Daily Prelims Notes 3 April 2021
- April 3, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
3 April 2021
Table Of Contents
- CHIEF ELECTORAL OFFICER
- WORLD CITIES CULTURAL FORUM
- KUTCH GREAT INDIAN BUSTARD SANCTUARY
- SHIGMO FESTIVAL
- NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL
- GRAMEEN E- STORES
- PMSYM SCHEME
- MATERNAL DEATHS
- NEW EMISSION NORMS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS
Context: BJP seeks removal of Chief Electoral Officer SushilLohani over conflict of interest.
- A Chief Electoral Officer (CEO) functions under the supervision, control and overall guidance of the Election Commission of India.
- According to the Representation of the People’s Act 1950 and 1951, each state of India must be assisted with a Chief Electoral Officer during the State Assembly elections as well as the general elections.
- According to provisions of the above-mentioned acts, the CEO has a significant role to play during the elections to the office of the President and the Vice-President of India.
- The CEO supervises the preparation, revision and maintenance of the electoral rolls in the state.
- It is the duty of the Chief Electoral Officer to ensure free and fair elections in the state, such that more percentage of votes are cast.
- It is the responsibility of the CEO to enhance communication between the voters of a state and the different departments of elections within the state.
- Most importantly, it is the task of the CEO to ensure that no political party has any control with the elections in the state.
Subject : Current Events
Context : Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal will be representing Delhi and India at the World Cities Cultural Forum (WCCF) , according to a statement issued by the city government.
- World cities cultural forum began in 2012 with 8 members in London. Now it is network of 40 key cities like London, Hong Kong, Amsterdam etc.
- The WCCF enables the policy makers of member cities to share research and intelligence, while exploring the vital role of culture in prosperity.
- Forum members collaborate via a program of events including themed symposia, regional summits and workshops.
- Delhi become the newest member and the second Indian city after Mumbai on the World Cities Culture Forum (WCCF), a platform for cities to share their culture.
Subject : Geography
Context : Cong, AIUDF set for big gains in river islands dominated by Bengali-speaking Muslims, and hit by floods, BJP rhetoric.
- Chars are riverine islands in the Brahmaputra formed through silt deposits. Life in the char is defined by the mighty river.
- The riverine areas (island) of the river Brahmaputra, locally known as “Char/ Chapori” cover about 3.60 lakhs hectares of land and population of approx. 24.90 lakhs (as per Socio Economic Survey 2002-03).
- Distinction should be made between island chars, which are surrounded by water year-round and attached chars, which are connected to the mainland under normal flow.
- The chars follow a peculiar pattern of migration. They are subjected to erosion on their upstream and deposition on the downstream, due to which they migrate downstream.
- This affects the geometry and location of the chars during floods almost every year.
Subject : Environment
Context : A fire broke out inside the Lala-Budiya Great Indian Bustard (GIB) Sanctuary near Naliya in Kutch district of Gujarat on Thursday evening, damaging at least 20 hectares of vegetation.
- Kutch Bustard Sanctuary or Kachchh Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary, also known as Lala–ParjanSanctuary,is located near Jakhau village in Taluka Abdasa, Gujarat, India.
- This sanctuary is one of the two great Indian bustard sanctuaries in Gujarat; the other one is in Jamnagar.
- However, the sanctuary presently legally covers a protected area of about 2 square kilometres (0.77 sq mi) of area (202.86 hectares (501.3 acres) of fenced land only and is the smallest sanctuary in the country.
- Listed under Critically Endangered Category of IUCN Red List.
- Listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. It is also listed in Appendix I of CITES.
- Identified for the species recovery program under Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats Scheme.
- Declared as the state bird of Rajasthan.
Protected areas dedicated to GIB
- Rajasthan: Desert National Park – Jaisalmer and Balmer
- Gujarat: Naliya Sanctuary in Kutch
- Madhya Pradesh: Karera Wildlife Sanctuary (The species disappeared from Madhya Pradesh in early 90s’)
- Maharashtra: Nannaj Grasslands, Solapur
- Andhra Pradesh: Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary.
Subject : Culture
Context : Goa cancels the popular Shigmo spring festival this year.
- Shigmo is the celebration of a ‘rich, golden harvest of paddy’ by the tribal communities of Goa.
- Agricultural communities including the Kunbis, Gawdas and Velips celebrate the festival that also marks the onset of spring.
- Two Variants of the Festival:
- DhaktoShigmo: It is celebrated by the rural population, farmers and the labour class.
- VhadloShigmo: It is of greater importance and is celebrated by everyone.
- Time:Shigmo celebrations last over a fortnight in the months of Phalgun-Chaitra months of the Hindu calendar that correspond with March-April every year.
- Invocation of Deities: The festival begins with ‘Naman’ that is the invocation of the local folk deities on the village ‘maand’ or the village stage to the beats of percussion instruments like the Ghumat, Dhol, Mhadle and Tashe by the male folk.
- It is called the ‘romtamell’ that moves from one village to another.
- Dances: Folk dances like GhodeModni (a dance of equestrian warriors), Gopha and Phugadi.
- Shigmo Street Parade: Shigmo street parade floats as the highlight. It is held as an annual affair in the state capital, Panjim and other major cities like Margao, Mapusa, Vasco, and Ponda.
- These colour-parties usually see people dressed in vibrant clothing performing traditional folk dances to depict the historical legacy of the Maratha War that backs this festival.
