Daily Prelims Notes 9 February 2021
- February 9, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
9 February 2021
All 6 CSE Prelims Qualified
4 CSE Mains Qualified
If I can do it, you can too
Table Of Contents
- LANDSLIDE LAKE OUTBURST FLOOD
- INDIAN CYBER COORDINATION CENTRE
- NATIONAL MONUMENTS AUTHORITY
- D614G MUTANT VIRUS
- CHIPKO MOVEMENT
- GEO THERMAL ENERGY PROJECT
- WORLD’S SMALLEST REPTILE
- MEGHAMALAITIGER RESERVE
- KISAN RAIL SCHEME
- PARLIMENTARY PANEL ON 5G
Context : New evidence suggests that the incident may have been caused by a breach in a temporary pool or lake formed by obstructions due to landslides or snow avalanches — an event described as a Landslide Lake Outburst Flood (LLOF).
- Glaciologists and geologists identified a steeply hanging bit of a glacier which likely developed a crack and caused a landslide, triggering an avalanche and the subsequent flooding.
- While landslide-triggered flows could cause enough heat to form temporary, transient dams of water that get quickly washed away in a flooding event, the event is not a ‘glacial outburst
- A landslide or snow avalanche can create obstructions in the normal path of a flowing river or stream, which results in the formation of a temporary pool, or a dam-like situation.
- When this obstruction finally gives way to the force of accumulating water, it creates a situation similar to a lake burst. This is called Landslide Lake Outburst Flood.
- In the case of an avalanche, snow adds to the volume of water.
Context: Cybercrime cell of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has started a new programme under which citizens can participate as volunteers to identify, flag and report to the Government illegal and unlawful content, including child pornography, rape, terrorism, radicalisation and anti-national activities.
- MHA’s Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C) will act as a nodal point while volunteers can register themselves with their states or union territories to act as cyber volunteers.
Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre:
- It will be set up under the newly created Cyber and Information Security (CIS) division of the MHA.
It has seven components:
- National Cyber Crime Threat Analytics Unit
- National Cyber Crime Reporting Portal
- National Cyber Crime Training Centre
- Cyber Crime Ecosystem Management Unit
- National Cyber Crime Research and Innovation Centre
- National Cyber Crime Forensic Laboratory Ecosystem
- Platform for Joint Cyber Crime Investigation Team.
- The I4C will assist in centralising cyber security investigations, prioritise the development of response tools and bring together private companies to contain the menace.
- To act as a nodal point in the fight against cybercrime
- Identify the research problems/needs of LEAs and take up R&D activities in developing new technologies and forensic tools in collaboration with academia / research institutes within India and abroad
- To prevent misuse of cyber space for furthering the cause of extremist and terrorist groups
- Suggest amendments, if required, in cyber laws to keep pace with fast changing technologies and International cooperation
- To coordinate all activities related to implementation of Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLAT) with other countries related to cybercrimes in consultation with the concerned nodal authority in MHA.
Subject : National Organisation
Context: Union Minister of Culture and Tourism Prahlad Singh Patel on Monday announced the withdrawal of draft heritage bylaws for development around the Jagannath temple in Puri.
- It is established under The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Amendment and Validation) Act, 2010 (AMASR Act, 2010).
- Parent ministry: Union Ministry of Culture.
- Composition: The Act provides for NMA to be constituted with a Chairperson and up to 5 Whole Time and 5 Part Time Members each and a Member Secretary. Director-General of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is an ex officio Member.
- HQ: New Delhi.
- Mandate: Several functions have been assigned to the NMA for the preservation of centrally protected monuments through management of the prohibited and regulated area around these monuments. Some of the responsibilities are –
- To consider grant of permissions to applicants for construction related activity in the prohibited and regulated area.
- To formulate heritage by-laws for protected monuments in the country to determine nature of new construction activity in regulated areas.
Subject : Science & technology
Context : A team of scientists at the National Institute of Biomedical Genomics (NIBMG) in Kalyani has pointed to a biological reason behind the slower spread of the D614G mutant coronavirus in Asia compared to Europe and the USA.
- When the virus enters an individual’s body, it aims at creating copies of itself. When it makes an error in this copying process, we get a mutation.
- In this case, the virus replaced the aspartic acid (D) in the 614th position of the amino acid with glycine (G). Hence the mutation is called the D614G.
- D614G Mutation: This particular mutation aided the virus in attaching more efficiently with the ACE2 receptor in the human host, thereby making it more successful in entering a human body than its predecessors.
- D614G showed increased infectivity but it also displayed greater ability at attaching itself to the cell walls inside an individual’s nose and throat, increasing the viral load.
- This mutated form of the virus was first identified in China and then in Europe. Later it spread to other countries like the U.S. and Canada and was eventually reported in India.
- A mutation means a change in the genetic sequence of the virus.
- In the case of SARS-CoV-2, which is an Ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus, a mutation means a change in the sequence in which its molecules are arranged.
- SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes Covid-19.
- RNA is an important biological macromolecule that is present in all biological cells.
- Principally involved in the synthesis of proteins, carrying the messenger instructions from Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), which itself contains the genetic instructions required for the development and maintenance of life.
- DNA is an organic chemical that contains genetic information and instructions for protein synthesis. It is found in most cells of every organism.
- A mutation in an RNA virus often happens when the virus makes a mistake while it is making copies of itself.
- Only if the mutation results in a significant change in the protein structure can the course of a disease be altered.
Subject : Environment
Context : In Raini, village of Chipko movement, people spending nights in forests.
- In fear of a recurrence of more calamites after disaster struck the area on Sunday, residents of Raini village spent Sunday night in the forest, about 1-km from their homes.
- Chipko movement was the uprising against the felling of trees and maintaining the ecological balance originated in Uttar Pradesh’s Chamoli district (now Uttarakhand) in 1973.
- The name of the movement ‘chipko’ comes from the word ’embrace’, as the villagers hugged the trees and encirled them to prevent being hacked.
- It was a silent, non-violent protest condemning ecological destruction.
- SundarlalBahuguna, a famous Gandhian, is said to have initiated this movement to guard the trees on the Himalayan slopes.
- Bahuguna is also known for coining the Chipko slogan ‘ecology is permanent economy’
- The movement’s biggest triumph was making people aware of their rights to forests, and how grassroots activism can influence policy-making regarding ecology and shared natural resources.
Subject : International Organisations
Context : The US announced plans Monday to re-engage with the United Nations human rights council (UNHRC), from which Donald Trump withdrew almost three years ago, as the Biden administration reverses another move away from multilateral organizations and agreements.
- The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
- The UNHRC has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis from 5 groups.
- To become a member, a country must receive the votes of at least 96 of the 191 states of the UN General Assembly (an absolute majority).
- The members are elected for a period of three years, with a maximum of two consecutive terms.
- In electing Council members, the resolution provides that General Assembly members “shall take into account the candidates’ contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights and their voluntary pledges and commitments made thereto.”
- The UNHRC holds regular sessions three times a year, in March, June, and September.
Universal Periodic Review:
- The Universal periodic review (UPR) mechanism reviews all 192 UN member states every four years to “ensure universality of coverage and equal treatment of all Member States.”
Special Procedure :
- The special procedures of the Human Rights Council are independent human rights experts with mandates to report and advise on human rights from a thematic or country-specific perspective.
- The system of Special Procedures is a central element of the United Nations human rights machinery and covers all human rights: civil, cultural, economic, political, and social.
- The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of “special procedure” mechanisms.
Subject : Economy
Context : ONGC to carry out India’s first geothermal energy project in Ladakh.
- This MoU, which was signed in the presence of Ladakh Lieutenant Governor, is the first step towards creating a Carbon Neutral Ladakh, a clarion call given by Prime Minister of India on Independence Day 2020, ONGC said in a statement
- The project will be implemented in three phases.
- Phase-1 involves exploratory-cum-production drilling of wells up to 500 metres depth and setting up of a Pilot Plant of up to 1 MW power capacity.
- Phase-II would involve deeper and lateral exploration of geothermal reservoir by drilling of optimal number of wells and setting up of a higher capacity Demo Plant and preparing a Detailed Project Report.
- Phase-III would involve commercial development of the geothermal plant, the energy company said.
- Geothermal Energy is the energy obtained from heat stored in the earth crust and used for various purposes like electricity generation or direct heating applications. Geothermal energy is basically stored in earth crust up to depth of 3 to 4 km.
Geothermal Power Plants
- Hot water and steam from deep underground can be piped up through underground wells and used to generate electricity in a power plant. Three different types of geothermal power plants exist:
- Dry steam plants: Hot steam is piped directly from geothermal reservoirs into generators in the power plant. The steam spins turbines, which generate electricity.
- Flash steam plants: Water that’s between 300 and 700 degrees Fahrenheit (148 and 371 degrees Celsius) is brought up through a well. Some of the water turns to steam, which drives the turbines. When the steam cools it condenses back into water and is returned to the ground.
- Binary cycle plants: Moderately hot geothermal water is passed through a heat exchanger, where its heat is transferred to a liquid (such as isobutene) that boils at a lower temperature than water. When that fluid is heated it turns to steam, which spins the turbines. Binary cycle plant is suitable for India because India is a low geothermal region with low heat enthalpy.
Subject : Environment
Context :A chameleon discovered in the island country of Madagascar by scientists from Germany and Madagascar may be the world’s smallest adult reptile. The discovery has been reported in the journal Scientific Reports.
- The team found one male and one female of the species, named Brookesia nana, during an expedition in 2012. The male has a length (snout to vent) of 13.5 mm and a total length of 21.6 mm when the tail is included.
- Previously, the chameleon species Brookesiamicra was thought to be the smallest. The average length of adults of this species is 16 mm (29 mm with tail), while the smallest adult male has been recorded at 15.3 mm.
- Reptiles come in a wide size range. The longest, the reticulated python, at 6.25 m is almost as long as 289 Brookesia nanas.
- Madagascar is home to tiny lizards and also the smallest species of snakes. One possible reason for such small species is the so-called “island effect” that causes species on small islands to get smaller.
Subject : Environment
Context : The Srivilliputhur Megamalai Tiger Reserve is the fifth tiger reserve in Tamil Nadu. In a government order issued on Monday, Forests Secretary Sandeep Saxena announced the creation of the reserve.
- The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) has approved the creation of the fifth tiger reserve in Tamil Nadu.
- The tiger reserve will surround the Meghamalai and the Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuaries within it.
- The activists were demanding for the creation of a tiger reserve linking the two sanctuaries in the adjoining areas of Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala.
- They also demand to connect the tiger reserve with the Tirunelveli Wildlife Sanctuary and the KalakkadMundanthurai Tiger Reserve.
- The environmentalists seek to make a contiguous corridor for the tigers to move.
- The tiger reserve will spread to 1.48 lakh hectares of land comprising of the Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary, Meghamalai Wildlife Sanctuary and Tirunelveli Wildlife Sanctuary.
Srivilliputhur Wildlife Sanctuary
- It is also known as the Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary (GSWS).
- The sanctuary was established in the year 1988 with the objective of protecting the Near threatened grizzled giant squirrel. It is bordered by the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the southwest. T
- he sanctuary is also called as one of the best-preserved forests lying south of the Palghat Gap.
National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)
- It was established in December 2005. The authority was set up on the recommendations of Tiger Task Force constituted by the Prime Minister of India with the objective of protecting the tigers.
