Daily Prelims Notes 4 September 2022
- September 4, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
4 September 2022
Table Of Contents
- Hyderabad Liberation Day
- Book throws new light on Bengal’s women revolutionaries
- Why is there divergence in inflation across States?
- At Vostok-22- why is India not joining naval drill?
- What is kurki and why is it a big issue in Punjab?
- New sub-lineages of monkeypox virus emerge
- Night Sky Sanctuary
Section: Post Independence
Context: Ministry of Culture will organize the inaugural programme of the year-long commemoration of the Hyderabad Liberation Day, on 17th September 2022. The Government of India has approved the yearlong commemoration of the “Hyderabad Liberation Day” for the period 17th September, 2022 to 17th September,2023.
- On 17th September 1948, more than one year after India secured Independence from the British, the state of Hyderabad got its independence from Nizam’s rule.
- History is replete with illustrations of struggles in the entire freedom movement including the struggle of Ramji Gond against the British; the fight of KomaramBheem; the valour of Turrebaz Khan in 1857 who wanted to hoist the Indian national flag on the residence of the British Resident Commissioner at Koti in Hyderabad city.
- The struggle became vociferous after Indian independence. With the spontaneous participation of people chanting VandeMatram and with the demand of the merger of the samsthan into the Indian union, the struggle transformed itself into a massive people’s movement.
- The liberation of Hyderabad was possible due to the swift and timely action by first Minister of Home Affairs of India, Shri Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel under Operation Polo.
- The state of Hyderabad under the Nizam included the whole of current day Telangana, the Marathwada region in Maharashtra that included the districts of Aurangabad, Beed, Hingoli, Jalna, Latur, Nanded, Osmanabad, Parbhaniand districts of Kalaburagi ,Bellary Raichur ,Yadgir, Koppal, Vijayanagara and Bidar in current day Karnataka.
- The state governments of Maharashtra and Karnataka officially observe September 17 as the Liberation Day.
- When India gained independence in 1947 and Pakistan was formed, the British gave the remaining princely states a choice to merge with either union or stay independent. One of the largest princely states within the Indian union was Hyderabad, a Hindu-majority region ruled by a Muslim Nizam.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad, Mir Osman Ali Khan, was in a dilemma on whether he should join the Indian union or stay independent. On the other hand, the Majlis-e-Itihadul Muslimeen (precursor of present-day AIMIM) was adamant about the Nizam merging with Pakistan instead of being Independent. Being no more than a puppet to the MIM, the Nizam agreed to keep Hyderabad independent of either union.
- Though the Nizam tried to legitimise the Princely state of Hyderabad by appointing trade officials in European countries and sending delegations to the UNSC, there were civil movements within his territory led by Arya Samaj, Hindu Mahasabha and Hyderabad State Congress to fight for Hindu rights in Hyderabad and merge the state with the Indian Union.
- Nizam feared there would be an uprising by the majority-Hindu community, so he sanctioned the creation of Razakars led by Kasim Razvi, which was to be a paramilitary wing of the MIM.
- Razakars were empowered by Nizam to suppress Hindu uprisings and movements by whatever means possible. Following the green signal from Nizam, the ethnic genocide of Hindus in Rural Telangana began. The Razakars were committed to mass conversions of Hindus to Islam in an attempt to make Hyderabad a Muslim-majority province. The Razakars went village to village and mass-murdered, raped and kidnapped several villagers.
- One such incident is that of Veera Bairanpalli, a village in Telangana which was at the receiving end of the Razakars. Razakars, led by Kasim Razvi, managed to infiltrate the village with the help of the Nizam on their fourth attempt during the festival of Bathukamma. At the borders of the village lay a mud fort which the villagers used to guard themselves against the Jihadis, the Razakars shot all the guards at point blank range and proceeded to massacre the unarmed villagers.
- The Razakars continued their barbaric campaign till the Indian army routed their forces with Operation Polo in 1948, leading to the liberation of Hyderabad from Nizam’s control and accession to the Indian Union. These incidents highlight the sacrifices made by Telangana villagers to ensure the survival of Hinduism in present-day Telangana. Remembering their sacrifices will honour those who lost their lives in these barbaric attempts to erase Hinduism from the face of Deccan India.
2. Book throws new light on Bengal’s women revolutionaries
Section: Post Independence
- The first files on women revolutionaries in Bengal appeared in the Intelligence Branch of British India roughly around 1919. And by 1947, more than 200 cases of conviction and sentencing of women were recorded in these files.
