) scheme was recently launched by the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) to help potters become self-sufficient.
- It is an initiative through which KVIC will make it easier for potters to obtain low-interest bank loans under Pradhan Mantri Shishu Mudra Yojana, allowing them to diversify their businesses and increase their income.
Investigation and intelligence agencies of the government are pressing the Centre to distinctly list crypto currency exchanges under the existing regulatory mechanism, thus making it mandatory for the exchanges to proactively share information regarding suspicious transactions with the police or law enforcement authorities.
- The official added that though the law enforcement agencies and the police are authorised to seek information under Section 91 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), on many occasions in the absence of a First Information Report (FIR), crucial information cannot be sought from these exchanges.
- The agencies are seeking powers akin to that available under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PMLA) to get information from the exchanges.
- The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has recommended a ban on cryptocurrencies citing “destabilising effects” for the country’s monetary and fiscal health
- On March 4, 2020, the Supreme Court struck down a 2018 circular of the RBI, which sought to prevent banks and institutions from dealing in “virtual currencies”.
PMLA and ED already covered
Section : Art and Culture
Context: More Muslim marriages end with khhula, the woman’s inalienable right to instant divorce, and not as it’s widely perceived through instant triple talaq, which was set aside by a Supreme Court verdict in 2017, or through talaq-e-hassan, divorce at the man’s initiative.
- Unlike talaq, which is pronounced by the man, in the case of khhula, it’s the woman who initiates divorce, and surrenders her mehr (wealth transferred or promised to the woman at the time of marriage) at the time of such a divorce.
- Khhula can be affectedorally or through a document called the ‘Khhulnama’. It has the effect of an instant divorce.
- If the mehr had not been given to the woman by the time she opted for khhula, she cannot demand the mehr as the marriage is being called off at her behest.
- If a man belonging to the religion of Islam pronounces talaq thrice either orally or in written form to his wife, then the divorce is considered immediate and irrevocable.
- The only way to reconcile the marriage is through the practice of nikah halala, which requires the woman to get remarried, consummate the second marriage, get divorced, observe the three-month iddat period and return to her husband.
- The pronouncement of three divorces separated by at least a month between each pronouncement
- It is mutual divorce granted to a Muslim couple by the Shariah.
Triple Talaq Bill key features
- It is applicable in whole of India but it is not extended to the State of Jammu & Kashmir.
- Any pronouncement of “talaq” by a Muslim husband to his wife in any manner, spoken or written, will be void and illegal.
- Any Muslim husband who communicates the “talaq” orally or in writing may face punishment up to three years in jail. The punishment may be also extended.
- If a Muslim man pronounces “talaq” to his wife, then the woman and her children are entitled to receive an allowance for subsistence. Such an amount can be determined by a Judicial Magistrate of the First Class.
- A Muslim woman is entitled to the custody of her minor children even if her husband has pronounced “talaq” to her.
- The offence is also compoundable (i.e.the parties may arrive at a compromise), if the Muslim woman insists for the same and the Magistrates allows certain terms and conditions which he may determine.
- A person accused of this offence cannot be granted bail unless an application is filed by the accused after a hearing in the presence of the Muslim woman (on whom talaq is pronounced) is conducted and the Magistrate is satisfied with the reasonable grounds for granting bail.
An uncharacteristic La Nina may be a sign of the ongoing La Nina may become the longest on record.
- Petteri Taalas, secretary-general of WMO said – Human-induced climate change amplifies the impacts of naturally occurring events like La Niña and is increasingly influencing our weather patterns, in particular through more intense heat and drought and the associated risk of wildfires — as well as record-breaking deluges of rainfall and flooding.
- Climate change scientists have also predicted an impact of global warming on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (of which La Nina is a part) phenomenon itself, especially the extremes.
- Michael McPhaden, a senior scientist with NOAA said – Extreme El Niño and La Niña events may increase in frequency from about one every 20 years to one every 10 years by the end of the 21st century under aggressive greenhouse gas emission scenarios,”
- The strongest events may also become even stronger than they are today.
La-Nina event and its characteristics-
- During a La Nina event, cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures prevail over the east and the central Pacific Ocean, due to which the trade winds above the sea surface change in character because of a difference in the wind pressures.
- This change in the character of the trade winds is then carried all around the world affecting different regions in different ways. Many regions become colder and wetter, while many others become hotter and drier.
- The character of La Nina – an ocean-atmosphere event that usually brings down global temperatures – is changing, indicating a shift in natural climatic patterns in a warming world.
- This is evidenced by La Nina’s strong continuation through the summer of 2022 and its involvement in the early, intense, and extensive heat waves in the northwest and central India.
Prolonged La Nina event in 2022-
- There are chances that the current La Nina could continue through the southwest monsoon season, winter of 2022, and even early 2023, and could lead to devastating and unpredictable consequences for India and many other regions worldwide.
- There is a 70 percent chance that the current La Nina will continue from June-August 2022, according to the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), and thus complete 24 months.
- WMO predicted a 50-60 percent chance of it continuing from July-September.
- The weather agency also indicated chances of it continuing into the fall and winter seasons in the northern hemisphere but did not give specific probabilities for that happening.
- NOAA predicted that there was a 58 percent chance of La Nina for the August-October season and 61 percent for the winter season.
Are there any previous such experiences?
- The only other instances of such long La Nina events were during 1998-2001 and 1973-1976.
- The 1973-1976 event was 37 months long and the longest since 1950, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
- The longest La Nina on record was the one between 1998 and 2000 that lasted 24 months, according to a research paper published in the Journal of Meteorological Research in December 2018.
Cause of concern- Duration of the event or the changing character of La Nina?
- More than the length of the ongoing La Nina, it is its changing character that is a cause of great concern.
- La Nina usually brings wet and cold winter and spring seasons to India, but this time large parts of India did not experience a spring season at all.
- This happened as a north-south pressure pattern, which usually forms over India during the winter season and dissipates by spring, continued into March and April this year.
- The pattern interacted with warm waves coming in from the rapidly warming Arctic region to initiate and prolong heat waves in the country.
- The characteristics of the La Nina in March-May also indicate a stronger La Nina than usual.
- The month of May, for instance, was the second-strongest La Nina month on record, according to Emily Becker at the University of Miami, United States.
- If the three months are taken as a season, then the temperature anomaly of the eastern and central Pacific oceans was 1 degrees Celsius below normal. This is the second-lowest since the 1950s when the temperature was 1.2°C below normal.
- This was also only the second time since the 1950s that the La Nina became stronger (cooler) than the months of February-April.
Impact of changing characteristics of La Nina on India and the world-
- The stubborn nature of La Nina over the next many months can have devastating consequences for different regions of the world, including
- India can experience a prolonged monsoon season for the third year in a row, for instance.
- The monsoon seasons of 2020 and 2021 were also extended, leading to an increase in extreme rainfall events during the period and subsequent floods in many states. The extension had most likely happened because of the impact of La Nina, according to climate scientists.
- The ongoing drought conditions in 40 percent of the United States, and the years-long drought conditions in the Horn of Africa and southern South America would also likely continue and become more intense due to the continuation of the La Nina.
- NOAA has also factored in the impact of La Nina and forecasted an above-average hurricane season for the Atlantic Ocean, with a 65 percent
- During a La Nina event, the vertical wind shear (change in intensity of vertical winds from near surface to higher parts of the atmosphere) is low over the Atlantic Ocean and is conducive to the formation and intensification of hurricanes. A strong wind shear tears apart a hurricane from the top.
- The continuation and changing character of La Nina in an era of climate change have been highlighted by the WMO.