Daily Prelims Notes 7 November 2020
- November 7, 2020
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Table Of Contents
- CHIEF OF DEFENCE STAFF
- MEASLES, POLIO
- CYCLONE MISS
- PADHNA LIKHNA ABHIYAN
- NATIONAL WATER AWARDS
- GOV-TECH-THON 2020
Subject : Defence
Context : India will not accept any shifting of LAC, says CDS General Rawat.
- CDS acts as the permanent Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee which will also have three service chiefs as members.
- His core function will be to foster greater operational synergy between the three service branches of the Indian military and keep inter-service frictions to a minimum.
- He will also head the newly created Department of Military Affairs (DoMA) in the Ministry of Defence.
- The CDS will be the single-point military adviser to the Defence Minister on matters involving all three services and the service chiefs will be obliged to confine their counsel to issues pertaining to their respective services.
- As the head of DoMA, CDS is vested with the authority in prioritising inter-service procurement decisions as Permanent Chairman-Chiefs of Staff Committee.
- The CDS is also vested with the authority to provide directives to the three chiefs.
- However, he does not enjoy any command authority over any of the forces.
- CDS is first among equals, he enjoys the rank of Secretary within the DoD and his powers will be confined to only the revenue budget.
- He will also perform an advisory role in the Nuclear Command Authority (NCA).
Nuclear Command Authority
- The Nuclear Command Authority (NCA) of India is the authority responsible for command, control and operational decisions regarding India’s nuclear weapons programme.
- The NCA comprised a Political Council and an Executive Council.
- The Political Council was chaired by the Prime Minister and is the sole body which can authorise the use of nuclear weapons.
- The Executive Council, chaired by the National Security Adviser to the Prime Minister, provides inputs for decision making by the NCA and executes the directives given to it by the Political Council.
Subject : Environment
Context : SC asks Centre to ensure Delhi – NCR is smog free.
- Smog = smoke + fog (smoky fog) caused by the burning of large amounts of coal, vehicular emission and industrial fumes (Primary pollutants).
- Smog contains soot particulates like smoke, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and other components.
- At least two distinct types of smog are recognized: sulfurous smog and photochemical smog.
- Sulfurous smog results from a high concentration of Sulphur Oxides in the air and is caused by the use of sulfur-bearing fossil fuels, particularly coal.
- This type of smog is aggravated by dampness and a high concentration of suspended particulate matter in the air.
- Photochemical smog occurs most prominently in urban areas that have large numbers of automobiles (Nitrogen oxides are the primary emissions).
- Photochemical (summer smog) forms when pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (primary pollutant) and organic compounds (primary pollutants) react together in the presence of Sunlight. A gas called Ozone (Secondary pollutant) is formed.
- Nitrogen Dioxide + Sunlight + Hydrocarbons = Ozone (Ozone in stratosphere it is beneficial, but near the earth’s surface it results in global warming as it is a greenhouse gas)
- The resulting smog causes a light brownish coloration of the atmosphere, reduced visibility, plant damage, irritation of the eyes, and respiratory distress.
Effects of Smog
- The atmospheric pollution levels of Los Angeles, Beijing, Delhi, Mexico City and other cities are increased by temperature inversion that traps pollution close to the ground.
- It is usually highly toxic to humans and can cause severe sickness, shortened life or death.
- Smog is a combination of airborne particulate matter, like soot, and invisible toxic gases including ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), which are carcinogens (cancer causing agents).
- Temperature inversions are accentuated and precipitation is reduced.
- Smog related Haze lowers visibility.
Subject : Health
Context : UNICEF , WHO warns of Measles , Polio Outbreak threat due to COVID disruptions.
- It is a highly contagious viral disease and is a cause of death among young children globally.
- It is particularly dangerous for children from the economically weaker background, as it attacks malnourished children and those with reduced immunity.
- It can cause serious complications, including blindness, encephalitis, severe diarrhoea, ear infection and pneumonia.
- The Measles & Rubella Initiative, a global program, aims at eliminating both these diseases.
- The vaccine for the diseases are provided in the form of measles-rubella (MR), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), or measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) combination.
- Polio is a crippling and potentially fatal viral infectious disease.
- There is no cure, but can be prevented through immunization.
- The strategy to eradicate polio is therefore based on preventing infection by immunizing every child until transmission stops.
- There are two types of vaccines to prevent infection.
- OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine): It is given orally as a birth dose for institutional deliveries, then primary three doses at 6, 10 & 14 weeks and one booster dose at 16-24 months of age.
- Injectable Polio Vaccine (IPV): It is introduced as an additional dose along with the 3rd dose of DPT under the universal immunization programme (UIP).
- India received polio-free certification by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2014.
- Eradication of a disease refers to the complete and permanent worldwide reduction to zero new cases of an infectious disease through deliberate efforts. If a disease has been eradicated, no further control measures are required. For eg- smallpox has been eradicated.
- However, elimination of a disease refers to reduction to zero (or a very low defined target rate) of new cases of an infectious disease in a defined geographical area. Elimination requires continued measures to prevent re-establishment of disease transmission. Yaws and Leprosy have been eliminated from India.
