Overview of Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2023 Report
- October 13, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Overview of Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2023 Report
Section: Reports and Indices
- India’s Position: India has slipped four notches to 111 out of 125 countries in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2023. This is a decline from its position at 107 out of 121 countries in 2022.
- Child Wasting Rate: The GHI 2023 report highlights India’s child wasting rate at 18.7 percent, the highest in the world during 2018–22, indicating acute undernutrition.
- Other Health Metrics: The rate of undernourishment in India stood at 16.6 percent, while the under-five mortality rate was 3.1 percent. Additionally, the report noted that the prevalence of anaemia in women aged between 15 and 24 years stood at 58.1 percent.
- India’s GHI Score: India’s overall score in the GHI 2023 is 28.7, categorized as “serious”.
- Status of Neighbouring Countries: India’s neighbouring countries, such as Pakistan (102), Bangladesh (81), Nepal (69), and Sri Lanka (60), have fared better than India in the index.
- Government’s Reaction: The Government has criticized the GHI 2023 report, citing methodological issues and the small sample size used for calculations.
- Components of GHI Score: The GHI score is based on four component indicators, including
- undernourishment based on caloric intake,
- child stunting based on height,
- child wasting based on weight, and
- child mortality (before age five).
About Global Hunger Index (GHI):
- Purpose: The GHI is an annual publication developed as a partnership between Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe to comprehensively measure and track hunger at global, regional, and national levels.
Inception: The first GHI report was published in 2006.
Country Ranking Method:
The GHI ranks countries based on a three-step process that involves the standardization of scores for four key indicators and their aggregation. The indicators used for the ranking include:
- Child stunting (percentage of children below five years of age with low height for their age, reflecting chronic undernutrition)
- Child wasting (percentage of children below five years of age with low weight for their height, indicating acute undernutrition)
- Child mortality (the mortality rate of children under the age of five)
Calculation of GHI Score:
- The GHI score is calculated on a 100-point scale, with 0 indicating no hunger and 100 representing the worst hunger situation.
- Each GHI score is derived from data spanning a 5-year period, with the 2023 GHI scores based on data from 2018 through 2022.
Key Indicators and Weightage:
- The GHI incorporates several key indicators with varying weightage, including inadequate food supply (1/3 weightage), child undernutrition (1/3), and under-five child mortality (1/3).
- Undernourishment: Measures the proportion of the population facing chronic deficiency of dietary energy intake.
- Child Stunting: Indicates low height-for-age resulting from chronic or recurrent undernutrition.
- Child Wasting: Represents children whose weight is low for their height.
- Under-5 Child Mortality Rate: Refers to the probability of dying between birth and five years of age, expressed per 1,000 live births.
India has undertaken several initiatives to combat hunger and improve nutrition across the country.
Some of these key initiatives include:
- National Nutrition Mission (NNM), POSHAN Abhiyan: Launched in 2018, this initiative aims to reduce malnutrition and stunting in children, pregnant women, and lactating mothers through a targeted approach, utilizing technology and a convergence of various programs.
- Pradhan Mantri Poshan Shakti Nirman scheme (PM Poshan Scheme): The existing Mid-Day Meal scheme, which provides hot meals to students, has been renamed as the National Scheme for PM Poshan Shakti Nirman. This school meal program is designed to enhance the nutritional status of school-age children, contributing to their overall well-being and development.
- Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana: A maternity benefits program that provides financial assistance to pregnant and lactating mothers to improve their health and nutrition during the maternity period.
- Food Fortification: A strategy adopted to address micronutrient deficiencies by adding essential vitamins and minerals to commonly consumed foods to improve their nutritional content.
- National Food Security Act, 2013: Legally entitles a portion of the population to receive subsidized food grains under the Targeted Public Distribution System.
- Mission Indradhanush: A health mission aimed at expanding immunization coverage for pregnant women and children to prevent life-threatening diseases.
- Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme: A government program providing a range of services such as supplementary nutrition, health check-ups, immunization, and pre-school education to children under 6 years of age and their mothers.
- Eat Right India Movement: A campaign launched by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to promote safe and healthy food choices among the public.
- Zero Hunger Program: Initiated in 2017, this program has the objective of eliminating hunger and malnutrition by 2030 through farming interventions, training, and the establishment of biofortified gardens.