5G cells to piggyback on poles and hoardings
- August 29, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
5G cells to piggyback on poles and hoardings
Subject : Science and Technology
Section: Awareness in IT
Context: To expedite the roll out of 5G, telecom operators in the country will leverage street furniture such as poles, advertisement hoardings and bus shelters for deploying low power base stations called ‘Small Cells’ that will help bring the network closer to the consumers.
- 5G small cells are base stations that cater to a small segment of a macro site. They are usually deployed in dense urban areas such as downtown, stadiums, train stations, malls, and areas with high data capacity requirements and coverage.
- Small Cells are needed for deploying 5G as opposed to earlier generations such as 4G, because of the frequency. The higher the frequency, the lower the wavelength, which means that the distance they travel is less.
- Small Cells will play a critical role in success of 5G as these are needed to exploit features of 5G such as low latency (minimal delay times), ultra-high speeds, and massive connection densities.
- For higher frequencies in the range of 3.3-3.6 GHz, which are expected to be used for offering 5G services, the waves will travel around 100-150 metres. At present, telecom towers, which are about 30 meters high, are placed at a distance of about 5 km apart.
- Macro base stations have penetration issues indoors, significantly when metallic structures obstruct the network signals. Thus the need for coverage indoors and in large venues like stadiums is prevalent, where capacity is a significant issue – that’s where small cell systems play as the leading solution.
- Under the 5G small cell umbrella, one will find the following cell types:
- Femtocells – 0.001-0.25 (W) output power & 0.010-0.1 (km) cell radius
- Picocells – 0.25-1 (W) output power & 0.1-0.2 (km) cell radius
- Microcells – 1-10 (W) output power & 0.2-2.0 (km) cell radius
- Macrocells – 10 to >50 (W) output power & 8-30 (km) cell radius
Right of Way Rules
- The Department of Telecom last week also notified the amended Right of Way (RoW) Rules, which pave the way for deployment of 5G Small Cells on existing street infrastructure, and expects these reforms to enable launch of 5G services in the country by October 2022.
- The amendments include rationalisation of charges, introduction of a single window clearance system and doing away with the need for consent from a government authority for installing infrastructure over private property.
- To facilitate faster 5G roll-out, RoW application procedures for Small Cells have now been simplified and telecom licensees will be able to use street infrastructure to deploy telecom equipment at a cost of ₹150/annum in rural areas and ₹300/annum in urban areas.
- As per the amended rules, telecom licensees can enter into agreement with private property owners and will not require any permission from any government authority for installing telecom infrastructure such as towers, poles or optical fibre.
- Additionally, no administrative fee shall be charged by the Central government for the establishment of poles on land owned/controlled by it. For State/UTs, this fee will be limited to ₹1,000 per pole. The fee for laying overground optical fibre shall be limited to ₹1,000/ km.
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI)
- The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was established on 20th February, 1997 by the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997.
- TRAI’s mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country.
- TRAI regulates telecom services including fixation/revision of tariffs for telecom services which were earlier vested in the Central Government.
- It also aims to provide a fair and transparent policy environment which promotes a level playing field and facilitates fair competition.
Composition of TRAI
- The TRAI consists of a Chairperson, two whole-time members and two part-time members, all of which are appointed by the Government of India.
- The Chairperson and other members shall hold their office for a term of three years or till the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
- The Chairperson has the powers of general superintendence. He/She presides over the meetings of the TRAI.
- The Central Government may appoint one of the members of the Authority as the Vice-Chairperson of TRAI.
- The vice-chairperson exercises and discharges the powers and functions of the Chairperson in his/her absence.
- The Chairperson has the power of organising the meetings at times. He/She presides over the meetings.
- The decisions in the meetings are taken by the majority vote of the members present.
- In the event of an equality of votes, the Chairperson (or the member presiding the meeting) gives a second or casting vote.
- The recommendations of the TRAI are not binding upon the Central Government.