- All such interesting details about women revolutionaries are contained in a recent publication titled Women in the War of Freedom Unveiled, Bengal 1919-1947: Glimpse from Archival records.
- British Intelligence Branch in Bengal, which kept surveillance on the revolutionaries by maintaining a ‘blue list’ and a ‘red list’.
- As per the book conviction of women in the eastern part of Bengal was far greater than the western part. The highest numbers of accused were from Chittagong because the numbers might have increased after the Chittagong Armoury Raid (1930).
- Women’s wings became active among the students of colleges in Kolkata. Bethune College had become a centre of radical feminist agitation
- A journal published by women which played a crucial role in mobilising women for ‘revolutionary activities
- One such revolutionary, Sudhangshubala Sircar, whose name is mentioned in the famous Alipore Bomb Case ( 1908).
Other Women Revolutionaries
- Dukhoribala Devi,the first woman to be convicted for revolutionary activities
- Lila Nag, the first woman to be recruited as a member of a revolutionary organisation (Dacca Shree Sangha) in 1924,
- Bina Das , arrested for her attempt on the life of Governor Stanley Jackson.
- Kalpana Dutta
- She was one of the members of Master Da Surya Sen’s revolutionary group (an influential Indian revolutionary), who carried forward the work of PritilataWaddedar.
- She was a member of Chattri Sangha (a semi-revolutionary organization for women, Kolkata). She was part of the armoury loot, and the first attempt at torching Pahartoli Club (which led to the death of Pritilata).
- She became member of a revolutionary group, Deepali Sangha (a rebellion organization established by Leela Nag – the advocate of women education, where combat training was imparted to women).
- She worked under the leadership of Surya Sen and led the attack along with fellow revolutionaries on Pahartali European Club – symbolizing the British supremacy.
- Santi Ghosh and Sunitichoudhury
- They are known for her participation in an armed revolutionary struggle
- They assassinated a British district magistrate
- They co-founded the Chhatri Sangha (Girl Students Association)
- The Chittagong armory raid
- Also known as the Chittagong uprising, was an attempt on 18 April 1930 by armed Indian independence fighters led by Surya Sen to raid the Chittagong armory of police and auxiliary forces in British India’s Bengal Presidency (now Bangladesh).
- The raiders belonged to the revolutionary Indian Republican Army, which advocated for armed uprisings to liberate India from British colonial rule.
- AliporeBomb Case 1908
- In 1908 a revolutionary conspiracy was intrigued to kill the Chief Presidency Magistrate D.H. Kingford of Muzaffarpur. The task was entrusted to Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki. They threw the bombs on a vehicle coming out of the magistrate’s home on April 30, 1908. The magistrate could not be killed as he was not in the vehicle, but two British ladies were killed in the attack. Prafulla Chaki committed suicide after cornered by the Police and Khudi Ram Bose was arrested
- The ‘Alipore Bomb Case’ was “the first state trial of any magnitude in India”.
- The British Government arrested Sri Aurobindo, a prominent Nationalist Leader at the time, Barindra Ghose, and many young revolutionaries. They were charged with “Conspiracy” or “waging war against the King” – the equivalent of high treason and punishable with death by hanging.
- The judgment was finally delivered by Judge Beachcroft on 6 May 1909 after a protracted trial of one year. Sri Aurobindo was acquitted of all charges with the Judge condemning the flimsy nature of the evidence against him. Of the thirty-seven prisoners on trial, Barindra Ghose, as the head of the Secret society of revolutionaries (Manicktolla Secret Society) and UllaskarDutt, as the maker of bombs, were given the death penalty (later commuted to transportation for life), seventeen others were given varying terms of imprisonment or transportation and the rest were acquitted.
3. Why is there divergence in inflation across States?
India’s economy grew at a slower-than-expected 13.5% in the first quarter of the year. Private consumption picked up, but inflation has been a dampener.
- But an analysis of State-wise inflation prints for this period reveals that 14 States as well as three UTs, including Jammu and Kashmir, have faced higher than the national inflation, most of them averaging over 7% in the same period while some states (West Bengal, Telangana) faced above 8% inflation.
What explains the variations in price rise among the States?
