Daily Prelims Notes 5 August 2022
- August 5, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
5 August 2022
Table Of Contents
- RBI Monetary Policy Highlights
- Unsung tribal freedom fighters
- Harness the potential of Ocean resources.
- Increasing the forest cover
- Decline in Quantity and Quality of Ground water
- The Earth has recorded its shortest day since the 1960s — why are we spinning faster and what impact can it have?
- CJI Ramana names Justice U.U. Lalit as successor
- What are rare earth elements and why is India keen to join a global alliance to ensure their supply?
- The Family Courts (Amendment) Bill 2022 and why it relates to only two States
- Kerala stares at repeat of 2018 floods as rain fury continues
1. RBI Monetary Policy Highlights
Section: Monetary policy
The central bank raised the repo rate to above pre-pandemic level and the Monetary Policy Committee is focused on withdrawal of accommodation.
- The RBI Governor said that India has witnessed–financial stability, macroeconomic stability and resilience of growth despite two Black Swan events i.e. the coronavirus pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine war.
- Black Swan event refers to an unpredictable event that has negative consequences.
- The key lending rate–the repo rate, has been raised by 50 basis points (bps).
- A 1% change equals a change of 100 basis points.
- The repo rate now stands at 5.4 per cent.
- The RBI’s hawkish stance will also stabilize the rupee from depreciating further.
- Inflation projection for the current financial year remains unchanged at 6.7 percent.
- It denotes that the retail inflation would remain above the upper tolerance level of 6 per cent through the first three quarters of 2022-23.
- RBI has expanded the scope of the Internal Ombudsman framework by mandating Credit Information Companies (CICs) to have their own Internal Ombudsman (IO) framework.
The Reserve Bank – Integrated Ombudsman Scheme, 2021
- It integrates the existing three Ombudsman schemes of RBI namely:
- the Banking Ombudsman Scheme, 2006;
- the Ombudsman Scheme for Non-Banking Financial Companies, 2018;
- the Ombudsman Scheme for Digital Transactions, 2019.
- It also includes under its ambit Non-Scheduled Primary Co-operative Banks with a deposit size of ₹50 crore and above.
- The Scheme adopts the ‘One Nation One Ombudsman’ approach by making the RBI Ombudsman mechanism jurisdiction neutral.
- It is framed by the Reserve Bank under Section 35A of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, Section 45L of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and Section 18 of the Payment and Settlement Systems Act, 2007
- It will provide cost-free redress of customer complaints involving deficiency in services rendered by entities regulated by RBI, if not resolved to the satisfaction of the customers or not replied within a period of 30 days by the regulated entity.
- It will no longer be necessary for a complainant to identify under which scheme he/she should file a complaint with the Ombudsman.
- The Scheme has done away with the jurisdiction of each ombudsman office.
- A Centralised Receipt and Processing Centre has been set up at RBI, Chandigarh for receipt and initial processing of physical and email complaints in any language.
- The Regulated Entity will not have the right to appeal in cases where an Award is issued by the ombudsman against it for not furnishing satisfactory and timely information/documents.
|Repo rate and monetary policy stances- already covered|
2. Unsung tribal freedom fighters
Section: Modern India
Context: Ministry of Culture has released the third Comic book on stories of 20 Tribal Freedom Fighters on 2nd August at Tiranga Utsav celebration in New Delhi.
- Tilka Majhi rebelled against the atrocities of the British East India Company. He mobilised the Pahadia tribe to which he belonged and raided the Company treasury. He was hanged.
- ThalakkalChanthu of the Kurichiyar tribe was an invaluable part of Pazhassi Raja’s war against the East India Company. He was hanged
- Budhu Bhagat of the Oraon tribe was shot down in one of his many encounters with the British, along with his brother, seven sons and 150 men from his tribe.
- Tirot Singh, a Khasi chief, realised the duplicity of the British and waged war against them. He was captured, tortured and imprisoned. He died in prison.
- Iv RaghojiBhangre belonged to the Mahadeo Koli tribe. He revolted against the British and continued his struggle even though his mother was imprisoned. He was captured and hanged.
- Sidhu and KanhuMurmu from the Santhal community, revolted against the British and their stooges. They led the Santhal in the Hul rebellion. Both were betrayed, caught and hanged.
- RendoManjhi and Chakra Bisoi of the Khond tribe objected to the British interfering in their customs. Rendo was caught and hanged while Chakra Bisoi became a fugitive and died in hiding.
- The Indian Uprising in Meerut had begun. Nilambar and Pitamber who belonged to the Bhogta clan of the Kharwar tribe were inspired to revolt and led their people to rise up against British oppression. They were both captured and hanged.
- Ramji Gond of the Gond tribe rose against the feudal system by which wealthy landlords oppressed the poor with the support of the British. He was caught and hanged,
- Telanga Kharia of the Kharia tribe, refused to accept the tax system of the British and their governance. He insisted that they follow their traditional method of self-governance and organized raids on the treasury. He was betrayed and shot dead.
- Tantiya Bhil, known as the Robin Hood of the Central Provinces, robbed trains carrying British wealth and distributed it among his tribe, the Bhils. He was trapped and hanged.
- Major PaonaBrajabasi of Manipur, fought to defend the kingdom of Manipur. He was the hero of the Anglo-Manipur war. He fought like a lion but was overpowered and beheaded.
- Birsa Munda, of the Munda tribe, became a legend in his opposition to the British. He led the Mundas in a series of confrontations with them. He was caught and imprisoned and according to British records, died of cholera. He was 25 years old when he died.
- MatmurJamoh of the Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh, rebelled against the arrogance of the British. He and his companions surrendered to the British as their villages were being burnt. They were sent to the Cellular Jail and died there.
- Tana Bhagat of the Oraon tribe was inspired by a divine vision to preach to his people and make them aware of the exploitation of their British overlords. He was caught and tortured severely. He was released, a broken man, and died subsequently.
- Malati Mem of the Tea-garden community was inspired to join Mahatma Gandhi’s satyagraha movement. She fought against the British monopoly over opium and educated her people about the dangers of opium addiction. During an encounter with the police, she was shot dead.
- Laxman Naik of the Bhuyan tribe, was also inspired by Gandhi and campaigned extensively to get tribes to join the freedom movement. The British framed him for the killing of a friend and he was hanged to death.
- Helen Lepcha of the Lepcha tribe, was an ardent follower of Mahatma Gandhi. Her influence over her people made the British restless. She was shot at, imprisoned and hounded but she never lost courage. In 1941 she helped Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose escape from house arrest and travel to Germany. She was awarded the Tamra Patra for her invaluable contribution to the freedom struggle.
- Pulimaya Devi Podar heard Gandhi when she was in school and wanted to join the freedom struggle immediately. Despite stiff opposition from her family she joined the movement after her studies and encouraged women to join her. She was imprisoned for her participation in protests. After independence she continued to serve her people and was awarded the title of ‘Swatantra Sainani’.
3. Harness the potential of Ocean resources.
Section: Economic Geography
Context: Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has taken many initiatives to harness the potential of Ocean resources.
- Government of India has signed a 15 year contract with International Seabed Authority (ISA) for exploration of polymetallic nodules from Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) in 2002.
- MoES has undertaken exploration and other developmental activities related to polymetallic sulphides under a 15 years contract signed in 2016 with International Seabed Authority (ISA) for exploration of polymetallic sulphides in the allotted area of 10,000 sq km along Central Indian Ridge (CIR) & Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) region of the Indian Ocean.
- National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) under MoES has developed, demonstrated and operated unmanned remotely operated systems to harness ocean resources.
- Marine Living Resources Programme (MLRP).:
- Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology (CMLRE) of MoES explored the deep-sea living resources under Marine Living Resources Programme (MLRP).
- The programme covers the regular monitoring of the Indian ecosystems covering pelagic to deep sea realms vis-à-vis documenting the taxonomic information and development of technology for harnessing resources.
- Geological Survey of India (GSI) under Ministry of Mines has delineated prospective offshore areas within Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India for marine mineral resources like lime mud, heavy mineral placers [ilmenite, monazite, rutile, sillimanite, garnet, zircon], and construction sand.
