- April 28, 2021
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Context : A major earthquake measuring 6.4 on the Richter Scale jolted Northeast India on Wednesday morning. The earthquake originated in Tezpur of Assam and tremors were felt across Assam, North Bengal and other parts of the Northeast.
- According to the National Centre of Seismology, the earthquake measuring 6.4 on the Richter Scale originated in Sonitpur, Tezpur of Assam.
- The first earthquake was recorded at 7:51 am and according to the seismology centre, it was centred 43 km west of Tezpur in Assam.
- There were six aftershocks following the first major earthquake, one at 7.58 am and another at 8.01 am.
- The six aftershocks of magnitude 3.2 to 4.7 were recorded over the next 2 hours 30 minutes in the vicinity of Sonitpur in Assam.
- An earthquake is shaking or trembling of the earth’s surface, caused by the seismic waves or earthquake waves that are generated due to a sudden movement (sudden release of energy) in the earth’s crust (shallow-focus earthquakes) or upper mantle (some shallow-focus and all intermediate and deep-focus earthquakes).
- The point where the energy is released is called the focus or the hypocentre of an earthquake.
- The point on the surface directly above the focus is called epicentre (first surface point to experience the earthquake waves).
- A line connecting all points on the surface where the intensity is the same is called an isoseismic line.
- Fault Zones
- Plate tectonics
- Volcanic activity
- Human Induced Earthquakes
- There are several different kinds of seismic waves, and they all move in different ways. The two main types of waves are body wavesand surface waves.
- Body waves can travel through the earth’s inner layers, but surface waves can only move along the surface of the planet like ripples on water
- The first kind of body wave is the P waveor primary wave. This is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to ‘arrive’ at a seismic station. The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth. It pushes and pulls the rock it moves through just like sound waves push and pull the air.
- The second type of body wave is the S waveor secondary wave, which is the second wave felt in an earthquake. An S wave is slower than a P wave and can only move through solid rock, not through any liquid medium. It is this property of S waves that led seismologists to conclude that the Earth’s outer core is a liquid.
- S waves move rock particles up and down, or side-to-side–perpendicular to the direction that the wave is traveling in (the direction of wave propagation)
Distribution of Earthquakes
Measuring earthquake: Mercallivs Richter
- The Mercalli scale bases its measurement on the observed effects of the earthquake and describes its intensity. It is a linear measurement.
- On the other hand, the Richter scale measures the seismic waves, or the energy released, causing the earthquake and describes the quake’s magnitude. It is a logarithmic.