CSE Mains 2020 General Studies 1 Answers
- January 10, 2021
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- Category: Mains
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CSE 2020 MAINS
GENERAL STUDIES PAPER 1
Analysis and Approach
Q1. The rock-cut architecture represents one of the most important sources of our knowledge of early Indian art and history. Discuss. (Answer in 150 Words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
The question was expected on because of the Chinese Premier Xi Jinping visited Mamallapuram.
I had given this in the last 30 days answer writing also:
I had discussed this question in OPTIMA (MAINS 2020)
Indian rock-cut architecture are an important source of art and history (others being numismatic, literary, epigraphy). But, in absence of written history it remains one of the most important source.
The Oldest rock-cut architecture is the Barabar caves from Mauryan times.
The sculptures surround to the entrance to the Lomas Rishi Cave is the earliest survival of the ogee shaped “chaitra arch” that was to be an important feature of Indian rock-cut architecture and sculptural decoration for centuries.
The rock cut architecture has sustained over a large period and remains a clear cut source of art and culture in india. These have largely religious centes, teaching centes, with inscription holding information about the past
- Mahabalipuram has a large number of rock-cut monuments including cave shrines, monolithic temples, and large sculptures carved out of boulders.
- They also supported the creation of temples dedicated to other Hindu gods and goddesses and to other religious traditions such as
- The Pallava rulers were particularly inspired by the growing personal devotional movement known as bhakti
- The ornamentation clearly exhibit the continuing influence of traditions used in earlier wooden structure
- It demonstrates progression from rock cut structures to free standing structural temples, and displays all the elements of mature Dravidian architecture. It signifies religious harmony with sacred spaces dedicated to both Shiva and Vishnu, and was also an important symbol of Pallava political and economic strength.
- According to legend, sailors and merchants at sea could spot the shikharas of the temple from a distance and use those majestic towers to mark their arrival to the prosperous port city of Mahabalipuram.
- The inscriptions in the architecture gives the chronology, name of pallava, trade and economy of the capital city
- The Tamil inscriptions shows the vibrant tradition of language
- The different subdivisions of shrines shows the combinations of different styles over different periods
- Several shrines show influence by Buddhist history in deccan
- The marvellous rock cut temples of the Kailash Temple in Ellora. Ellora has over 30 caves, out of these some belong to Buddhist, Jain and Hindu. one of the largest rock cut Hindu temple, built by the Rashtrakuta King Krishna
- It shows a religious coexistence and diversity of India since ancient times
- The existence of fine knowledge and highly skilled sculptors
- It also gives us a picture of a fine administration, as only a well organised administration can plan and execute such huge structure employing a huge mass in the stone cut work
- It also tells us about the training and skill education imparted to the masses involved in the work
- The religious background of the state and the patronage by kings of various time period is evident from the religious diversity over the caves
- The unparalled grandeur shows the prosperity of economy and the most overwhelming energy is seen in the life size images sculpted
- The fine carving and sculptures of the animals shows the evolution of sculpting animals
- The monolithic rock cut of the entire hill shows the millennium long tradition and evolution of architectural technique is a full grown Dravidian style
- Such a majestic architecture shows the coordination between painters, scuptors and labourers
- Such a long transfer of techniques shows the depth of caste system, that helped in transfer of knowledge.
- Chaityas and Viharas were carved out in the second century BC as a symbolic representation of Buddha was done
- In this phase more, the focus was given on stupa and figurative sculpture was neglected.
- Gives us information on the rise and fall of Buddhism at different periods
- It gives a wide picture on patronage pattern of different kingdoms
- the philosophies and teachings of Buddha, the various literary work gets depicted an sculptures
- (jataka tales, symbolic representation of chaitya, various stages of life of Buddha etc..,)
- The simplistic life of the monk gets deciphered from these architectures
The rock cut architecture has sustained over the time and have been the symbol of ancient Indian social political and economic representation even today India preferred solid rock to hewn stone as the material to confer permanence on religious buildings, whether to provide enduring embodiments of belief to a continuing succession of dedicated believers.
Q2. Pala period is the most significant phase in the history of Buddhism in India, Enumerate.
Santosh Sir’ take on the question:
Introduction: Mention about Pala period and its association with Buddhism representing peak of Buddhism history in India.
Pala period spreading from 8th to 12th century AD is significant for Buddhism as its rulers were patrons of Mahayana Buddhism. The period is also associated with some of the famous Buddhist architecture and learning centres.