4. Increasing the forest cover
Status of forest cover:
- The India State of Forest Reports published by the Ministry shows that overall at the national level forest cover has increased by 21,762 square kilometre in the last one decade. There is no decreasing trend in forest cover of the country.
- As per the latest ISFR 2021, the total forest cover of the country has increased by 12,294 square kilometres in the last seven years (ISFR 2015 to ISFR 2021).
Steps taken for afforestation purpose by MOEF&CC :
- Green India Mission(GIM) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, is one of the eight Missions outlined under the National Action Plan on Climate Change. It aims at protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s forest cover and responding to Climate Change by undertaking plantation activities in the forest and non-forest areas.
- Nagar Van Yojana (NVY)
- It is being implemented since the year 2020 which envisages developing 400 Nagar Vans and 200 Nagar Vatika in the country during the period of 2020-21 to 2024-25
- It works with an objective to significantly enhance the tree outside forests and green cover, enhancement of biodiversity and ecological benefits to the urban and peri-urban areas apart from improving quality of life of city dwellers with the funds under the National Fund of the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA).
- ‘School Nursery Yojana’ (SNY) is implemented since the year 2020 for a period of five years where students of class Sixth, Seventh and Eighth from all public and private schools organized by State Boards/ Central Government Boards all over the country will be actively involved in developing nursery, raising and planting seedlings as part of school curriculum.
- Others: Afforestation activities are also taken up under various programmes/funding sources such as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, Compensatory Afforestation Funds under Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA).
5. Decline in Quantity and Quality of Ground water
Section: Economic Geography
Context: Analysis of water level data indicates that about 70% of the wells monitored have registered rise in ground water level whereas, about 30 % wells have registered decline in water level.
- The Availability of groundwater resource depends upon a number of factors like intensity & period of rainfall, geological strata of the area, number of existing recharge structures, extraction by consumers for various purposes like industrial applications, drinking/domestic purposes, irrigation practices including cropping pattern and crop intensity etc.
Status of Ground Water by CGWB
- Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) is periodically monitoring the ground water levels and water quality throughout the country on a regional scale, through a network of monitoring wells.
- These studies indicate the occurrence of Fluoride, Arsenic, Nitrate, Iron and Heavy Metals beyond the BIS permissible limits in isolated pockets in certain parts of the country.
- Analysis of water level data indicates that about 70% of the wells monitored have registered rise in ground water level whereas, about 30 % wells have registered decline in water level.
- Further, it has been observed that nitrate contamination is mostly Anthropogenic and its spread has been noticed in some areas, particularly areas adjoining habitations. Further, nitrate contamination can also be caused by use of fertilizers.
- As per Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) study, groundwater pollution is mostly Geogenic in nature and does not show significant change over the years.
Steps in Conservation of water bodies:
Census of Water Bodies: The Ministry of Jal Shakti has launched the first Census of Water Bodies in convergence with the Sixth Minor Irrigation Census (reference year 2017-18) with the objective of developing a national database of all water bodies in the country.
Steps in Conservation of Water bodies:
- Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) was launched in 2019 in water stressed blocks of 256 districts which continued during the year 2021 (across entire country both rural and urban areas) also with the primary aim to eﬀectively harvest the monsoon rainfall through creation of artiﬁcial recharge structures, watershed management, recharge and reuse structures, intensive aﬀorestation and awareness generation etc..
- Amrit Sarovar Mission launched on 24thApril 2022 is aimed at developing and rejuvenating 75 water bodies in each district of the country.
- Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) scheme: Rejuvenation of water bodies is also a component under water supply sector of Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) scheme under Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs. AMRUT 2.0, launched in October, 2021.
- Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch The Rain” (JSA:CTR) campaign: Focused interventions under these annual campaigns taken up by the Government of India and the State Governments, include renovation of traditional and other water bodies, enumeration, geo-tagging and making inventory of all water bodies, and removal of encroachments, and de-silting of tanks, and protection of water catchment area.
- Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGS) has provisions for public works relating to natural resource management, water conservation and water harvesting structures to augment and improve ground water like underground dykes, earthen dams, stop dams, check dams and roof top rain water harvesting structures in public buildings.
Steps taken to manage/control groundwater extraction by various users including irrigation: “Linking of crop pattern with ground water Availability”
- ‘Sahi Fasal’campaign:
- It was launched by the Department of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation on 2019 to nudge farmers in the water stressed areas to grow crops which are economically remunerative, healthy & nutritious, suited to the agro-climatic-hydro characteristics of the area, environmentally friendly and are not water intensive.
- Creating awareness among farmers on appropriate crops, micro-irrigation, soil moisture conservation, weaning them away from water intensive crops to crops requiring less water, assisting policy makers to frame policies etc are some of the key elements of the campaign.
- National Aquifer Mapping Program (NAQUIM):
- It is implemented by CGWB with an aim to identify the groundwater aquifer system along-with their characterization for its sustainable management.
- Out of the total mappable area of nearly 25 lakh sq km, nearly 10 lakh sq km of the area (as on 30th June 2022) in the country has been covered. The balance area has been targeted to be covered by March 2023.
- Atal Bhujal Yojana:
- It is implemented by the central government with an outlay of 6,000 crore, in collaboration with States, in certain water stressed areas of Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
- The primary aim of the scheme is demand side management including implementation of crop rotation/diversification, changing crop pattern, use of sprinklers/drip irrigation system etc by involving the local communities at village levels leading to sustainable groundwater management in the targeted areas.
- Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY): Government of India is providing financial assistance to the States under Repair, Renovation and Restoration of Water Bodies component of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) – Har Khet Ko Pani (HKKP).
- The National Water Policy (NWP) – 2012 states that water saving in irrigation use is of paramount importance. It further states methods like aligning cropping pattern with natural resource endowments, micro irrigation (drip, sprinkler, etc.), automated irrigation operation, evaporation-transpiration reduction etc., should be encouraged and incentivized.
- Water is a State subject and several States have done notable work in the ﬁeld of water conservation/harvesting such as ‘Mukhyamantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan’ in Rajasthan, ‘JalyuktShibar’ in Maharashtra, ‘SujalamSufalam Abhiyan’ in Gujarat, ‘Mission Kakatiya’ in Telangana, NeeruChettu’ in Andhra Pradesh, Jal Jeevan Hariyali in Bihar, ‘Jal Hi Jeevan’ in Haryana, and Kudimaramath scheme in Tamil Nadu.
- However, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) in association with State Pollution Control Boards/Pollution Control Committees (SPCBs/PCCs) is implementing the provisions of the Water (Prevention & Control) Act, 1974 and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 in the country to prevent and control pollution in water.
6. The Earth has recorded its shortest day since the 1960s — why are we spinning faster and what impact can it have?
- On June 29, the Earth completed one full spin — a day — in 1.59 milliseconds less than its routine 24 hours.
So, the Earth is in a hurry. Is this new?
- While the Earth has been completing its rotations faster in recent years, when looked at over a much longer period of time, our planet is actually spinning slower.
- Every century, the Earth takes a few milliseconds longer to complete one rotation — and on average, days are actually getting longer. So, 1.4 billion years ago, a day would have ended in less than 19 hours, The Guardian reported in 2018, quoting a scientific paper published that year. The paper attributed the larger trend of the Earth’s slower spin mostly to the gravitational pull of the Moon, which causes tidal friction and slows down the Earth’s rotations.
Then why are days getting shorter these days?
- Hypothesis says that climate change-induced surface variations, which impact the way that the Earth spins, could be a reason. These surface variations include melting ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, as well as changes in ocean circulation.
- Experts assume that the cause is internal and lies in the movement of Earth’s core. Among the many processes that affect the speed of the Earth are movements in the planet’s inner molten core, seismic activity, wind speed, and shifting atmospheric gases.
- Activities that push mass towards the centre of the Earth will hasten the planet’s rotation, while anything that pushes mass outwards will slow down the spin.
