- April 4, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Subject : Science & tech
Context : Researchers from India, the U.K. and Russia have analysed a large collection of 502 genomes sourced from over 16 countries and collected from over a period of 122 years of the bacterium that causes diphtheria – Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae.
- Diphtheria is primarily caused by the bacterium Corynebacteriumdiphtheriae.
- Symptoms: Common cold, fever, chills, swollen gland in neck, sore throat, bluish skin etc.
- The primary infection is in the throat and upper airways. Produces a toxin affecting other organs.
- One type of diphtheria affects the throat and sometimes the tonsils.
- Another type causes ulcers on the skin.
- It is mainly spread by coughs and sneezes, or through close contact with someone infected.
- Target Population: Diphtheria particularly affects children aged 1 to 5 years.
- Occurrence of diphtheria cases in under-five children reflects low coverage of primary diphtheria vaccination.
- Fatality Rate: Diphtheria is fatal in only 5-10% cases.
- Fatality Rate is the proportion of people who die from a specified disease among all individuals diagnosed with the disease over a certain period of time.
- Treatment: Administering diphtheria antitoxin to neutralize the effects of the toxin, as well as antibiotics to kill the bacteria.
- Diphtheria is preventable with use of antibiotics and vaccines.
- Vaccination: The diphtheria vaccine is among the oldest vaccines in India’s Universal Immunisation Programme. As per data from the National Family Health Survey-4, the coverage of diphtheria vaccine is 78.4%.
- In 1978, India launched the Expanded Programme on Immunisation.
- The first three vaccines in the programme were BCG (against TB), DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) and cholera.
- In 1985, the programme was converted to the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP). DPT continues to be a part of UIP, which now includes 12 vaccines.