- January 2, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Context: The President laid the foundation stone for another project called ‘Development of Pilgrimage and Heritage Infrastructure of UNESCO World Heritage Site at Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple’ at Mulugu in the state.
- The temple located in Palmapet in Mulugu, was constructed in 1213 AD during the reign of the Kakatiya Empire by Recharla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya king Ganapati Deva.
- The presiding deity here is Ramalingeswara Swamy.
- It is also known as the Ramappa temple, after the sculptor who executed the work in the temple for 40 years.
- It is the only temple that has been named after its sculptor.
- The temple stands on a 6 feet high star-shaped platform with walls, pillars and ceilings adorned with intricate carvings that attest to the unique skill of the Kakatiya sculptors.
- The distinct style of Kakatiyas for the gateways to temple complexes, unique only to this region, confirm the highly evolved proportions of aesthetics in temple and town gateways in South India.
- One of the European travelers had remarked that the temple was the “brightest star in the galaxy of medieval temples of the Deccan“.
- The temple has become the 39th site in India to gain the tag of UNESCO.
About Kakatiya dynasty:
- The Kakatiya dynasty ruled most of eastern Deccan region comprising present day Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, and parts of eastern Karnataka and southern Odisha between the 12th and 14th centuries.
- Their capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal.
- Early Kakatiya rulers served as feudatories to Rashtrakutas and Western Chalukyas for more than two centuries.
- They assumed sovereignty under Prataparudra I in 1163 CE by suppressing other Chalukya subordinates in the Telangana region.
- Ganapati Deva (1199–1262) significantly expanded Kakatiya lands during the 1230s and brought under Kakatiya control the Telugu-speaking lowland delta areas around the Godavari and Krishna rivers.
- Ganapati Deva was succeeded by Rudrama Devi (1262–1289) and is one of the few queens in Indian history.
- Marco Polo, who visited India in 1289–1293, made note of Rudrama Devi’s rule and nature in flattering terms.
- In 1303, Alauddin Khilji, the emperor of the Delhi Sultanate invaded the Kakatiya territory which ended up as a disaster for the Turks.
- Another attack by Ulugh Khan in 1323 saw stiff resistance by the Kakatiya army, but they were finally defeated. The Kakatiya rule finally came to an end in 1323 A.D. when Warangal was conquered by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, the then Sultan of Delhi.
Kakatiya Art & Architecture
- The Kakatiya era saw the development of a distinct style of architecture and notable examples are the Thousand Pillar Temple in Hanamkonda, Ramappa Temple in Palampet, Warangal Fort, and Kota Gullu in Ghanpur.
- The iconic KakatiyaThoranam was built by Rudramadevi’s father in the 12th Century. This ornate arch is said to have many similarities with the gateways at the Sanchi Stupa and is also the emblem of Telangana.
- The scenic Pakhal lake in Warangal was built by Ganapathi Deva.
- The 1000 pillar temple in Warangal was built during the Kakatiya Rule and is another example of the exquisite Kakatiya Architecture.
- The Koh-i-Noor Diamond, which is now among the jewels set in the British Crown, was mined and first owned by the Kakatiya Dynasty. The attacks started under AlauddinKhilji’s rule and it is said that it is during this time that the Koh-i-Noor went into the hands of the Delhi Sultanate.
- They were known for the construction of a network of tanks for irrigation and drinking water and thereby gave a big boost to the overall development of the region.
- Telangana has launched a massive rejuvenation movement in the form of “Mission Kakatiya” which involves the restoration of irrigation tanks and lakes/minor irrigation sources built by the Kakatiya dynasty.
- Golconda Fort in Hyderabad (Telangana) was also constructed by the Kakatiya rulers.
- Later, it became the capital of the QutbShahi kings, who ruled from CE 1518-1687.
- The Government of India launched the PRASAD scheme in the year 2014-2015 under the Ministry of Tourism. The full form of the PRASAD scheme is ‘Pilgrimage Rejuvenation And Spiritual Augmentation Drive’.
- This scheme focuses on developing and identifying pilgrimage sites across India for enriching the religious tourism experience. It aims to integrate pilgrimage destinations in a prioritised, planned and sustainable manner to provide a complete religious tourism experience. The growth of domestic tourism hugely depends on pilgrimage tourism.
- For tapping the potential of pilgrimage tourism, there is a need for holistic development of the selected pilgrimage destinations by the government along with the cooperation of other stakeholders.
- The PRASAD scheme aims at paving the way for the development and promotion of religious tourism in India.