- Some experts suggest that the shortened length of the day could be related to the ‘Chandler wobble’, a phenomenon that refers to the small deviation in the movement of Earth’s geographical poles.
- The normal amplitude of the Chandler wobble is about three to four metres at Earth’s surface, but from 2017 to 2020 it disappeared
- The spinning Earth is affected by many factors, including changes in the way the winds blow or currents in the ocean. Some of these factors can act to speed the planet up, while others literally drag it down
What can happen if the Earth continues to spin faster on a sustained basis?
- To ensure that the time on clocks matches the speed of the Earth’s rotation, a system of leap seconds has been used since the 1970s. They involve one-second adjustments to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the time standard used to synchronize clocks around the world. Due to the long-term slowing in the planet’s spin, 27 leap seconds have been added to UTC.
- However, if the Earth continues to spin faster and days subsequently become shorter, scientists may have to introduce the first ever ‘negative leap second,’ which involves a subtraction of a second from clock
7. CJI Ramana names Justice U.U. Lalit as successor
Context: Chief Justice of India N.V. Ramana on Thursday, August 4, 2022 recommended to the government the name of Justice Uday Umesh Lalit as his successor and the 49th Chief Justice of India.
- The ‘Memorandum of Procedure of Appointment of Supreme Court Judges’ says “appointment to the office of the Chief Justice of India should be of the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court considered fit to hold the office”.
- The process, according to the Memorandum, begins with the Union Law Minister seeking the recommendation of the outgoing CJI about the next appointment.
- The Minister has to seek the CJI’s recommendation “at the appropriate time”. The Memorandum does not elaborate or specify a timeline.
- The Memorandum says that “after receipt of the recommendation of the Chief Justice of India, the Union Minister of Law, Justice and Company Affairs will put up the recommendation to the Prime Minister who will advise the President in the matter of appointment”.
- The Chief Justice of India and the Judges of the Supreme Court (SC) are appointed by the President under clause (2) of Article 124 of the Constitution.
- SC in the Second Judges Case (1993),ruled that the senior most judge of the Supreme Court should alone be appointed to the office of the CJI.
- The Supreme Court collegium is headed by the Chief Justice of India and comprises four other senior most judges of the court.
- The collegium system is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court (Judges Cases), and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.
8. What are rare earth elements and why is India keen to join a global alliance to ensure their supply?
Section: Economic Geography
- Rare earths are critical for a range of electronic products including electric and hybrid vehicles, to which India is committed. As the Covid-19 pandemic disruption and geopolitical tensions with China have demonstrated, the Chinese near-monopoly over their production and export creates major supply-side insecurities.
What is the Minerals Security Partnership (MSP)?
- The US and 10 partners — Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea), Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the European Commission — have come together to form the MSP. The new grouping is aimed at catalysing investment from governments and the private sector to develop strategic opportunities.
- The new grouping, industry insiders say, could focus on the supply chains of minerals such as Cobalt, Nickel, Lithium, and also the 17 ‘rare earth’ minerals. The alliance is seen as primarily focused on evolving an alternative to China, which has created processing infrastructure in rare earth minerals and has acquired mines in Africa for elements such as Cobalt.
What are rare earth elements?
- The 17 rare earth elements (REE) include the 15 Lanthanides (atomic numbers 57 — which is Lanthanum — to 71 in the periodic table) plus Scandium (atomic number 21) and Yttrium (39). REEs are classified as light RE elements (LREE) and heavy RE elements (HREE).
- Some REEs are available in India — such as Lanthanum, Cerium, Neodymium, Praseodymium and Samarium, Others such as Dysprosium, Terbium, and Europium, which are classified as HREEs, are not available in Indian deposits in extractable quantities. Hence, there is a dependence on countries such as China for HREEs, which is one of the leading producers of REEs, with an estimated 70 per cent share of the global production.
- According to the US Geological Survey, supplies from China had started to become erratic as early as 1990, as Beijing kept changing the amounts that it would allow to be produced and exported. Also, according to the USGS, the Chinese government began to limit the number of companies, both Chinese and Sino-foreign joint ventures, that could export REEs from China.
Why are these minerals important?