- Rulers as patrons of Mahayana Buddhism
- World Famous learning centres of Buddhists. Ex- Nalanda, Vikramshila etc.
- Emergence of Tantrism
- Scholars and Buddhist literature: Patronism of rulers led to many Buddhist scholars flourishing. Ex- Atisha, Santaraksita, Saraha, Tilopa
Art and Architecture
Q3. Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long-term implication on the national movement.
Santosh Sir’s take on the question
- The year 2020 started with use of “Lord Curzon” name by Bengal governor created a controversy in Bengal Politics.
- This year Swadeshi movement was expected because of Atmanirbharbharat. Swadeshi movement was in protest against Bengal partition which was the most controversial policy of Curzon.
- Thus UPSC asked the same swadeshi movement but indirectly.
- I had predicted Swadeshi Movement and person responsible for India’s partition for this year mains.
- Further, Partition was in news throughout the year because of various controversies and any student of history must know that it was Curzon who started “Divide and Rule” policy in India.
OPTIMIZE IAS Sources:
Compilation of last 10 days strategy: https://optimizeias.com/who-can-be-held-responsible-for-partition-of-india-what-was-its-effect-is-its-effect-still-felt-today/
OPTIMA (MAINS 2020) QUESTION BELOW
16th June DPS June 2020:
DPS December 2019
Daily Practice Sheet (DPS) November 2019
Model Answer Approach:
Discussing about Lord Curzon, his broad policy approach and it changing the direction of national movement in India. For ex-
Lord Curzon represented peak of the imperialist tendency at the leadership level. His policy approach largely focused around institutionalising paramountcy and checking anti-British movement. This reactionary approach naturally gave the national movement a mass push.
Here discuss with examples how and what policies Curzon followed and its impact on national movement.
1. Positive aspect of his policy:
- Educational reform
- Professional education
- Police Reforms
- Created natural frontier for British India in North
These policies led to creation of a new middle class/capitalist who didn’t out rightly support INM, yet, post-1920s when movement grew, they became active support of INM.
2. Policies with reactionary intent leading to response from masses and deepening of nationalism
- Policy of Divide and Rule: Bengal partition made Indian national Movement (INM) mass-based and truly national.
- Education policy: Through Indian University Act, 1904. Discuss how these were aimed at controlling rising nationalism and this infuriated youth who already got a taste of national movement and self-rule.
- Curtailing transparency and targeting people: Official Secrets Act, 1904 made more stringent targeting nationalist leaders
- Foreign Policy: Secured the remaining natural frontier of British India by ending the problem from North (i.e., Tibet). This made British government more reactionary and complacent leading to reactionary policies
- Handling Famine: In 1899 approach to famine generated huge ill-will among the people for British government’s aim.
All these policies done with the aim to perpetuate British rule in India. Yet, it had long-term implications in form of movements becoming mass-based, nationalistic and methods changing from prayer, petition to Constitutional (and later legal means) with active role of new youth of India.
Q4. Discuss the geophysical characteristics of the Circum-Pacific zone. (Answer in 150 Words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
In last year there has been many volcanic eruption on the ring of fire. In August 2020 there was a volcanic eruption in Indonesia.
Recently there has been a devastating volcanic explosion on New Zealand’s White Island along with several earthquakes and volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.
I have asked this in Daily Practice Sheet:
Daily Practice Sheet 12th Aug, 2020
This has been covered in Daily Prelims Notes.
Introduction: Mention about Ring of Fire as a zone of:
- String of Volcanoes (around 452)
- Seismic activity
- 90% of all earthquakes of the world
- 75% of all active volcanoes
Body: Geophysical characteristics:
- Horseshoe shaped ( around 40000kms) on the edges of Pacific ocean from the southern tip of South America along the west coast of North America, Bering Strait to Japan, southern NewZealand.
- Result of activities of Plate Tectonics.
- Subduction Zones and convergent plate boundary: Add a small diagram showing subduction of oceanic plate under continental plate.
- O-C collision: Denser oceanic plate subduct under lighter continental plate.
- Mantle Dynamics: Melting of plate produces magma which rises up to the surface as a volcano.
- Add a small diagram showing pacific ring of fire:
Q5. The process of desertification does not have climate boundaries. Justify with examples. (Answer in 150 Words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
Last year there was UNCCD conference in New Delhi
The United Nations-led Conference to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) in New Delhi ended with a commitment to achieve land degradation neutrality by 2030. The Delhi Declaration, a consensus document, agreed upon by more than 100 countries “welcomed” the proposed adoption of a “voluntary” land degradation neutrality target by India, which has committed to restoring at least 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030.
I had predicted this question this year:
Mains 2020 expected question list
Introduction: Define Desertification as the persistent degradation of dryland ecosystems by climatic variations and human activities.(UNCCD)
Desertification has been described as “the greatest environmental challenge of our time” and climate change is making it worse.
According to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, the lives of 250 million people are affected by desertification, and as many as 135 million people may be displaced by desertification by 2045, making it one of the most severe environmental challenges facing humanity.
Africa is the continent most affected by desertification, and one of the most obvious natural borders on the landmass is the southern edge of the Sahara desert. One-third of Africa’s drylands are largely uninhabited arid deserts. Apart from tropical drylands the process of desertification can be grouped into four broad areas beyond climate boundaries:
- Irrigated croplands, whose soils are often degraded by the accumulation of salts. E.g. Most salt-degraded cropland occurs in Asia and southwestern North America, which account for 75 and 15 percent of the worldwide total, respectively. In Asia, Iraq has lost over 70 percent of its irrigated land to salt accumulation.
- Rain-fed croplands, which experience unreliable rainfall and wind-driven soil erosion. E.g Many grasslands in western North America, for example, are predicted to be at greater risk of drought due to projected increases in summer temperatures and changes to existing rainfall patterns.
- Grazing lands, which are harmed by overgrazing, soil compaction, and erosion. E.g. Murray Darling Basin of Australia is degraded due to overgrazing.
- Dry woodlands, which are plagued by the overconsumption of fuelwood.
Status of land Degradation in India:
About 29.32% of the Total Geographical Area of the country is undergoing the process of desertification/land degradation (based on Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas of India). With approximately 69% of Indian land falling under dryland, the land degradation or desertification is a huge challenge on India’s already scarce land resource (With 2.4% of world surface area it supports 17% of world population). State of India’s Environment 2017 says that the desertification has increased to 90 percent of states in India. Also, 40 to 70 per cent of the land has undergone desertification in eight states of Rajasthan, Delhi, Goa, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Nagaland, Tripura and Himachal Pradesh.
Causes of land Desertification:
- Water erosion and Wind erosion
- Chemical factors: Natural occurrence of alkaline chemicals, movement of subsoil chemicals (e.g. salinity) to the surface due to water logging.
- Physical factors: waterlogging, over-irrigation, geomorphological
- Direct anthropogenic influences and drivers include: Agriculture, and related activities and associate land use change leading to deforestation.
Conclude with the measures like: Achieving LDN needs two-pronged strategy based on multi-stakeholder approach, collaboration with all sectors, national level targets and monitoring.
1. Protect what is left:
- Sustainable agriculture: Focus on increasing productivity of land to meet food security through Integrated Farming Mechanism or
- Zero Budget Natural Farming.
- Strong forest laws, its implementation and community participation in protection: Along with the legal regulation community needs to be given responsibility to prevent losses like the Amazon forest fire last year. Ex- Protection of Khejri tree in Rajasthan by the Bishnoi tribe Address flood and heavy precipitation related degradation by watershed management, better drainage and bringing in traditional water conservation practices like AharPynes, Bawari etc. Shelter belts in arid areas to prevent wind erosion.
2. Fix what has been degraded: This seeks to achieve the second aspect of LDN i.e. Reclaim degraded land
- Aggressive REDD+ strategy which not only focuses on preventing deforestation, but also increasing carbon stock through Afforestation.
- Drought Toolbox as a knowledge bank to support the National Drought Policy Plan.
- Delhi Declaration to achieve land degradation neutrality.
Q6. How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India?
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
Last year IPCC special report on climate and cryosphere has come. I had discussed this in depth in the Mains OPTIMA 2020. I was sure this question would come in some form or the other.
Introduction: As per the special IPCC report on Ocean and Cryosphere Glaciers will continue to melt even with no climate change. Non-polar glaciers will lose more than 80% of their current ice by 2100.
High Mountain is a home to one tenth of the world’s population.
Impact of melting of Himalayan Glaciers have a far reaching impact on the water resources of India:
- River runoff i.e. Peak Water.
- Increase Wet snow avalanches.
- Glacier fragmentation and splitting of big glaciers into small ones.
