Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD)
- December 22, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN Topics
Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD)
Subject – Polity
Context – SAD turns 100
- SAD was conceived in December 1920, a year after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
- SAD was formed as a volunteer group on December 14, 1920 to free gurdwaras from the control of mahants (priests) appointed by the British government, a month after the formation of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (SGPC) on November 15.
- The Akali Dal launched a peaceful struggle that lasted four years and resulted in the death of 4,000 protesters, who were attacked both by mahants and by the British administration.
- The morcha finally led to the enactment of the Sikh Gurdwaras Act 1925, which brought gurdwaras under the control of the SGPC.
- It also pitched the party against the colonial government, paving the way for its alliance with Congress party.
Punjabi Suba movement
- The Akali Dal started calling for the creation of a Punjabi Suba soon after the government of India appointed the States Reorganisation Commission in December 1953.
- The demand, in part, stemmed from the concentration of Sikhs, who formed 35% of the population in the post-Partition Punjab.
- The movement for a Punjabi-speaking state also had supporters among other religions.
- Akalis suspended the Punjabi Suba movement during the 1962 and 1965 wars, and instead took part in the war efforts with generous supply of both men and material.
- Finally, the Gulzari Lal Nanda government at the Centre relented and Lok Sabha passed the Punjab Reorganisation Act 1966, and Punjab in its present form became a reality on November 1, 1966.
Anandpur Sahib resolution &DharamYudhMorcha
- Anandpur Sahib resolution wanted an independent political status for the community.
- In 1978, the party revised the resolution and shifted the focus from the panthic agenda (KhalsekaBolBala) to autonomy for the state.
- The resolution also sought transfer of Chandigarh to Punjab and readjustment of boundaries to include certain Punjabi-speaking territories of neighbouring states.
- The DharamYuddhMorcha (“righteous campaign”)was a political movement launched on 4 August 1982, by the Akali Dal in partnership with Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, with its stated aim being the fulfilment of a set of devolutionary objectives based on the Anandpur Sahib Resolution.
- It was in 1996 that Akali Dal announced its ideological transformation into a party of all Punjabis, regardless of their religion or geography in its Moga declaration.
- The party has admitted a large number of Hindus.