Daily Prelims Notes 5 July 2020
- July 5, 2020
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme (ECLGS) scheme
- Right of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act, 2016
- Bon Bibi Palagaan
- G4 virus and Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN)
- Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In)
- Raman Spectroscopy
- Serological test
As per Finance Ministry data, banks have sanctioned 36.7 per cent of the targeted Rs 3 lakh crore under the Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme (ECLGS) scheme for stressed micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs).
- Finance Minister on May 13 announced collateral-free loans up to Rs 3 lakh crore backed by government guarantee.
- The 100% collateral-free MSME loan is being called the Emergency Credit Line Guarantee Scheme (ECLGS), which is being provided by the National Credit Guarantee Trustee Company (NCGTC) to banks, NBFCs and Financial Institutions (FIs).
- The Scheme is valid for existing customers of a bank, NBFC or FI. This means this scheme is not for new borrowers. Also, the loan account should be less than or equal to 60 days past due as on 29th February, 2020 and the borrower has not been classified as SMA 2 or NPA by any of the lender as on 29th February, 2020. A borrower must also be registered under GST, unless the business is not required or exempted from having a GST registration.
- In view of the critical role of the MSME sector in the economy and in providing employment, the proposed Scheme is expected to provide much needed relief to the sector by incentivizing MLIs to provide additional credit of up to Rs.3 lakh crore to the sector at low cost, thereby enabling MSMEs to meet their operational liabilities and restart their businesses.
- By supporting MSMEs to continue functioning during the current unprecedented situation, the Scheme is also expected to have a positive impact on the economy and support its revival.
Department of Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities move to decriminalize minor offences under Right of Persons with Disabilities (RPwD) Act, 2016 has attracted protest from people.
- The Act replaces the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995. It fulfills the obligations to the United National Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), to which India is a signatory. The Act came into force during December 2016.
- The types of disabilities have been increased from existing 7 to 21 and the Central Government will have the power to add more types of disabilities.
- Persons with “benchmark disabilities” are defined as those certified to have at least 40 per cent of the disabilities specified above.
Rights and entitlements under act
- Responsibility has been cast upon the appropriate governments to take effective measures to ensure that the persons with disabilities enjoy their rights equally with others.
- Additional benefits such as reservation in higher education (not less than 5%), government jobs (not less than 4 %), reservation in allocation of land, poverty alleviation schemes (5% allotment) etc. have been provided for persons with benchmark disabilities and those with high support needs.
- Every child with benchmark disability between the age group of 6 and 18 years shall have the right to free education.
- Government funded educational institutions as well as the government recognized institutions will have to provide inclusive education to the children with disabilities.
- For strengthening the Prime Minister’s Accessible India Campaign, stress has been given to ensure accessibility in public buildings (both Government and private) in a prescribed time-frame.
UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD)
- The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and its Optional Protocol was adopted on 13 December 2006 at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
- There were 82 signatories to the Convention. The Convention entered into force on 3 May 2008.
- It is the first comprehensive human rights treaty of the 21st century.
- The Convention follows decades of work by the United Nations to change attitudes and approaches to persons with disabilities.
- It takes to a new height the movement from viewing persons with disabilities as “objects” of charity, medical treatment and social protection towards viewing persons with disabilities as “subjects” with rights, who are capable of claiming those rights and making decisions for their lives based on their free and informed consent as well as being active members of society.
- The Convention is intended as a human rights instrument with an explicit, social development dimension.
- It adopts a broad categorization of persons with disabilities and reaffirms that all persons with all types of disabilities must enjoy all human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Subject: Arts and culture
The centuries-old folk theatre form and the worship of a forest goddess has helped the islanders of sunderbans to understand the power of nature and the limits the human need.
- BonbibiPalagaan is a dramatic performance tradition connected with the worship of the cult goddess Bonbibi.
- The followers of Bon Bibi are fishermen, crab-collectors and honey-gatherers many of them impoverished who go into the wild mangroves, teeming with wild animals such as tigers and crocodiles, to earn a livelihood. They believe that only Bon Bibi protects them when they enter the forest.
- Traditionally, Bonbibi-r Palagaan was simply recited or sung as a eulogy to the deity to invoke her blessings.
