- April 15, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN Topics
Subject: Disaster Management
Context: Declare Covid-19 pandemic a natural calamity to allow use of disaster funds: Uddhav Thackeray to PM
- Disaster Management Act, 2005 provides for the effective management of disaster in India.
- Overall responsibility: The Disaster Management Division of the Ministry of Home Affairs has the overall responsibility for national disaster response.
- The Act provides for financial mechanisms like the National Disaster Mitigation Fund and similar funds at the state and district levels.
- The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister
- State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) headed by the Chief Ministers
- District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by the District Collector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner
What is a disaster?
- According to the Disaster Management Act, 2005, a disaster is defined as – “a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or manmade causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area”.
- The Ministry of Home Affairs in its document titled “Disaster Management in India”, has defined a disaster as an “extreme disruption of the functioning of a society that causes widespread human, material, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected society to cope with its own resources.”
- In 2001, the National Committee on Disaster Management mandated to look into the parameters that should define a national calamity did not suggest any fixed criterion.
- Types of disasters: The High Power Committee on Disaster Management (1999) identified 31 disaster categories organized into five major sub-groups, which are:
Water and climate related disasters
Geological related disasters
Chemical industrial and nuclear related disasters
Biological related disasters, which includes biological disasters