- Glaciers hold toxic human derived chemicals e.g DDT , heavy metals which diminish drinking water quality.
- Hydropower at risk due to change in runoff.
- Since surface and groundwater systems are interconnected, such a situation may lead to a substantial drop in the rates of groundwater recharge in some regions.
- Huge water stress in many parts of the HKH region and affect the river basins that relate to the Himalayan glaciers.
- Threat to Alpine biodiversity Phytoplankton bloom.
- Threat to food security as it affects fishing.
- Glacial lake outburst floods e.g. Uttarakhand floods of 2013.
- Influence the Indian Monsoon, intense precipitation, Flood, Landslides etc.
- Coastal areas, especially heavily populated mega-delta regions, will be at greatest risk due to increased flooding from the sea and, in some cases, from river flooding.
A regional approach is necessary for the protection of the HKH’s interconnected systems. Countries that share the hydrological boundaries must come together to understand the nature of the resource, share data with one another, and contribute to comprehensive planning.
To effectively respond to the effects of climate change, water management systems will need to take into account the social, economic, and ecological complexities of the region.
Q7. Account for the present location of iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples. (Answer in 150 Words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
September 2020, the Ministry of Steel prepared a draft framework policy for development of steel clusters in the country.
I has asked this in Daily Practice Sheet recently.
Locations of industries have been changing due to change in demand and arrival of several new factors like change in raw material and technology.
Introduction: About the iron and steel industry as the capital goods industry and the base of all other industries. India is the second largest producer of crude steel , largest producer of sponge iron and third largest producer of finished steel in the world.
Location of industries is determined by various factors. It varies with
time, space as well as development priorities.
General factors of location of Industries:
- Raw materials: Industries using weight losing raw materials tend to be located closer to it. Steel industry in Bokaro, Bhilai (Iron and coal weight losing) ,Manchurian deposits in China, Lorraine France etc.
- Power: Today almost all industries need power. But certain industries are power intensive and need huge quantities of electricity. Ex- Aluminium and synthetic nitrogen industries.
- Market: Non-weight losing industries, heavy equipment industries etc. tend to be located near markets to meet demand. Ex- oil refineries in Barauni (Bihar) to supply oil to markets.
- Transport: Provides easy access to both raw materials and market. Ex- Concentration of industry around Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai.
- Labour: Cheap and skilled labour is an important determinant of location of industries. Ex- Shifting of many industries to China from Western countries and now shifting to India, Vietnam, Bangladesh.
- Historical factors: Emergence of Vadodara, Mysore, Mumbaietc as industrial centre also is based in history where during colonisation period British focused setting up industries here.
- Industrial policy or development priorities: Development of backward areas as policy decision post-1947 saw iron and steel industry in Bhilai and Rourkela.
The growth and development of the iron and steel industry is a reflection of the global economy. The iron and steel industry depicts a changing nature in its growth and production pattern. In the mid-1970s, the relatively developed countries of the North.
America, Western Europe and Japan accounted for nearly two-third of the world’s steel production. But gradually the spatial pattern has changed and attention has now shifted to the developing regions.
The recent changes in the location of iron and steel industries away from sources of raw material is largely due to the following reasons:
- Development in technology and increased use of scrap steel. E.g. Mini Steel Plants near the NCT of Delhi.
- Manufacturing of new raw materials using nanotechnology for aircraft and other industries like carbon nanotubes.
- Depletion of raw material in the major iron ore and coal producing ares eg. Ruhr valley Germany.
- Nearness to market minimise cost of transportation. E.g. Mini Steel Plants in Osaka-Kobe-Himeji Region Japan.
Conclusion: Globalization has dismantled trade barriers between nations. Industries are increasingly becoming footloose i.e. losing their locational dependence on raw materials.
Q8. Has caste lost its relevance in understanding the multi-cultural Indian Society? Elaborate your answers with illustrations. (Answer in 150 Words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
Caste has been in news in last few years. This is taken from the Society NCERT directly.
Post-independence, the Indian caste system had lost its relevance, but it is still alive in the deepest corners of our society. Prejudices related to caste were and are still alive in private matters of households, marriages, trade, etc.
Why caste has not lost its relevance:
Prevalence of caste in India:
More dangerous is subversive untouchability: which remains in households that have maids or servants or even drivers.