Subject : Science & tech
Context : The countdown for the November 7 launch of earth observation satellite EOS-01 along with nine international customer satellites on board launch vehicle PSLV-C49 has begun , ISRO said recently.
- EOS-01 is nothing but another radar imaging satellite (RISAT) that will work together with RISAT-2B and RISAT-2BR1 launched last year.
- With this satellite , ISRO is moving to a new naming system for its earth observation satellites which till now are named according to its purpose. Example : RISAT , CATROSAT, INSAT etc
- EOS-01 is intended for applications in agriculture, forestry and disaster management support.
- This is the first launch by the Indian Space Research Organisation since the COVID-19-induced lockdown came into force in March.
- This will be the 51st mission of ISRO’s workhorse, the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle and going to be launched by PSLV-C49.
Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)
- An EOS or remote sensing satellite is a satellite used or designed for Earth observation (EO) from orbit, including spy satellites and similar ones intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, cartography and others.
- Starting with IRS-1A in 1988, ISRO has launched many operational remote sensing satellites.
- Today, India has one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation.
- Currently, thirteen operational satellites are in Sun-synchronous orbit and four in Geostationary orbit.
- The data from these satellites are used for several applications covering agriculture, water resources, urban planning, rural development, mineral prospecting, environment, forestry, ocean resources and disaster management.
5. CYCLONE MISS
Subject : Geography
Context : October to December period is among the favourable months for the development of cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. This year, however, October passed without witnessing a cyclonic storm.
- India’s east and west coasts are prone to cyclones with the maximum associated hazards—rain, heavy winds and storm surge— faced by coastal districts of West Bengal, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
- Cyclones in the North Indian Ocean are bi-modal in nature, that is, they occur during two seasons— April to June (pre-monsoon) and October to December (post-monsoon). Of these, May and November remain the most conducive for the development of cyclones.
- Cyclonic disturbances— either in the form of a well-marked low pressure, depression or a deep depression (weather systems with varying wind intensities ranging from 31 – 61 km/hr formed either over sea or land)— are common in October.
- These enter the Bay of Bengal from the South China sea side and head towards the Indian coast. Generally, IMD labels the formation of one cyclone and two cyclonic disturbances in October as normal.
- This year, however, there was no system which intensified to form a cyclone. Instead, there were three cyclonic disturbances.
- Two of these cyclonic disturbances in the form of low-pressure systems caused widespread rain in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, north Karnataka and Maharashtra followed by West Bengal and Bangladesh.
Why were there no cyclone developments this year?
- IMD officials have attributed it to the weak La Nina conditions along the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Cooler than normal sea surface temperatures over this region—termed as La Nina— has been prevailing since August this year.
- Because Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) was positioned in a favourable phase, the low-pressure systems intensified maximum up to a deep depression not Cyclones.
- MJO is kind of an eastward-moving cyclic weather event along the tropics that influences rainfall, winds, sea surface temperatures and cloud cover. They have a 30 to 60-day cycle.( Unlike ENSO which is statioanry )
- Also, there was the high wind shear noted between the different atmospheric levels, last month.
- The vertical wind shear— created due to significant wind speed difference observed between higher and lower atmospheric levels— prevented the low-pressure systems and depression from strengthening into a cyclone.
Subject : Education/ Schemes
Context : Union Government decided to allocate Rs. 2.84 Cr to Kerala as its share for implementing Padhna Likhna Abhiyan.
- It is hoped that the new literacy scheme ‘Padhna Likhna Abhiyan’ is going to be a leap forward to achieve the goal of Total Literacy by 2030.
- It comes under Ministry of Education ( Earlier MHRD).
- The principal target of the programme is to impart functional literacy and numeracy to 57 lakh non-literate and non-numerate adults in both rural and urban areas across the country in the age group of 15 years and above.
- This target mostly comprises Women, Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Minorities and other Disadvantaged Groups.
- In the scheme, among others, priority will be given to Districts with female literacy rates less than 60%, as per latest Census.
- Under the new scheme Convergence with projects of M/o Rural Development (MGNREGA), Skill Development, Culture, Information Technology, Finance, Sports and Youth Welfare (NYK), schemes of NCC and NSS, NGOs/Civil Society & CSR sector will be taken up.
- Formation and involvement of SHGs, Voluntary & User Groups and other community based organizations will also be encouraged.
Subject : Current Events
Context : Ministry of Jal Shakti, Department of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation is organising the 2nd National Water Awards (NWAs) Distribution Ceremony.
- The awards are given to motivate both individuals/organizations who are doing commendable work in the field of water resources conservation and management.
- The award winners in different categories will be given a citation, trophy and cash prize.
- The awards will be given by Department of Water Resources.
Subject : Current Events
Context : Gov-Tech-Thon 2020, a 36 hours, pan-India virtual hackathon organized by IEEE, National Informatics Centre (NIC)and Oracle, under the aegis of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).
- Shortlisted 447 enthusiasts from 100 teams participated in the Hackathon on the five problem statements provided by 3 central Government Ministries – Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare, Ministry of Road Transport and Highway and Ministry of Education.
- National Informatics Centre (NIC) is attached office of Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). NIC was established in 1976.
- IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity.
- The Oracle Cloud offers a complete suite of integrated applications for Sales, Service, Marketing, Human Resources, Finance, Supply Chain etc.