- January 11, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Subject – Agriculture
Context – Animals are susceptible to several diseases such as foot-and mouth disease (FMD), brucellosis, or Black Quarter
Foot and mouth disease (FMD)
- Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact.
- The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants.
- It is a transboundary animal disease (TAD) that deeply affect the production of livestock and disrupting regional and international trade in animals and animal products.
- The disease is estimated to circulate in 77% of the global livestock population, in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as in a limited area of South America.
- FMD virus belongs to (risk group 4 as per World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)) Aphtho virus genus of the picornaviridae family.
- FMD can spread when infected animals bring the virus into physical contact with susceptible animals.
- Symptoms: The virus causes a high fever for two or three days, followed by blisters inside the mouth and on the feet that may rupture and cause lameness.
- In rare cases, humans are also susceptible.
- FMD is the first disease for which the OIE established an official list of disease-free countries which can be officially recognised as free of the disease either in their entirety or in defined zones and compartments..
- Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by various Brucella species, which mainly infect cattle, swine, goats, sheep and dogs.
- Humans generally acquire the disease through direct contact with infected animals, by eating or drinking contaminated animal products, or by inhaling airborne agents.
- The majority of cases are caused by ingesting unpasteurized milk or cheese from infected goats or sheep.
- Person to person transmission is rare.
- The disease causes flu-like symptoms, including fever, weakness, malaise and weight loss.
- It is also known as Malta fever or Mediterranean fever.
- It is usually treated with antibiotics, including rifampin and doxycycline.
- Other preventive measures include cooking meat properly, vaccinating domestic animals, etc.
National Animal Disease Control Programme for Foot and Mouth Disease.
- It is a 100% centrally funded programme, with a total outlay of Rs.12,652 crore from 2019 to 2024.
- It aims to control Foot and Mouth Disease and Brucellosis by 2025 with vaccination and eventual eradication by 2030.
- Blackleg, black quarter, quarter evil, or quarter ill is an infectious bacterial disease most commonly caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a Gram-positive bacterial species.
- It is an acute disease of cattle characterized by emphysematous swelling usually in heavy muscles.
- It is seen in livestock all over the world, usually affecting cattle, sheep, and goats. It has been seen occasionally in farmed bison and deer.
- The acute nature of the disease makes successful treatment difficult, and the efficacy of the commonly used vaccine is disputed.
- Healthy animals in the age group 6 months to 2 years are generally affected.
- Symptoms- Sudden high fever (107ºF-108ºF) and the animal stops eating and ruminating.