World Wildlife Day
- March 3, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
World Wildlife Day
Section: International Convention
Context: March 3 marks the 50th anniversary of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in 1973.
More on the News:
- March 3 is World Wildlife Day.
- In 2013, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) proclaimed March 3 as the UN World Wildlife Day to celebrate and raise awareness of protecting the world’s wild animals and plants.
- This date was chosen as it is the birthday of CITES, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, signed in 1973.
- This year, the theme is ‘Partnerships for Wildlife Conservation’.
- March 3 marks the 50th anniversary of CITES’ establishment.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
- CITES is an international agreement to which States and regional economic integration organizations adhere voluntarily.
- Aim: Ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.
- It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
- It provides public, private and non-governmental organisations with the knowledge and tools that enable human progress, economic development and nature conservation to take place together.
- The CITES Secretariat is administered by UNEP(The United Nations Environment Programme) and is located at Geneva, Switzerland.
- It plays a coordinating, advisory and servicing rolein the working of the Convention (CITES).
- The Conference of the Parties to CITES, is the supreme decision-making bodyof the Convention and comprises all its Parties.
- Although CITES is legally binding on the Parties, it does not take the place of national laws. Rather, it provides a framework to be respected by each Party, which has to adopt its own domestic legislation to ensure that CITES is implemented at the national level.
- The CITES works by subjecting international trade in specimensof selected species to certain controls.
- All import, export, re-export and introduction from the sea of species covered by the Conventionhas to be authorized through a licensing system.
- Each Party to the Convention must designate one or more Management Authorities in charge of administering that licensing system and one or more Scientific Authorities to advise them on the effects of trade on the status of the species.
- Appendices I, II and III to the Convention are lists of species afforded different levels or types of protection from over-exploitation.
- Appendix I
- It lists species that are the most endangeredamong CITES-listed animals and plants.
- They are threatened with extinctionand CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial, for instance for scientific research.
- In these exceptional cases, trade may take place provided it is authorized by the granting of both an import permit and an export permit(or re-export certificate).
- Appendix II
- It lists species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinctionbut that may become so unless trade is closely controlled.
- International trade in specimens of Appendix-II species may be authorized by the granting of an export permit or re-export certificate.
- No import permit is necessaryfor these species under CITES (although a permit is needed in some countries that have taken stricter measures than CITES requires).
- Appendix III
- It is a list of species included at the request of a Party that already regulates tradein the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation.
- International trade in specimens of species listed in this Appendix is allowed only on presentation of the appropriate permits or certificates.
- Wildlife allowed to be traded further legitimises their movement and increases the possibility of their illegal trade.
- Many animals that are in the wildlife trade are not protected by CITES.
- International conventions not going far enough to enforce their mandate.
- The implicit agreement that while the bodies generally do not have powers to penalise, there is at least a level of commitment that ensures some common ground as a first step.