The Yom Kippur war
- October 9, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
The Yom Kippur war
Section: Places in news
Context: The surprise attack by Hamas on Israel has brought back memories of the Yom Kippur war
What was Yom Kippur war:
- The Yom Kippur War, also known as the October War or Ramadan War, occurred from October 6 to 25, 1973, pitting Israel against Egypt and Syria.
- Following Israel’s dominant Six-Day War victory in 1967, the conflict marked the Fourth Arab-Israeli War.
- Egypt and Syria launched a coordinated surprise attack during the Holy Islamic month of Ramadan, initially gaining ground.
- Israel eventually counterattacked, leading to a ceasefire mediated by the UN, but not before the superpowers, the US and the Soviet Union, got involved, and Israel’s invincibility image was challenged.
What is Yom Kippur:
- Yom Kippur is the holiest day in Judaism and Samaritanism.
- It is also known as the Day of Atonement.
- It is observed on the 10th day of the lunar month of Tishri, which falls in September or early October.
Why was the significance of the Yom Kippur war:
- The Yom Kippur War was significant because it revealed Israel’s vulnerability, despite eventual victory.
- Egypt’s goal was to bruise Israel, not defeat it outright.
- The war prompted negotiations, leading to the 1978 Camp David Accords, with Israel returning the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt and establishing the first Arab-Israeli peace treaty in 1979.
- However, Syria gained no benefits and saw Israel expand its occupation of the Golan Heights.
Why is the current violence being compared with the Yom Kippur war:
- First it marks the deadliest assault on Israel since the Yom Kippur war, where over 2,500 Israeli soldiers lost their lives.
- The second similarity is the criticism within Israel for the state being found unprepared.The recent attack came as a surprise, despite Israel’s advanced intelligence and interception systems.
- This attack came when many Israelis were preparing to observe Simchat Torah, which marks the end of the annual cycle of public Torah readings, and the beginning of a new one.
- The Torah constitutes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible.