Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) to prepare master plan for its non-major ports
- November 10, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPS Topics
Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) to prepare master plan for its non-major ports
Section: Economic geography
- Gujarat is taking its non-major ports (NMPs) operated by the Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB) to the next level with plans to enhance the capacity, efficiency, safety, and sustainability of port operations.
About the development of non-major ports of Gujarat:
- A master plan and implementation plan are to be prepared for the NMPs up to the year 2047. The plan will help streamline operations, minimise risks and ensure ports remain competitive and resilient in a dynamic global trade environment.
- The aim of developing a master plan for ports is to ensure the efficient, safe and sustainable functioning of the ports while considering the broader economic, environmental, and social factors that influence its operations and development.
- The master plan will include key components for green ports such as environmental impact assessment, energy efficiency, emissions reduction, water quality and conservation, waste management, green infrastructure, noise reduction, regulatory compliance, monitoring and reporting, research and innovation, certifications and recognition.
Major and Minor ports in Gujarat:
About Gujarat Maritime Board (GMB):
- Founded in 1982
- It is responsible for the management, control and administration of 48 ports, including Bedi, Bhavnagar, Dahej and Porbandar.
- Gujarat’s non-major ports handled 416 million tonne (mt ) of cargo in 2022-23 which was about 30 per cent of total traffic handled by all Indian ports, and 65 per cent of traffic for all NMPs of India. The capacity of Gujarat’s non-major ports during 2023 was 593.01 mt.
- Gujarat has a coastline of 1,600 km, the longest in the country.
- Gujarat has the advantage of being near to the Middle East, Africa and Europe having the highest number of commercial cargo ports.
Major and Non-major ports regulation:
- Ports in India are classified as Major and Minor (non-major) Ports according to the jurisdiction of the Central and State governments as defined under the Indian Ports Act, of 1908.
- All the 13 Major Ports are governed under the Major Port Trusts Act, of 1963 and are owned and managed by the Central Government.
- All the Minor Ports are governed under the Indian Port Act, of 1908 and are owned and managed by the State Governments.
List of Major Ports in India:
|Eastern Coast||Tamil Nadu||Chennai|
|Western Coast||Kerala||Kochi (Cochin)|
|Eastern Coast||Tamil Nadu||Ennore|
|Eastern Coast||West Bengal||Kolkata (Haldia)|
|Western Coast||Maharashtra||Mumbai Port Trust|
|Western Coast||Maharashtra||Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT)|
|Western Coast||Maharashtra||Vadhavan Port|
|Eastern Coast||Tamil Nadu||Tuticorin|
|Eastern Coast||Andhra Pradesh||Visakhapatnam|
Cheetah reintroduction in India:
|African Cheetah||Asian Cheetah|
|Physical Characteristics– Bigger in size as compared to Asiatic Cheetah.|
Habitat – Around 6,500-7,000 African cheetahs present in the wild.
IUCN status– Vulnerable
CITES status– Appendix-I of the List. This List comprises of migratory species that have been assessed as being in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of their range.
|Physical Characteristics – Smaller and paler than the African cheetah. Has more fur, a smaller head and a longer neck. Usually have red eyes and they have a more cat-like appearance.|
Habitat – 40-50 found only in Iran.
IUCN Status– Critically Endangered.
CITES– Appendix I of the list
About Project Cheetah:
- Launched in 2022
- It is India’s ambitious attempt to introduce African cats into the wild in the country.
- Recently it has claimed to have achieved short-term success on four counts:
- 50% survival of introduced cheetahs,
- establishment of home ranges,
- birth of cubs in Kuno, and
- revenue generation for local communities.
The claims assessed:
- SURVIVAL: According to India’s official Cheetah Action Plan, the male and female cats from both Namibia and South Africa were to spend two and three months respectively inside bomas (enclosures) before being released in the wild. No cheetah spent the targeted months in the wild.
- Yet, the project lost 40% of its functional adult population. Of the 20 cats that arrived in India, six died (Dhatri and Sasha from Namibia; Suraj, Uday, Daksha, and Tejas from South Africa), and two were unfit for the wild, Four cubs were born in India, three of which died, and the fourth is being raised in captivity.
- HOME RANGE: Only three cheetahs – Namibian imports Asha, Gaurav, and Shaurya have spent more than three months at a stretch in the wild. It is unlikely any of the cats would have established “home ranges” in Kuno.
- REPRODUCTION: The goal, as per the Action Plan, was: “Cheetah successfully reproduce in the wild”, However, Siyaya aka Jwala, the Namibian female that gave birth to four cubs in Kuno, was captive raised herself. She was unfit for the wild and her cubs were born inside a hunting boma.
- LIVELIHOOD: The project has indeed generated a number of jobs and contracts for the local communities, and the price of land has appreciated significantly around Kuno.
- No human-cheetah conflict has been reported in the area.
Compromises and mistakes:
- To get the cheetahs, India promised to support Namibia for “sustainable utilisation and management of biodiversity at international forums”.
- After the cheetahs arrived, India abandoned its decades-old stand byabstaining at the CITES vote against trade in elephant ivory.
- The two South African males killed the female Phinda alias Daksha in May.
- The three cubs succumbed to acute dehydration in May.
- Maggot infestation due to radio collars- which would have affected their gait – killed two in July.
- Seasonal variation as a factor was not considered while sourcing animals from the southern hemisphere. The animals grew winter coats during the Indian monsoon, leading to prolonged wetness and infection.
Kuno’s carrying capacity:
- The project’s original goal is to establish a free-ranging breeding population of cheetahs in and around Kuno but has been diluted to “managing” a metapopulation through assisted dispersal.