Across India, Untouchability was practised among 52 per cent of Brahmins, 33 per cent of Other Backward Classes and 24 per cent of non-Brahmin forward castes. Untouchability was also practiced by people of minority religions – 23 per cent of Sikhs, 18 per cent of Muslims and 5 per cent of Christians.
Here the lower caste imitates the rituals and habits of upper caste in order climb the social mobility ladder.
This aspiration shows that caste awareness exists. This intensified caste identity and consciousness, especially in the contemporary Indian society.
Vote bank Politics:
Caste has permeated into the political arena with castes representing easily identifiable vote banks. Caste was chosen over class as identities of caste are much clearer than class and almost everyone can say which caste they belong to.
- The caste system has penetrated the education institutes too. Caste plays an important role in access to these educational institutions. Primary state education even though deemed to be universal, is still ruled by the caste system. This social stratification is detrimental to the advancement of millions of Dalit and lowers caste children.
- Dalits and lower castes are stuck in the vicious cycle of poverty and one-half of the poorest children belong to the Dalit community. Low school enrollment rate and high percentages of child labor plague these disadvantaged communities.
- Their dropout rate is also high since another helping hand for blue collar working class families. This gives rise to a high literacy rate and thereby gives them no economic or social mobility.
- According to a UNICEF survey, 51% of Dalit children drop out of elementary schools as opposed to 37% children from non-Dalit and non-Adivasi communities.
- Even though the introduction of reservations have improved the conditions, it isn’t a flawless concept and this disparity due to the systematic social segregation does exist.
- Justice Rohini Committee findings on Sub categorization of OBC’s. “Less than 1% of OBC castes corner 50% reservation benefits, 20% get none
The matrimonial advertisements are frequent in the newspapers that especially demand brides and grooms from particular communities.
Ex: In India the percentage of inter-caste marriages is about 11 percent
- An honour killing is the practice wherein an individual is killed by one or more family member(s), because he or she is believed to have brought shame on the family.
- The shame may range from refusing to enter an arranged marriage, having sex outside marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by the family, starting a divorce proceeding, or engaging in homosexual relations.
- In 2017, the Supreme Court of India issued notice seeking data and explanation for rise in honor killings to the states of Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
According to a report on crime statistics for 2018 by the National Crime Records Bureau of India, there were 30 murders with motives recorded as “honour killings” in 2018.
Though in urban centers, the caste identity looks blurred, the prevalence of caste system in the society is still a reality.
To conclude, the ‘Right to Equality’ (Article 14) should not only remain on papers. This right should be properly exercised. Otherwise it will lose its essence if all the citizens of India, especially the weaker and backward classes do not have equal rights and equality before law.
Affirmative actions ,multi dimensional and prolonged approach should be taken by both Centre and State Government to do away with the menace of Caste system and its detrimental effects.
Q9. COVID-19 pandemic accelerated class inequalities and poverty in India. Comment. (Answer in 150 Words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
This was the most predictable question. I have discussed this in MAINS OPTIMA 2020 and also posted it as 30 days answer writing challenge.
LAST 30 days answer writing:
MAINS OPTIMA 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic has played an important role in highlighting growing inequalities. It exposed the myth that everyone is in the same boat. While we are all floating on the same sea, it’s clear that some are in superyachts, while others are clinging to the drifting debris.
Oxfam, a non-profit operating across the world, has estimated that there are 121 million more people on the brink of starvation today due to mass unemployment, disruption to food production and supplies. “As many as 12,000 people could die every day from COVID-linked hunger,” declared Oxfam.
Inequality and Poverty in India:
Inequality in healthcare:
The stagnation in public spending on health care has become even more detrimental as the coronavirus pandemic ravages India, affecting over 4.5 million people, with India reporting more daily COVID-19 cases than any other country in the world at the end of August.
India’s spending on public health care is among the lowest in the world. Almost 120 people every minute are being pushed into poverty in India because of health care costs, a situation worsened by the recent wave of health care privatization.
In India, there are significant inter- and intra-state disparities. Rural–urban differentials are also severe.
For instance, there is a huge skew in the distribution of doctors working in urban and rural areas, with the urban to rural doctor density ratio being 3.8:1. In terms of availability of hospital beds, states like Bihar are well below the national average of 0.55 beds in the public sector per 1000 population.
Inequality in Gender:
- Domestic violence( Shadow Pandemic)
- Low wages for women
- Loss of livelihood
- Double burden of economic and social inequality
- Sexual harassment
- Malnourishment and hidden hunger
Inequality in access to education:
Unequal access to technology will fuel other consequences especially in education and employment.
