Traditional Art Forms
- December 14, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Traditional Art Forms
Subject: Art and Culture
Context: The recent success of Kannada film Kantara ( which showcases Bhoota Kola, a spirit worship ritual dance of the Tulu-speaking people of Udipi and Dakshina Kannada in Karnataka) has put the focus back on native cultures such as the Yakshagana, Daivaradhane, Kambala or Theyyam.
- It is a popular ritual form of dance worship in Kerala and Karnataka. It consisted of thousand-year-old traditions, rituals and customs.
- The people consider Theyyam itself as a channel to a god and they thus seek blessings from Theyyam.
- Each Theyyam is a man or a woman who attained divine status by performing heroic deeds or by leading a virtuous life.
- Most Theyyams are believed to be the incarnations of Shiva or Shakti (the consort of Shiva). Or they have strong associations with these principal deities of Hinduism.
- The main instruments used for thottampattu are Chenda, VeekanChenda, Ilathalam and Kuzhal.
- Theyyams are performed in sacred groves and other places usually once in a year and is known as Kaliyattam.
- Yakshaganais a traditional Indian theatre form, developed in Karnataka.
- It combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form.
- It is believed to have evolved from pre-classical music and theatre during the period of the Bhakti
- Most of the stories in yakshagana are drawn from the epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bhagavatha and other mythological episodes.
- The name yakshagana suggests the music of celestial beings.
- Yakshagana is believed to have evolved from the ancient Bhutha-worship prevalent in South Canara and Kasaragod.
- Theyyam is also a manifestation of this Bhutha worship.
About Bhoota Kola/Daivaradhane
- Bhoota means ‘spirit’ and Kola means ‘play’ in Tulu.
- It is basically a spirit worship ritual celebrated by Tulu-speaking people in Dakshina Kannada in Karnataka and some districts of Kerala.
- Kola is also called ‘nema’ which means ceremony, which goes on from dusk to dawn.
- The Kola is performed by professionals who belong to the lower castes of society
- The performer of the Daiva or Bhoota usually wears a skirt of tender palm leaves which is easily flammable and helps them to perform acts with fire.
- The performer displays an aggressive outlook, dances fiercely and performs multiple rituals.
- This performer is feared and respected in the community and is believed to give answers to people’s problems on behalf of the spirit.
- Drums and music give company to the dancing and pooja rituals.
- By praying together during Bhootada Kola, the community seeks God’s blessing, prosperity and riddance of various problems the community is challenged with.
- Bhootada Kola is said to have some influence from Yakshagana, a more popular and widely performed folk dance in coastal Karnataka.
- Some of the Bhootada Kola rituals also involve walking on a bed of hot coal.
- Popular Bhootas: Panjurli, Bobbarya, Pilipoota, Kalkuda, Kalburti, Pilichamundi, KotiChennayaare some of the popular gods (Bhootas) worshipped as part of Bhootada Kola.
- Kambala is an annual traditional Buffalo Race (he-buffalo) held in coastal districts of Karnataka to entertain rural people of the area.
- Slushy/marshy paddy field track is used for Kambala.
- The sports season generally starts in November and lasts till March.
- The contest generally takes place between two pairs of buffaloes, each pair race in two separate wet rice fields tracks, controlled by a whip-lashing farmer.
- In the traditional form of Kambala, buffalo racing is non-competitive and buffalo pairs run one by one in paddy fields.
- Besides, there is also ritualistic approach also as some agriculturists race their he-buffaloes for thanks giving to god for protecting their animals from diseases.
- But in recent times, Kambala has become an organised rural sport.