- The Cheetah Action Plan estimated a “high probability of long-term cheetah persistence within populations that exceed 50 individuals.
- Cheetal is the cheetah’s prime prey in Kuno where project scientists reported per-sq-km cheetal density of 5 (2006), 36 (2011), 52 (2012) and 69 (2013).
Paradigm shift ahead
- Since Kuno cannot support a genetically self-sustaining population, the project’s only option is a meta-population scattered over central and western India. But unlike leopards, which dominate this landscape, cheetahs cannot travel the distances between these pocket populations on their own.
- A solution would be to periodically translocate animals from one fenced reserve to another to maintain genetic viability.
Optimal Work Hours
- The debate on optimal work hours continues without a consensus, sparking discussions on work-life balance and productivity.
- Narayana Murthy’s Advice
- Infosys cofounder, NR Narayana Murthy, advised young Indians to work 70 hours a week for nation-building, triggering debate and diverse opinions.
- Legislation in India
- Legislation in India restricts adult workers to 48 hours a week (Indian Factories Act, 1948). Some states have extended working hours to 12 per day.
- The Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code (OSHWC), 2020 limits daily work to eight hours, with a proposal for amendment to 12 hours.
- International Perspective
- ILO’s “Hours of Work (Industry) Convention, 1919 (No. 1)” aligns with India’s existing provisions, limiting working hours.
- Empirical Data
- National Sample Survey Office’s 2019 Time Use Survey reveals variations in daily work hours across occupations and genders.
- Male workers spend more time in services-related activities than agriculture, while commuting time and breaks add to working hours.
- On average, excluding agriculture, male workers spend over 10 hours a day at work, with commuting and breaks included.
- Cumulatively, workers in activities other than agriculture spend around 47-48 hours per week at work, in line with ILO data.
- Even those aged 60 and above spend significant hours at work.
- Key Factors
- Determining an optimum work hour is complex but should align with productivity and fair compensation.
- John Maynard Keynes’ 1930 speculation about a 15-hour work week remains a distant dream.
- The alignment of working hours, productivity, and compensation is crucial, emphasizing the need for a balanced approach in the ongoing discourse.
Overview of Labour Codes in India
Introduction to Labour Codes:
- The new set of regulations consolidates 44 labour laws into four comprehensive Codes.
- These Codes are categorized as:
- Wage Code
- Social Security Code
- Occupational Safety, Health & Working Conditions Code
- Industrial Relations Code
- Code on Wages, 2019:
- Applicable to employees in both organized and unorganized sectors.
- Regulate wage and bonus payments across all employments.
- Ensure equal remuneration for employees performing similar work in any industry, trade, business, or manufacture.
- Code on Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions, 2020:
- Covers establishments with 10 or more workers, and all mines and docks.
- Regulate health and safety conditions for workers.
- Code on Social Security, 2020:
- Consolidates nine laws related to social security and maternity benefits.
- Streamline social security provisions for workers.
- Code on Industrial Relations, 2020:
- Consolidates The Industrial Disputes Act, 1947; The Trade Unions Act, 1926; and The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act, 1946.
- Improve the business environment by reducing the labour compliance burden.
- Enhance industrial relations.
Objectives of Labour Codes:
- Simplification and consolidation of existing labour laws.
- Facilitation of ease of doing business.
- Ensure welfare and protection of workers.
- Streamline social security and maternity benefits.
- Create a conducive environment for industrial relations.
Understanding Moonlighting: A Dual Employment Scenario
Definition of Moonlighting
- Moonlighting refers to having a second job or engaging in additional projects, gigs, or employment outside one’s primary working hours.
Debate around Moonlighting
- Moonlighting allows for extra income, skill development, personal choice, and profile building.
- Rishad Premji criticizes moonlighting in the tech industry, considering it cheating.
- Arguments against moonlighting include the expectation of full dedication to the primary job, legal and ethical concerns, and potential productivity loss.
- Workers can engage in side projects without compromising their primary employment.
- Extra profits and skill development opportunities.
- Personal choice after official working hours.
- Adds value to profiles for professional courses.
- Employees are expected to dedicate their entire working time and energy to their primary job.
- Legal but may pose ethical concerns, especially regarding confidentiality.
- Not legally allowed in some states, depending on labor laws.
- Potential productivity loss and fear of leaking confidential information.
- Some companies introduce moonlighting clauses to restrict dual employment.
Understanding “Quiet Quitting” in the Workplace
Definition of “Quiet Quitting”
- “Quiet Quitting” refers to the situation when an employee deliberately chooses not to take on additional work beyond their job description or refuses to engage in work-related activities outside their scheduled work hours.
Perception of “Quiet Quitting”
- Not Inefficient Working:
- It shouldn’t necessarily be perceived as inefficient working.
- Employees might be prioritizing a work-personal life balance.
Key Aspects of “Quiet Quitting”
- Selective Work Approach:
- Employees consciously limit their involvement to tasks within their defined role.
- They may avoid taking on extra responsibilities or tasks that go beyond their job description.
- Boundaries and Work-Life Balance:
- Employees set clear boundaries to maintain a healthy work-personal life balance.
- Refusal to answer work-related queries outside scheduled hours may indicate a commitment to personal time.
Reasons Behind “Quiet Quitting”
- Work-Life Balance Prioritization:
- Employees prioritize maintaining a balance between work and personal life.
- Avoiding additional work may be a strategy to prevent burnout and maintain well-being.
- Communication Issues:
- It could result from communication gaps between employees and management regarding workload expectations.