Anti Microbial Resistance (AMR)
- April 13, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Anti Microbial Resistance (AMR)
Subject: Science & Tech
Context- Strategic framework designed by the four organisations to advance a One Health response to AMR
- The strategic framework published in a report April 6, 2022 to advance a One Health response to AMR at the global, regional and country levels is a joint effort by the
- World Health Organization (WHO)
- Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
- World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
- United Nations Environment Program (UNEP).
- The goal of the strategic framework is to preserve antimicrobial efficacy and ensure sustainable and equitable access to antimicrobials for responsible and prudent use in human, animal and plant health, contributing to achieving the UN-mandated Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
- To achieve this goal, the objectives, mentioned in the framework are:
- Optimize the production and use of antimicrobials along the whole life cycle — from research and development to disposal — and decrease the incidence of infection in humans, animals and plants to reduce the development and spread of AMR.
- Collaboration among countries to have the capacity to design and sustainably implement evidence-informed One Health responses to AMR.
- The report defined three outcomes countries should have in place:
- Policy and law support effective country-owned One Health AMR responses
- Systems and structures, including institutional capacities, are in place to support effective implementation of country-owned One Health AMR response
- Increased, sustained resourcing is in place for country-owned One Health AMR responses.
About Anti microbial Resources:
- Anti microbial resistance is the resistance acquired by any microorganism (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasite, etc.) against antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics) that are used to treat infections.
- As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others.
- Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs”.
- Antimicrobial resistance is now regarded as a major threat to public health across the globe.
Reasons for AMR:
- Antibiotic consumption in humans
- Access to antibiotics without prescription.
- Lack of knowledge about when to use antibiotics.
- Unnecessary and injudicious use of antibiotic fixed dose combinations could lead to emergence of bacterial strains resistant to multiple antibiotics.
- Social and cultural factors
- Include self-medication.
- Mass bathing in rivers as part of religious mass gathering occasions.
- Untreated disposal of sewage water bodies – leading to contamination of rivers with antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant organisms.
- Infection Control Practices in Healthcare Settings
- Antibiotic Consumption in Food Animals
- Antibiotics which are critical to human health are commonly used for growth promotion in poultry.
- Pharmaceutical Industry Pollution
- The wastewater effluents from the antibiotic manufacturing units contain a substantial amount of antibiotics, leading to contamination of rivers and lakes.
****For further reading refer to Optimize IAS DPN 28 January 2022.