India’s vulnerability to drought
- May 19, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
India’s vulnerability to drought
Section: Physical geography
- Drought in Numbers, 2022 report presented by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) has revealed that many parts of India fall under the list of regions that are vulnerable to drought globally.
About Drought in numbers report:
- The report is a collection of data on the effects of droughts on our ecosystem and how they can be mitigated through efficient planning for the future
Other Key findings of the report
- India’s GDP reduced by 2 to 5% between 1998 and 2017 due to severe droughts
- Economic losses of approximately $124 billion occurred globally due to drought.
- Drought conditions can force up to 216 million people to migrate by 2050.(World Bank)
- Weather, climate and water hazards have accounted for 50% of all disasters and 45% of all reported deaths since 1970 (WMO)
- More than a billion people around the world were affected by drought in 2000-19, making it the second-worst disaster after flooding.
- globally, approximately 55 million people are directly affected by droughts annually as per WHO findings
- Women and girls in emerging and developing countries suffer more in terms of education levels, nutrition, health, sanitation, and safety as a result of droughts
- If global warming reaches 3°C by 2100, drought losses could be five times higher than today’s levels.
- The largest increase in drought losses is projected in the Mediterranean and the Atlantic regions of Europe.
- Australia’s megadrought in 2019-2020 contributed to `megafires’ resulting in one of the most extensive losses of habitat for threatened species.
- 84% of all terrestrial ecosystems are threatened by changing and intensifying wildfires.
- Drought is a temporary reduction in water or moisture availability below the normal or expected amount for a specific period.
- Meteorological drought is classified based on rainfall deficiency w.r.t. long term average – 25% or less is normal, 26-50% is moderate and more than 50% is severe.
- Hydrological drought is best defined as deficiencies in surface and sub-surface water supplies leading to a lack of water for normal and specific needs. Such conditions arise even in times of average (or above average) precipitation when increased usage of water diminishes the reserves.
- Agricultural drought is identified by 4 consecutive weeks of meteorological drought, weekly rainfall is 50 mm from 15/5/ to 15/10, 6 such consecutive weeks rest of the year and crop planted is 80% in kharif season.
- In India, around 68% of the country is prone to drought in varying degrees.
- IMD is the designated agency for providing drought early warning and forecasting.
About UNCCD COP 15
- The UNCCD, together with the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity, is one of three Rio Conventions (CBD).
- The UNCCD was adopted on 17 June 1994, and entered into force on 26 December 1996.
- It is the only legally enforceable international agreement that connects the environment, development, and sustainable land management.
- It is the only convention that sprang directly from the Rio Conference’s Agenda 21.
- The International Year of Deserts and Desertification was designated in 2006 to promote the Convention.
- UNCCD COP 15 Agenda: Drought, land restoration, and related enablers such as land rights, gender equality and youth empowerment are among the top items on the Conference agenda.