As many of the world’s children switch to online learning, girls in countries like India may lose out, given that they are less likely than boys to have access to the internet. And as analysts foresee more jobs moving online post-pandemic, the digital divide might exacerbate job market inequalities.
In the second week of April 2020, UN’s International Labour Organization (ILO) claimed that about 400 million workers from India’s informal sector are likely to be pushed deeper into poverty due to Covid-19.
At the same time, the International Labor Organization (ILO) estimated that nearly 400 million workers in India’s informal economy are at risk of falling deeper into poverty. According to the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, over 18.9 million salaried people lost their jobs since April 2020 — 5 million in July alone.
Mass unemployment and poverty often induce anxiety and depression – even suicides. A recent survey by the Indian Psychiatry Society (IPS) found that the number of mental illness cases had increased by 20 per cent since the lockdown, and that at least one in five Indians were affected.
Inequality in wealth:
In the last two decades, inequality in India has grown faster than in any other country except Russia. Oxfam’s 2019 “Time to Care” report found that the richest 1 percent of Indians held more than four times the wealth held by the bottom 70 percent of the country – that is, four times the wealth of 953 million people.
India has committed to attaining the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030, and to end extreme poverty by that year. So proactive steps, policy formulations and inclusive growth should be ushered by the Government to eradicate poverty and promote equality in India.
Q10. Do you agree that regionalism in India appears to be a consequence of rising cultural assertiveness? Argue (Answer in 150 Words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question
This was a predictable question. Andhra Pradesh government has made it mandatory for existing and upcoming industries in the state to reserve 75 per cent jobs for locals.
I had discussed this Mains OPTIMA 2020 and also in 30 days plan.
Mains OPTIMA 2020
Regionalism means to situate the approach and sentiments towards the particular region. It is argued that regionalism can be a form of resistance against the imposition of a particular cultural ideology that is linked to the integration of a nation.Regionalism is found to have connections with the cultural patterns that exist as a part of the dominant culture. Sometimes, it becomes a threat to the nation state by regional groups who struggle for their particular sectional interests.
Sons of soil theory is the ardent form of Regionalism which in long run poses communal disharmony in the Indian society.
The supra consciousness of Regionalism leads to violation of Article 16 of the Indian Constitution.
The drawbacks of regionalism include the possibility for each individual city or county to lose their respective independence and/or identity.”
- While trying to ensure the culture and tradition of a particular geographical area is sustained, regionalism often ends up making the people of a certain region narrow minded and less accepting of other cultures found in different parts of the country.
- In certain cases it develops a superiority complex in the minds of the people who have inhabited a place for many years and gives them a false sense of ownership over the region. These effects of regionalism greatly hurt and disturb one`s national identity.
- National identity is a sense of belonging to one nation, a feeling one shares with a group of people, regardless of one`s citizenship status.
- Another regionalist policy known as decentralization is usually employed by the central government to spread its decision making governance closer to the people. While these measures are often taken to improve the governance at the grassroots level, it can lead to rebellion which is aided by the newly empowered inhabitants of a region.
- Another problem regionalism brings about is its disastrous effect on national integration.
Though regionalism has many advantages it certainly poses many threats to the unity and integrity of India. It in a long run leads to Secessionist and separatist movements. Eg: Khalistan movement
This leads to the formation of multiple communities within one nation and restricts the free interplay of culture and tradition between a country`s citizens.
The nation consists not only of variations in terms of people from different states, but also different languages, religions, economic backgrounds as well as ethnic roots.
RECENT ISSUES ON REGIONALISM:
- In recent times, Maharastra and Assam have come under heavy criticism for countless attacks on people who migrated from other states. At times, regionalism has been used for political leverage in order to secure a vote bank
- People are brain washed into believing philosophies that go against the very principles that establish us as a unity in diversity.
- Worse still is the fact that once hatred develops towards a particular group of people, it persists throughout the ages.
- The Andhra Pradesh government has made it mandatory for existing and upcoming industries in the state to reserve 75 per cent jobs for locals.
- Jammu and Kashmir
- North east India
- Regional parties (TN,AP,WB)
The values enshrined in the constitution should be upheld by the Government in power in order to foster unity and fraternity amongst the people of India.
Cooperative federalism should be the guiding factor between Union and States to bypass the threats posted by Regionalism. NITI aayog should be strengthened to ensure regional balance in all the parts of India.
Q11. Indian Philosophy and tradition played a significant role in conceiving and shaping the monuments and their art in India. Discuss. (Answer in 250 words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question
It’s an application based question which requires analysis inside the exam hall. A challenging question to write
Daily Practice Sheet 12th Sept, 2019
The philosophical support of art is traditional. It represents the complete fusions and synthesis of the consciousness for art and beauty that had been expressed in the very beginning of philosophy and it is continuous to the present day in different forms. Aesthetics is the branch of philosophy devoted to conceptual and theoretical enquiry into art
(Relate various art forms and philosophy reflected in them ,may also use table to express them)
Literature (Vedic philosophy)
Vedic thought was further developed in other later texts (sometimes termed the Smṛti Literature), the most popular and important of which are the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyana. While hese are generally epic narratives, they include philosophical themes, and in some sections, are purely focused on philosophical exposition. The Bhagavad Gītā is the most influential of these philosophical discussions. One of the key ideas in these works is the ethics of caste (varna) and life station (āśrama) and how this ethic relates to Dharma, yoga and mokṣa. The Bhagavad Gītā presents these ideas alongside the idea of svadharma
Theme of South Indian classical music is to refine one’s soul and body through discipline, and to make one sensitive to the infinite within one, to unite one’s breath with the breath of space and to unite one’s inner vibration with the vibration of the cosmos. The Bharatanatyam recital celebrates multiple truths embracing diversity and its universal acceptance..
Carnatic music is considered spiritual and one that can elevate the individual, both intellectually and emotionally. The lyrics are mainly based on religious themes and talk about various Hindu philosophies. Carnatic music on its own merit, is a separate entity, and the music itself can be considered to be the supreme way to become one with God. The concept of worshipping through music practice is known as Nadopasana. Carnatic music can not only evoke all the nine emotions mentioned in literature, but can also be experienced bereft of these common emotions. As it is, this music is both intellectual and entertaining, and appeal to both the qualities of the head and the hear
TANDAVA DANCE OR THE NATARAJA BRONZE SCULPTURE
Shiva embodies those perfect physical qualities as he is frozen in the moment of his dance within the cosmic circle of fire that is the simultaneous and continuous creation and destruction of the universe. The ring of fire that surrounds the figure is the encapsulated cosmos of mass, time, and space, whose endless cycle of annihilation and regeneration moves in tune to the beat of Shiva’s drum and the rhythm of his steps.
The artwork on the temples of Khajuraho symbolically highlight the four goals and necessary pursuits and goals of human life as per Hinduism: Charvaka (Brihaspati): Charvaka is a materialistic, sceptical and atheistic school of thought. According to Charvaka there is no other world. Hence, death is the end of humans & pleasure is the ultimate object in life.
- Dharma (righteousness) – represented by the duties of a human in their daily life
- Kama (desire) – represented by erotic sculptures and sensual fulfilment in human life
- Artha (purpose) – represented by the economic activities to make a living
- Moksha (liberation) – represented by the diety inside the temple. Only after passing through the above stages (dharma, Kama and Artha) and leaving them behind, a human is eligible for attaining self-realisation or moksha. The temple symbolically represents dharma, kama, Artha on the outer walls. Only after a circular walk around the temple can one enter inside the temple to worship the god.
Yoga literally means the union of two principal entities. Yogic techniques control body, mind & sense organs, thus considered as a means of achieving freedom or mukti.This freedom could be attained by practising self-control (yama), observation of rules (niyama), fixed postures (asana), breath control (pranayama), choosing an object (pratyahara) and fixing the mind (dharna), concentrating on the chosen object (dhyana) and complete dissolution of self, merging the mind and the object (Samadhi).Yoga admits the existence of God as a teacher and guide.Has become a tradition inindia and practised all over the world
Nyaya (Gautama Muni)
Nyaya Philosophy states that nothing is acceptable unless it is in accordance with reason and experience (scientific approach). Nyaya is considered as a technique of logical thinking.Nyaya Sutras say that there are four means of attaining valid knowledge: perception, inference, comparison, and verbal testimony. This philosophy was quoted by thiruvalluvar in thirukuralAnd an urgent need in era of ict where fake news surround us
Buddhist philosophy (Siddhartha Gautama)
Buddhism is a non-theistic philosophy whose tenets are not especially concerned with the existence or nonexistence of God. Buddha considered the world as full of misery and considered a man’s duty to seek liberation from this painful world. He strongly criticized blind faith in the traditional scriptures like the Vedas, is expressed as Ajanta painting and jataka tales in railings of stupa
Philosophies in India were not only a teaching but it was a way of that passes across generation and influences the worlds, for instance Nataraja statue in CERN is an expression of Indian philosophy, science and life
Q12. Persian Literary sources of medieval India reflect the spirit of the age. Comment. (Answer in 250 words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question
Actually Mughal chronicles was in news in the context of Ayodhya Judgment. (https://frontline.thehindu.com/cover-story/article30025513.ece)
I had already predicted this question this year and discussed it in MAINS OPTIMA 2020 and also gave in the 30 days plan and also in the most important question list.