- In contrast to the Bengali literary canon, this popular performance-ritual, which is exclusively practised in the Sundarbans in lower delta region West Bengal and Bangladesh, has survived orally or through handwritten manuscripts in the periphery without receiving much recognition.
- The word ‘pala’ means a ‘long narrative verse’ and ‘gaan’ means ‘song’ in Bengali.
- BonbibiPalagaan is considered to be the representative performance-ritual of the Sundarbans and also an emblem of the syncretist nature of the region.
Researchers in China have discovered a new strain of the influenza virus which they claim has the potential to turn into a pandemic.
- The scientists identified the virus through surveillance of influenza viruses in pigs that they carried out from 2011 to 2018 in ten provinces of China.
- They found that the G4 strain has the capability of binding to human-type receptors (like, the SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to ACE2 receptors in humans), was able to copy itself in human airway epithelial cells
- While researchers have found that the virus can spread from animal to human, there is still no evidence about the passing to the G4 virus from human to human.
Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN)
- The Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network also referred to as GOARN is a global technical partnership , established by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a key mechanism to engage the resources of technical agencies beyond the United Nations for rapid identification, confirmation and response to public health emergencies of international importance.
- The main objective of the network is to provide technical support to WHO Member States experiencing a human health emergency due to various threats including disease outbreaks, food safety, chemical toxins, zoonosis, natural and manmade disasters etc.
- GOARN currently comprises over 250 technical institutions and networks (and their members) across the globe. These Partners include medical and surveillance initiatives, regional technical networks, networks of laboratories, United Nations organizations (e.g. UNICEF, UNHCR), the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (ICRC, IFRC), international humanitarian non-governmental organisations and national public health institutions. All have the ability to pool their resources rapidly to assist affected countries seeking support.
Subject: Government organizations
The reason behind ban of 59 apps is that several citizens had reportedly raised concerns to CERT-In regarding security of data and loss of privacy in using these apps. In addition, the Ministry received recommendations from Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre.
- CERT-In (the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team) is a government-mandated information technology (IT) security organization created in 2004.
- The purpose of CERT-In is to respond to computer security incidents, report on vulnerabilities and promote effective IT security practices throughout the country.
- According to the provisions of the Information Technology Amendment Act 2008, CERT-In is responsible for overseeing administration of the Act.
- CERT-In has been designated to serve as the national agency to perform the following functions in the area of cyber security:
- Collection, analysis and dissemination of information on cyber incidents.
- Forecast and alerts of cyber security incidents
- Emergency measures for handling cyber security incidents • Coordination of cyber incident response activities.
- Issue guidelines, advisories, vulnerability notes and whitepapers relating to information security practices, procedures, prevention, response and reporting of cyber incidents.
- Such other functions relating to cyber security as may be prescribed.
Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre
- The scheme to set up Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) was approved in October 2018, to deal with all types of cybercrimes in a comprehensive and coordinated manner.
- It act as a nodal point in the fight against cybercrime
- It identifies the research problems/needs of LEAs and take up R&D activities in developing new technologies and forensic tools in collaboration with academia / research institutes within India and abroad
- It prevents misuse of cyber space for furthering the cause of extremist and terrorist groups
- It suggests amendments, if required, in cyber laws to keep pace with fast changing technologies and International cooperation and coordinate all activities related to implementation of Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLAT) with other countries related to cybercrimes in consultation with the concerned nodal authority in MHA
- Components Of The I4C Scheme
- National Cybercrime Threat Analytics Unit (TAU)
- National Cybercrime Reporting
- Platform for Joint Cybercrime Investigation Team
- National Cybercrime Forensic Laboratory (NCFL) Ecosystem
- National Cybercrime Training Centre (NCTC)
- Cybercrime Ecosystem Management Unit
- National Cyber Crime Research and Innovation Centre
Subject: Science and tech
Mumbai-based Tata Memorial Centre has used Raman Spectroscopy to detect RNA viruses present in saliva samples.
- Raman Spectroscopy is a non-destructive chemical analysis technique which provides detailed information about chemical structure, phase and polymorphy, crystallinity and molecular interactions.
- It is based upon the interaction of light with the chemical bonds within a material.