- States that are not major crop producers have higher food inflation as transport costs are added on, and those with predominantly rural areas also clock more inflation as the CPI for rural areas assigns a higher weightage to food
- Consumption patterns and divergences in different items’ price trends also influence variations among States.
- Some States lowered their fuel taxes also made a difference.
Why does it matter?
- While the share of private consumption has spiked to nearly 60% of GDP in Q1 2022-23, this persistently high inflation has dented spending propensity, particularly in rural India that is facing more price pressures.
- With the monsoon’s progress still uneven, there is anxiety about rural demand even as inflationary pressures will continue to cramp household budgets.
- Identifying what is driving inflation higher (or lower) in some States vis-à-vis others could help policy makers address those pressure points more specifically to provide lasting relief to consumers, apart from other broad-brush ploys such as interest rate hikes and trade curbs to cool prices of individual items.
4. At Vostok-22- why is India not joining naval drill?
- From September 1-7, Russia is holding annual military exercises in its eastern region, with about 13 countries including India and China sending contingents.
- They include a maritime component near the disputed islands of South Kuril, claimed by both Russia and Japan.
Who is taking part in Vostok-22?
- The countries that have sent military contingents are Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, China, Laos, Mongolia, Nicaragua, Syria and Tajikistan, according to the Russian Ministry of Defence
- However, India has only sent its army contingent of the 7/8 Gorkha Rifles, and will nottake part in the maritime section of the two-part event. This is because, while the first part of the land exercises will be held in Russian military training grounds in Siberia and the Far Eastern Federal District, the maritime part of the exercises would be held in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan, near the disputed South Kuril islands. Japan’s Foreign Ministry issued a demarche calling on Russia to move the location of its maritime exercises, which the Russian Ambassador in Tokyo rejected, and India’s decision not to take part in the naval exercises is believed to be in deference to Tokyo’s sensitivities.
What does India’s participation mean and what is the likely impact?
- By sending an army contingent to join Russian and Chinese troops in the exercises at this time, New Delhi is aiming to send a four-pronged message. The first is its continuing relationship with Russia despite the Ukraine war
- The second is to signal balance and non-alignment in the current crisis, given India has mostly abstained from votes at the United Nations seeking to criticise Russia.
- India also takes part in routine Indo-Pacific exercises with its Western partners including the Quad, as well as in bilateral exercises, like the India-U.S. “YudhAbhyas” in Uttarakhand next month. These exercises will take place just after Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Uzbekistan for the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit in September, where he will participate alongside leaders of Russia, China, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, who have sent contingents for Vostok-22 as well.
- Third, by staying away from the maritime exercises, New Delhi has shown both its sensitivity to Japan’s concerns on maintaining the status quo over the disputed islands as well as stressing the importance of territorial sovereignty and integrity for India.
- Finally, the message the government continues to give is that it is willing to engage with China on a number of fronts, even as military talks with China at the LAC (Line of Actual Control) remain stuck.
Other Exercises of India and Russia:
- Exercise TSENTR 2019 (Multilateral Military Exercise).
- Indra Exercises – Joint Tri-Services (Army, Navy, Air Force) Exercises.
- ZAPAD 2021 (Multilateral Military Exercise).
- India- RUSSIA PASSEX (International Passage Exercise)
Other Exercises of India and USA:
- Ex VAJRA PRAHAR of ARMY
- MALABAR of NAVY
- RIMPAC (Multilateral) of NAVY
- RED FLAG 16-1 of Air Force
5. What is kurki and why is it a big issue in Punjab?
Section: Post Independence
- A 65-year-old farmer, Balwinder Singh, died by suicide outside the office of the Muktsar DC on August 29. He had been sitting on a dharna outside the administrative complex against kurki orders for his land based on a court case filed against him by the local moneylender for defaulting on loan payment.
What is kurki?
- Kurki means attachment of a farmer’s land, already pledged to the money lending institution or individual, in case of a loan default.
- Apart from banks, private moneylenders, commission agents also get these decrees against farmers from time to time.
How is kurki executed?
- Kurki orders are executed under Section 60 of Civil Procedure Code, 1908.
- The land which is pledged by the farmer to the bank or money lender gets registered in their name. In some cases, the land is auctioned as well.
- The process begins after the money lender moves court to get kurki orders in case the farmer is unable to pay back his loan.
- In kurki, attachment of farmer’s land as well as his tractor can be done as per the Section 60.
Was kurki not banned in Punjab?
- Soon after winning polls in 2017, the then Amarinder Singh government abolished Section 67-A of Punjab Cooperative Societies Actthat enabled cooperatives to recover unpaid loans through auctioning of land mortgaged by farmers.
- However, Section 63-B, 63-C of the Act were not dropped to prevent attachment of land.
What is the ground reality?
- Farmers point out that they are made to give post-dated cheques for loan, which are then used to get arrest orders issued in cheque bounce cases. They have also accused money lenders of using pronotes signed by them to get kurki orders.
- “Pro-notes” (promissory notes) are written documents taken from farmers, and signed by them at the time of giving the loan.
- Meanwhile, over Rs 3,200 crores is outstanding against farmers’ names in cooperative societies and Punjab agriculture development banks and over 60% of farmers haven’t paid even a penny for the past three years, sources revealed.
6. New sub-lineages of monkeypox virus emerge
Subject: Science and Technology
- Monkeypox was a neglected disease until early this year, with few reports on cases, and that too from travellers, though the disease was endemic in Central and Eastern Africa for many years.
- The disease has predominantly affected males aged between 30-43 years, although demographics have been found to differ between regions. For instance, in West and Central Africa, a larger number of cases are reported among younger individuals.
- A small proportion of pediatric cases of monkeypox have also been reported from the U.S. and with the increase in cases in the country, it is likely that more cases will be found in young children and other vulnerable groups.
- Despite a slow decline in cases globally, monkeypox cases continue to rise rapidly in Latin America
- Following the new nomenclature, the monkeypox virus variant formerly known as the CongoBasin or Central African clade will be denoted as Clade I.
- While the former West African variant, which is the main circulating clade in the current outbreak, will be denoted as Clade II. Clade II of the monkeypox virus encompasses two subclades, denoted as Clade IIa and Clade IIb.
- At least two distinct lineages of the virus are known to be circulating in the present outbreak. The European outbreak was largely contributed by the IIb.B.1 lineage of virus, but a distinct but smaller lineage (IIb.A.2) presently encompassing genomes from India, the U.K., the U.S. and Thailand was also identified.
- The continued spread of the IIb.B.1 lineage which encompasses the majority of the genomes has resulted in many sub-lineages — over eight, including the recent one designated from Peru (B.1.6), the U.K. (B.1.7) and Germany(B.1.8).
- The quantum of asymptomatic monkeypox transmission and the efficacy of vaccinia vaccine in preventing spread would be of immediate importance.
Subject : Science and Technology
Context: Union Minister Dr. Jitendra Singh says, India’s first-ever “Night Sky Sanctuary” to be set up in Ladakh; the proposed Dark Sky Reserve will be completed at Hanle in Ladakh within 3 months; it will boost Astro tourism in India
- Dark Sky Sanctuary has an exceptional or distinguished quality of starry nights and a nocturnal environment that is protected for its scientific, natural, or educational value, its cultural heritage and/or public enjoyment.
- A sanctuary differs from a Dark Sky Park or Reserve in that it is typically situated in a very remote location with few (if any) nearby threats to the quality of its dark night skies and it does not otherwise meet the requirements for designation as a park or reserve. The typical geographic isolation of Dark Sky Sanctuaries significantly limits opportunities for public outreach, so a sanctuary designation is specifically designed to increase awareness of these fragile sites and promote their long-term conservation.
- The Department of Science & Technology (DST), Govt of India, has undertaken to set up India’s first-ever “Night Sky Sanctuary” in Ladakh which will be completed within next three months.
- The proposed Dark Sky Reserve will be located at Hanle in Ladakh as a part ofChangthang Wildlife Sanctuary. It will boost Astro tourism in India and will be one of the world’s highest-located sites for optical, infra-red, and gamma-ray telescopes.
- A tripartite MoU was signed recently among the the UT administration, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC) Leh and the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA) for launching the Dark Space Reserve.
- Being a cold desert region, Ladakh holds great potential for undertaking uninterrupted astronomical observations.
- Dry weather and clear sky conditions prevail during most months of the year, making Hanlea naturally perfect setup for sky gazing and setting up astronomical observatories.
- At a height of 4,500 metres, Hanle is already home to an optical, a gamma ray and an infrared telescope at the Indian Astronomical Observatory complex operated by the IIA. These telescopes have been used to study stars, galaxies, exoplanets and the evolution of our Universe.