- May 10, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Section: External Sector
Every year, about 2.5 million workers from India move to different parts of the world on employment visas.
- According to the Ministry of External Affairs, there are over 13.4 million Non-Resident Indians worldwide.
- Of the total, 64% live in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, the highest being in the United Arab Emirates, followed by Saudi Arabia and Kuwait.
- Almost 90% of the Indian migrants to the GCC countries are low and semi-skilled workers,
- Other significant countries of destination for overseas Indians are the U.S., the U.K., Australia, and Canada.
- As per a World Bank Group report (2021),annual remittances transferred to India are estimated to be $87 billion- highest in the world, followed by China ($53 billion), Mexico ($53 billion), the Philippines ($36 billion) and Egypt ($33 billion).
- India’s Remittances contribute 3% in GDP and is lower than that of countries such as Nepal (24.8%), Pakistan (12.6%), Sri Lanka (8.3%) and Bangladesh (6.5%),
- Remittances in India have been substantially higher than even Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the flow of remittances is much less fluctuating than that of FDI.
|Emigration Bill 2021|
The “e-Migrate” system
To regulate overseas employment especially for protection of less educated blue collar workers, the Emigration Check Required process is regulated through a unique computerized system called “e-Migrate”. This is a system which is integrated with the Passport Sewa Project of the Ministry of External Affairs and Bureau of Immigration of the Ministry of Home Affairs on one-hand and the Indian Missions in the 18 ECR countries, Foreign Employers and the Registered Recruiting Agents on the other.
Whenever an emigrant arrives at an airport or check-post to proceed abroad, his Passport details are validated online by the Immigration Officers and only those who have obtained Emigration Clearance are allowed to travel. This is a measure to ensure protection against possible exploitation of the Indian workers.
It functions under the control of Protector General of Emigrants who exercises directly or through Protector of Emigrants the powers and responsibilities under the Emigration Act, 1983 through the system, to ensure protection of Indian emigrants proceeding abroad, for overseas employment.