- The float parades have, over the years, been a draw for tourists both domestic and international.
- Shigmo is celebrated all over India but in different names:
- North India – Holi.
- Assam and Bengal – Dolyatra.
- South India – Kamadahan.
- Maharashtra – Shimga.
Subject : ARCHITECTURE
Context : The rector of Notre Dame said Friday that the burned-out Paris cathedral and its esplanade could remain a building site for another “15 or 20 years.”
Notre-Dame de Paris
- It is a medieval Catholic cathedral located on an island in Seine River in the Paris, France.
- The cathedral is consecrated to the Virgin Mary and considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture.
- The cathedral construction began in 1160 and completed by 1260.
- In 1804, the cathedral was the site of the Coronation of Napoleon I as Emperor of France.
- It contains Holy Crown of Thorns the most precious item of Holy relics and relics from the crucifixion of Jesus- a piece of the cross on which he was nailed and one of the nails.
Subject : Governance
Context : Amazon, Walmart seek tie-ups, IT Min cites ‘independence’ to reject offers
- In an effort to enter domestic rural markets, global retail giant Walmart India had approached the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) with a proposal to buy out the entire chain of 1.4 lakh Grameen e-stores run and managed by the Common Service Centres (CSC)
- E-Grameen Store is a brainchild of the 400,000-strong Common Service Centres (CSCs) network under the Ministry of Electronics and IT, which also collaborated with nearby ration depots to provide essentials at people’s doorsteps during the first few phases of the lockdown.
- Under the model, a village-level entrepreneur of every CSC creates a personalised app depending on the need and availability of goods for his surrounding areas, and delivers those to customers.
- The government has collaborated with ecommerce company Migrocer to create a master app which has a database of 80,000 products.
- The goods can be procured either directly from farmers or self-help groups or from nearby retailers, wholesalers or supermarkets.
Subject : Governance
Context : PMSYM pension scheme for low-wage earners loses steam.
Pradhan MantriShram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM-SYM)
- M-SYM is a Central Sector Scheme administered by the Ministry of Labour and Employment and implemented through Life Insurance Corporation of India and Community Service Centers (CSCs).
- LIC will be the Pension Fund Manager and responsible for Pension pay out.
- This scheme seeks to benefit around 42 crore workers from the unorganized sector of the country.
- The unorganised workers (home based workers, street vendors, mid-day meal workers, head loaders, landless labourers and similar other occupations) whose monthly income is Rs 15,000/ per month or less.
- The Subscriber should belong to the entry age group of 18-40 years.
- The subscriber will be required to have a mobile phone, savings bank account and Aadhaar number.
- They should not be covered under New Pension Scheme (NPS), Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) scheme or Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO).
- He/She should not be an income tax payer.
- Minimum Assured Pension: Each subscriber shall receive minimum assured pension of Rs 3000/- per month after attaining the age of 60 years.
- Family Pension: During the receipt of pension, if the subscriber dies, the spouse of the beneficiary shall be entitled to receive 50% of the pension received by the beneficiary as family pension. Family pension is applicable only to spouse.
- If a beneficiary has given regular contribution and died due to any cause (before age of 60 years), his/her spouse will be entitled to join and continue the scheme subsequently by payment of regular contribution or exit the scheme as per provisions of exit and withdrawal.
- Contribution: The subscriber’s contributions shall be made through ‘auto-debit’ facility from his/ her savings bank account/ Jan- Dhan account.
- PM-SYM functions on a 50:50 basis where prescribed age-specific contribution shall be made by the beneficiary and the matching contribution by the Central Government.
Subject : Social Issues
Context : The failure of the health system to cope with COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increase in maternal deaths and stillbirths, according to a study published in The Lancet Global Health journal.
- Overall, there was a 28% increase in the odds of stillbirth, and the risk of mothers dying during pregnancy or childbirth increased by about one-third.
- There was also a rise in maternal depression.
- COVID-19 impact on pregnancy outcomes was disproportionately high on poorer countries.
- The report is an analysis of 40 studies across 17 countries including Brazil, Mexico, the U.S., Canada, the U.K., Denmark, Netherlands, Italy, India, China and Nepal.
- The study attributes the worsening trend to the failure of the “inefficiency of the healthcare system and their inability to cope with the pandemic” instead of strict lockdown measures. This resulted in reduced access to care.
- In India, during the months of national lockdown last year between April and June, compared to the same period in 2019, there was a 27% drop in pregnant women receiving four or more ante-natal check-ups, a 28% decline in institutional deliveries and 22% decline in prenatal services.
Subject : Environment
Context : The government has pushed back deadlines for coal-fired power plants to adopt new emission norms by up to three years, and allowed utilities that miss the new target to continue operating after paying a penalty, according to a notice.
- India had initially set a 2017 deadline for thermal power plants to install Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) units that cut emissions of sulphur dioxides. But that was postponed to varying deadlines for different regions, ending in 2022.
- The new order dated April 1 from the environment Ministry said plants near populous regions and the capital New Delhi will have to comply by 2022, while utilities in less polluting areas have up to 2025 to comply or retire units.
- Operators of coal-fired utilities have long been lobbying for dilution of the pollution standards, citing high compliance costs.
- A task force will be constituted by the Central Pollution Control Board to categorise plants in three categories “on the basis of their location to comply with the emission norms”.
- In case of non-compliance, a penalty of up to ₹0.20 will be levied for every unit of electricity produced.