- October 9, 2022
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN Topics
Subject : International relations
Recently, the road-and-rail bridge linking Russia and the Crimean Peninsula was damaged in a powerful blast.
- The 19-km (12-mile) Crimea Bridge over the Kerch Strait is the only direct link between the transport network of Russia and the Crimean Thus,hitting a crucial supply route for Russian forces in Ukraine.
- The bridge was a flagship project for Russian President Vladimir Putin which was opened in 2018.
- Crimea is a peninsula in Eastern Europe, on the northern coast of the Black Sea.
- The peninsula is almost entirely surrounded by the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov.
- The Isthmus of Perekop connects the peninsula to Kherson Oblast in mainland Ukraine.
- To the east, the Crimean Bridge spans the Strait of Kerch andlink the peninsula with Krasnodar Krai in Russia.
- The Arabat Spit, located to the northeast, is a narrow strip of land that separates the Sivash lagoons from the Sea of Azov.
- After the disintegration of USSR Crimea was transferred to Ukraine on the 300th anniversary of the Pereyaslav Treaty in 1954.
- After Ukrainian independence in 1991 the central government and Crimea clashed, culminating in Ukraine forcibly bringing Crimea under control.
- The Soviet fleet in Crimea was also in contention but a 1997 treaty allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Sevastopol.
- In 2014 pro-Russians seized control, organized a disputed referendum supporting Russian annexation.
- This was followed by a Russian military intervention in Crimea that took place in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and was part of wider unrest across southern and eastern Ukraine.
- Following the annexation two agreement was signed between the two country:
- Minsk I: Ukraine and the Russian-backed separatists agreed a 12-point ceasefire deal in the capital of Belarus in September
- Its provisions included prisoner exchanges, deliveries of humanitarian aid and the withdrawal of heavy weapons.
- The agreement quickly broke down, with violations by both sides.
- Minsk II: In 2015, an open conflict was averted after the ‘Minsk II’ peace agreement was signed, under the mediation of France and Germany.
- It was designed to end the fighting in the rebel regions and hand over the border to Ukraine’s national troops.
- It was signed by Representatives of Russia, Ukraine, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the leaders of two pro-Russian separatist regions.