- Raman is a light scattering technique, whereby a molecule scatters incident light from a high intensity laser light source. Most of the scattered light is at the same wavelength (or color) as the laser source and does not provide useful information – this is called Rayleigh Scatter.
- However a small amount of light (typically 0.0000001%) is scattered at different wavelengths (or colors), which depend on the chemical structure of the analyte and this is called Raman Scatter.
Subject: Science and tech
Researchers have foundfungi Ophicordycepsnutans for the first time in central India and show how it infects a stink bug and trying to explore the potential of using this fungus as biopesticide and medicine.
- Animals or plants used wilfully to destroy pests are called Biopesticides.
- These are pest management tools that are based on beneficial microorganisms (bacteria,viruses, fungi and protozoa), beneficial nematodes or other safe, biologically based active ingredients.
- Mechanism : Infecting the insect/pests when alive and killing them.
Subject:Science and tech
Various serological tests to detect antibodies against novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) could improve diagnosis of COVID-19 and be useful tools for epidemiological surveillance.
- ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a plate-based assay technique designed for detecting and quantifying peptides, proteins, antibodies and hormones.
- In an ELISA, an antigen must be immobilized to a solid surface and then complexed with an antibody that is linked to an enzyme.
- Detection is accomplished by assessing the conjugated enzyme activity via incubation with a substrate to produce a measureable product. The most crucial element of the detection strategy is a highly specific antibody-antigen interaction.
- ELISAs can be performed with a number of modifications to the basic procedure: direct, indirect, sandwich or competitive.
- The key step, immobilization of the antigen of interest, can be accomplished by direct adsorption to the assay plate or indirectly via a capture antibody that has been attached to the plate.The antigen is then detected either directly (enzyme-labeled primary antibody) or indirectly (enzyme-labeled secondary antibody). The detection antibodies are usually labeled with alkaline phosphatase (AP) or horseradish peroxidase (HRP).
- A large selection of substrates is available for performing the ELISA with an HRP or AP conjugate. The choice of substrate depends upon the required assay sensitivity and the instrumentation available for signal-detection (spectrophotometer, fluorometer or luminometer).
Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs)
- Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics.
- These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application.
- They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample.
- The most commonly known type of lateral flow rapid test strip is the pregnancy test
Chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIA)
- Chemiluminescent immunoassay is a variation of the standard enzyme immunoassay (EIA), which is a biochemical technique used in immunology.
- During EIA the process uses enzyme labeled antibodies and antigens to detect the small biological molecules required. The technique makes use of the basic immunology concept that an antigen binds a specific antibody. Such antigen molecules, which can be identified in a fluid sample, include molecules such as peptides, hormones and proteins.
- The enzymes used in chemiluminescentmicroparticle immunoassay convert a substrate to a reaction product, which emits a photon of light instead of developing a particular colour.
Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to fight antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins.The body makes different immunoglobulin to combat different antigens.
The five subclasses of antibodies are:
- Immunoglobulin A (IgA), which is found in high concentrations in the mucous membranes, particularly those lining the respiratory passages and gastrointestinal tract, as well as in saliva and tears.
- Immunoglobulin G (IgG), are involved in the secondary immune response (IgM is the main antibody involved in primary response). IgG can bind pathogens, like for example viruses, bacteria, and fungi, and thereby protects the body against infection and toxins. Comprising up to 80% of the antibodies found in the human body, IgG is the smallest, yet most abundant human antibody, and that of other mammals. IgG can be found in all bodily fluids, and is the only antibody that can protect a foetus by passing through the mother’s placenta.
- Immunoglobulin M (IgM), is the largest antibody, and it is the first antibody to appear in the response to initial exposure to an antigen. B-cells create IgM antibodies as a first line of defense. Their large size gives them excellent binding avidity, and can pick up trace amounts of infection to mark for recognition by phagocytes. IgM is primarily found in serum and due to its size, it cannot diffuse well, and is found in the interstitium only in very low quantities.
- Immunoglobulin E (IgE), which is associated mainly with allergic reactions (when the immune system overreacts to environmental antigens such as pollen or pet dander). It is found in the lungs, skin, and mucous membranes.
- Immunoglobulin D (IgD), which exists in small amounts in the blood, is the least understood antibody.