LIGO Scientific and VIRGO Collaborations (LSC)
- June 28, 2020
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN Topics
Subject: Science and tech
The LIGO Scientific and VIRGO Collaborations (LSC) have registered puzzling event where black hole merges with unusual compact object whose mass falls in between that of a typical black hole and a neutron star.
- The LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) is a group of scientists focused on the direct detection of gravitational waves, using them to explore the fundamental physics of gravity, and developing the emerging field of gravitational wave science as a tool of astronomical discovery.
- The LSC works toward this goal through research on, and development of techniques for, gravitational wave detection; and the development, commissioning and exploitation of gravitational wave detectors.
- The project operates three gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. Two are at Hanford, Washington, north-western US, and one is at Livingston in Louisiana, south-eastern US.
- The proposed LIGO India project aims to move one advanced LIGO detector from Hanford to India.
- Virgo is a giant laser interferometer designed to detect gravitational waves.
- Virgo has been designed and built by a collaboration of the French Centre National de la RechercheScientifique (CNRS) and the Italian IstitutoNazionale di FisicaNucleare (INFN)
- It is now operated and improved in Cascina, a small town near Pisa on the site of the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO), by an international collaboration of scientists from France, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and Hungary.
- It consists of two 3-kilometre-long arms, which house the various machinery required to form a laser interferometer.
- A beam-splitter divides a laser beam into two equal components, which are subsequently sent into the two interferometer arms.
- In each arm, a two-mirror Fabry-Perot resonant cavity extends the optical length. This is because of multiple reflections that occur within each cavity and which consequently amplify the tiny distance variation caused by a gravitational wave.
- The two beams of laser light that return from the two arms are recombined out of phase so that, in principle, no light reaches the so-called ‘dark fringe’ of the detector. Any variation caused by an alteration in the distance between the mirrors, produces a very small shift in phase between the beams and, thus, a variation of the intensity of the light, which is proportional to the wave’s amplitude.
- Black holes are imploded stars that keep its mass and gravity. The black holes are infinitely small with no real shape, and can suck in everything that is a certain distance away.
- It exhibits strong gravitational effects, due to which, particles and electromagnetic radiation cannot escape from it.
- It acts like an ideal black body reflecting no light. It continues to grow, by absorbing mass from its surroundings.
Black hole merger
- Gravitational waves, postulated by Albert Einstein 100 years ago but discovered only in 2015 do not produce any sound on their own.
- These are just ripples created in the fabric of space-time by moving celestial objects just like a moving boat produces ripples in water.
- But when converted into audio signals, these can produce signature sounds that can reveal the origin of the gravitational waves.
- The gravitational wave detected on September 14, 2015, is now known to have been produced by the merger of two black holes about 1.3 billion years ago.
- Scientists already knew the kind of sound that gravitational waves emanating from such events were likely to produce.
- As two such dense and massive objects, black holes or neutron stars, are about to merge, they start rotating around each other at almost the speed of light. The merger takes place within a fraction of a second.
- The gravitational waves released in this last bit, when converted into audio signals, produce sound that is within audible range of human beings.