- Minerals like Cobalt, Nickel, and Lithium are required for batteries used in electric vehicles. REEs are an essential — although often tiny — component of more than 200 consumer products, including mobile phones, computer hard drives, electric and hybrid vehicles, semiconductors, flatscreen TVs and monitors, and high-end electronics. India is seen as a late mover in attempts to enter the lithium value chain, coming at a time when EVs are predicted to be a sector ripe for disruption.
What is India’s major concern at this moment?
- “If India is not able to explore and produce these minerals, it will have to depend on a handful of countries, including China, to power its energy transition plans to electric vehicles. That will be similar to our dependence on a few countries for oil,” an economist said.
- Industry watchers say that the reason India would not have found a place in the MSP grouping is because the country does not bring any expertise to the table. In the group, countries like Australia and Canada have reserves and also the technology to extract them, and countries like Japan have the technology to process REEs.
9. The Family Courts (Amendment) Bill 2022 and why it relates to only two States
- Family Courts (Amendment) Bill, 2022 was passed to allow State govts to establish family courts to promote conciliation and ensure that disputes related to family affairs and marriage are promptly settled.
- Centre has to notify a date for the Act to come into force in a State where such courts have been set up
The Family Courts Act, 1984 and its provisions
- The Family Courts Act was enacted in 1984 for the establishment of family courts by States to deal with disputes related to family and marriage.
- Under the Act, the setting up of family courts and their functioning comes under the purview of the State governments in consultation with their respective high courts. The Act also lays down provisions for the appointment of judges in family courts.
7thSchedule : Concurrent List
No 5. Marriage and divorce; infants and minors; adoption; wills, intestacy and succession; joint family and partition; all matters in respect of which parties in judicial proceedings were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution subject to their personal law.
10. Kerala stares at repeat of 2018 floods as rain fury continues
- The release of water from the Parambikulam and Thoonakkadavu dams to the Poringalkuthu dam has resulted in the Chalakudy river breaching the banks in many places, forcing district administrations in Thrissur and Ernakulam to evacuate people from the banks of the river.
- Chalakudy River or ChalakudyPuzha is the fifth longest river in Kerala, India. The river flows through Thrissur district, Palakkad district and Ernakulam district of Kerala.
- Chalakudy River and its basin area were one of the most affected rivers during the 2018 Kerala floods
- Source-AnamalaiHills,Mouth – Periyar River
The Pamba River
- The Pamba River (also called Pampa river) is the longest river in the Indian state of Kerala after Periyar and Bharathappuzha, and the longest river in the erstwhile former princely state of Travancore. Sabarimala temple dedicated to Lord Ayyappa is located on the banks of the river Pamba.
- The river is also known as ‘DakshinaBhageerathi’. During ancient times it was called ‘River Baris‘.The River Pamba enriches the lands of Pathanamthitta District and the Kuttanad area of Alappuzha District and few areas of Kottayam
- Source-Pulachimala,MouthVembanad Lake &Thottappally Spillway
- Periyar is the longest river and the river with the largest discharge potential in the Indian state of Kerala. It is one of the few perennial rivers in the region and provides drinking water for several major towns. The Periyar is of utmost significance to the economy of Kerala
- It generates a significant proportion of Kerala’s electrical power via the Idukki Dam and flows along a region of industrial and commercial activity.
- Source-Chokkampatti Mala, Periyar Tiger Reserve, Mouth-Arabian Sea, Vembanad Lake
- Right-Mullayar, Perinjankutti, Muthirapuzha, Edamala
- Cities – Kochi, Neriamangalam, Kalady, Malayattoor
- Bharathappuzha , also known as the Nila or PonnaniRiverorKuttippuram River, is a river in India in the state of Kerala.
- It is the second longest river that flows through Kerala after the Periyar.
- It flows through Palakkad Gap, which is also the largest opening in the Kerala portion of Western Ghats.
- Source- AnamalaiHills,Mouth- Lakshadweep Sea
- Tributaries-Thuthapuzha, Gayathripuzha, Kalpathipuzha, Kannadipuzha, Tirur River