The massive displacement in Congo
- November 8, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
The massive displacement in Congo
Section: Places in news
Context: The UN International Organization of Migration (IOM) reported that the number of people who have been internally displaced in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has risen to 6.9 million.
What is the conflict in the DRC:
- The conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) traces its origins to the 1990s, characterized by two civil wars in 1996 and 1998.
- This conflict stemmed from the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide in 1994, during which ethnic Hutu extremists killed nearly one million minority ethnic Tutsis and non-extremist Hutus.
- Subsequently, the eastern regions of the DRC, bordering Rwanda, have been plagued by ongoing insurgencies carried out by various rebel militant groups.
- The United Nations reports that in addition to M23, over 120 insurgent groups operate in the eastern provinces of North Kivu, South Kivu, Ituri, and Tanganyika.
- This instability has resulted from violence over territorial control and access to natural resources, extrajudicial killings by security forces, and escalating tensions with neighboring countries, leading to a high death toll.
- Notably, tensions between the DRC and Rwanda continue to escalate as both nations accuse each other of supporting ethnic Tutsi and Hutu-led rebel groups, respectively.
- The resurgence of the Tutsi-led M23 rebel campaign in November 2021 further exacerbated the security situation in the eastern DRC.
- This group frequently launches attacks and has seized control of numerous towns. In November 2022, a ceasefire was brokered between the DRC and Rwanda; however, it failed when M23 rebels declared non-compliance.
- The East African Force and the UN peacekeeping mission, deployed to oversee the withdrawal of rebel groups, were unable to achieve their objectives. Since January 2023, M23 has continued to make advances in the region.
Who are the major actors:
- Prominent rebel groups operating alongside M23 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) include the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) and the Cooperative for Development of the Congo (CODECO).
- The ADF, a rebel group based in Uganda, has been active in eastern DRC since the mid-1990s and declared its allegiance to the Islamic State in 2019.
- CODECO purports to safeguard the interests of the ethnic Lendu community against the Hemas and the Congolese army.
- Additionally, the DRC accuses Rwanda of supporting the Tutsi-led M23 group, while Rwanda asserts that the DRC backs Hutu militias responsible for the 1994 Rwandan genocide who fled to eastern DRC.
- The East African Community (EAC) entered the conflict in November 2022 by deploying its troops in eastern DRC to quell the violence.
- These forces originated from Kenya, South Sudan, Burundi, and Uganda.
What is UN International Organization of Migration (IOM):
- IOM stands as the principal intergovernmental organization specializing in the realm of migration, collaborating closely with governmental, intergovernmental, and non-governmental partners.
- Its origins trace back to the aftermath of World War II when Western Europe grappled with upheaval and displacement.
- It was founded in 1951
- IOM achieved Permanent Observer status to the UN General Assembly in 1992, and a collaborative agreement was formalized between IOM and the UN in 1996.
- The organization boasts a membership of 175 sovereign states, along with eight additional states holding observer status.
- Operating across more than 100 countries, IOM maintains an unwavering commitment to promoting humane and well-organized migration that benefits all parties involved.
- Its mission involves delivering services and counsel to governments and migrants
- India is a member of IOM
- IOM’s efforts span four overarching areas of migration management, encompassing:
- Migration and development
- Facilitating migration
- Regulating migration
- Forced migration.
- The World Migration Report is published by IOM.
Some facts about Congo:
- The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is a country located in Central Africa.
- It is the second-largest country in Africa and is known for its vast natural resources, including minerals and a significant portion of the Congo rainforest.
- The DRC is bordered by nine countries: Angola, Burundi, the Central African Republic, the Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.
- The Capital of DRC is Kinshasa
- The Congo Basin rainforest, which is the second-largest rainforest in the world.
- The DRC is the world’s largest producer of cobalt ore, and a major producer of copper and diamonds