- It was established under section 38 L (1) of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The authority gets the power from section 38 O (1) of the act of 1972.
Subject : History
Context : Karnataka got its 31st district with the State government on Monday issuing an official gazette notification carving out Vijayanagara district from the mine-rich Ballari district.
About Vijaynagar Empire
- Vijayanagara or “city of victory” was the name of both a city and an empire.
- The empire was founded in the fourteenth century (1336 AD) by Harihara and Bukka of Sangama dynasty.
- They made Hampi as the capital city. In 1986, Hampi was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO.
- It stretched from the river Krishna in the north to the extreme south of the peninsula.
- Vijayanagar Empire was ruled by four important dynasties and they are:
- Krishnadevaraya (ruled 1509-29) of the Tuluva dynasty was the most famous ruler of Vijayanagar. His rule was characterised by expansion and consolidation.
- He is credited with building some fine temples and adding impressive gopurams to many important south Indian temples. He also founded a suburban township near Vijayanagar called Nagalapuram after his mother.
- He composed a work on statecraft in Telugu known as the Amuktamalyada.
Subject :Governement Schemes
Context :The South Central Railway started the first ‘Kisan Rail’ service from Telangana on Monday.
- The train will transport 230 tonne of dry turmeric in 10 parcel vans from the Warangal station to the Barasat station of Sealdah division (West Bengal).
- The move is aimed at assisting farmers to sell their produce at better prices, a release said.
About Kisan Rail Scheme
- These special seasonal trains identified by the government for farmers to send fresh fruits, vegetables and other perishable goods to buyers across India.
- Rail and Agriculture ministries are working to institutionalize these “corridors”, or dedicated routes, to make them season-specific to a fruit or vegetable. The plans also include carrying fish and meat in refrigerated containers at some point in the future.
- Kisan Rail shall be trains with multi commodities, multi-consignors and multi consignees. These trains shall run between fixed Origin–Destination pairs with en-route stoppages, and loading/ unloading shall be permitted at any of the en-route stoppage.
- The Origin–Destination pairs, routes, stoppages, and frequency of the train shall be decided jointly by the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare and Ministry of Railways.
Subject : Economy
Context : Parliamentary Panel has said that sufficient preparatory work had not been undertaken for introducing 5G services in India and that the country was likely to witness only partial deployment by 2021-end or early 2022.
- The committee noted that telcos had submitted 5G trial applications in January, 2020 but that till date, guidelines for trials had not been made clear and there was no set date for commencement of trials.
- 5G or fifth generation is the latest upgrade in the long term evolution (LTE) mobile broadband networks.
- The first generation of networks allowed only mobile voice calls to be made, while the second generation allowed mobile voice calls as well as sending of short text messages.
- It was the third generation or 3G network which allowed web browsing on mobile devices, the speed and latency of which improved with fourth-generation or 4G networks.
- The 5G networks will have even faster speeds with latency down to between 1-10 milliseconds.
- Latency is the time a device takes to communicate with the network, which stands at an average of up to 50 milliseconds for 4G networks across the world.
What does it mean to be 5G ready?
- Globally many companies have been deploying 5G networks across their service areas as early as 2018.
- Not only the network, but the devices will also have to be 5G ready for customers to be able to enjoy the maximum benefits of the latest upgrade in mobile broadband.
- One of the major improvements in 5G is the use of beam tracking to follow all devices on the network to ensure consistent connection in real-time for the device.
- 5G networks are also designed to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) efficient which improves signal throughput for all devices on the network.
Where does India stand on the deployment of 5G?
- Companies, both telecom service providers and their equipment vendors, have completed lab trials of 5G network components but are yet to commence field trials, which were initially scheduled to happen last year.
- For the same, telecom companies are awaiting allocation of test spectrum from the Department of Telecommunications (DoT).
- The service providers have already tied up with equipment makers like Nokia, Ericsson, etc for deploying their 5G networks