TB in India
- July 6, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
TB in India
- Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that most often affect the lungs.
- Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.
- TB is spread from person to person through the When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
- About one-quarter of the world’s population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not yet ill with the disease and cannot transmit the disease.
- Persons with compromised immune systems, such as people living with HIV, malnutrition or diabetes, or people who use tobacco, have a higher risk of falling ill.
WHO and TB
WHO’s post-2015 End TB Strategy, adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2014, aims to end the global TB epidemic as part of the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals.
It serves as a blueprint for countries to reduce TB incidence by 80%, TB deaths by 90%, and to eliminate catastrophic costs for TB-affected households by 2030. The Strategy is not a “one size fits all” approach and its success depends on adaptation for diverse country settings
India and TB
India has the highest burden of both tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB based on estimates reported in Global TB Report.
- Revised National TB Control Program
- RNTCP uses the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) strategy and reaches over a billion people in 632 districts/reporting units. The RNTCP is responsible for carrying out the Government of India five year TB National Strategic Plans.
- With the RNTCP both diagnosis and treatment of TB are free.
- The initial objectives of the RNTCP in India were: to achieve and maintain a TB treatment success rate of at least 85% among new sputum positive (NSP) patients and to achieve and maintain detection of at least 70% of the estimated new sputum positive people in the community.
- Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY), a DBT scheme for nutritional support, was introduced in April 2018 by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW), Government of India under the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP). It provides support worth Rs 500/- per month for the duration of treatment to TB patients.
- National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Tuberculosis (2017-2025) with the goal of ending TB by 2025. The key focus areas are:
- Early diagnosis of all the TB patients, prompt treatment with quality assured drugs and treatment regimens along with suitable patient support systems to promote adherence.
- Engaging with the patients seeking care in the private sector.
- Prevention strategies including active case finding and contact tracing in high risk / vulnerable population
- Airborne infection control.
- Multi-sectoral response for addressing social determinants.