I have also asked this question many times in the Daily Practice Sheet.
Persian language that came from Iran by the arab invasion, expression of the history art and the culture where in the language as it was one of the court language in medieval times
Chronicles commissioned by the Mughal emperors are an important source for studying the empire and its court.
The authors of Mughal chronicles were invariably courtiers. The famous chronicles are Akbar Nama, Shahjahan Nama and Alamgir Nama.
Turkish was the mother tongue of Mughals, but it was Akbar who made Persian the leading language of Mughal court.
Persian became Indianised by absorbing local idioms. Urdu sprang from the interaction of Persian with Hindavi.
All books in Mughal India were handwritten manuscripts and were kept in Kitabkhana .i.e. scriptorium.
The creation of a manuscript involved paper makers, scribes or calligraphers, gilders, painters, bookbinders, etc.
calligraphy styles of Persian language emerged and reflected in the biographies paintings and even in monuments one such calligraphy style was the nastaliq, a fluid style with long horizontal strokes.
Muhammad Husayn of Kashmir was one of the finest calligraphers at Akbar’s court who was honoured with the title ‘ZarrinKalam’ (Golden pen).
Akbar Nama and the Badshah.Nama:
The Akbar Nama written by Abu’lFazl is divided into three books, of which the third one is Ain-i Akbari which provided a detailed description of Akbar’s regime.
The Badshah Nama was written by Abul Hamid Lahori about the reign of Shahjahan
Q13. Since the decade of the 1920s, the national movement acquired various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss (Answer in 250 words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question
Last few years have seen rise in farmer protest and workers protest. In 1920’s freedom movement expanded its base to cover workers and peasants.
MAINS OPTIMA 2020
Focus on how post-1920s was an evolution of INM and it led to spectrum of ideas from left to right expanding its social phase which was largely educated middle-class until now (with exception of Swadeshi movement).
Here bring all different ideology emerging post-1920s with support of new social bases in INM with positive or negative impacts.
- Gandhism: Ideas based on non-violence, truth appealed to common masses and more so women.
- Royism/Communism: Led by M N Roy and other leaders its focus on freedom of labour and peasants sought to include them in movement.
- Socialism: A new crop of leaders within Congress (Bose, Nehru, J P Narayan etc.) sought to broaden the idea of an equal society with role for almost all class
- Revolutionary idea with traits of socialism: Bhagat Singh (HSRA) brough more youths
- Capitalism: Emergence of indigenous capitalist class (Ex- Birla, tataetc) sought their restrained role in national movement through support to Congress
- Islamist nationalism: New youth disenchanted with the British rule and treatment to Khalifa supported nationalism and broadening INM as seen in Muslims huge participation in NCM. But later on it developed into an idea of separate nation led by Jinnah.
- Communalism: British divide and Rule yielded results with communalism dividing movement and weakening it time to time.
- Ambedkarism or idea of marginalised liberation: It developed in parallel with INM where both British and Indian elite were considered exploiter, thus a united movement by marginalised as well gaining concession from the government was approach.
Conclude on how various ideologies broadened movement while also creating challenges at times. But it also reflected Indian culture of diversity.
Q.14 The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multi-dimensional inter-related problem of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine (Answer in 250 words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
Government has identified 6 interlinking projects with the first one i.e Ken Betwa River linking project had been in news due to submergence of Panna Tiger Reserve.
Introduction: The idea behind the interlinking of rivers is that many parts of the country face problems of drought while many others face the problem of flooding every year.
As of now, six ILR projects — the Ken-Betwa, Damanganga- Pinjal, Par-Tapi-Narmada, Manas-Sankosh-Teesta-Ganga, Mahanadi-Godavari and Godavari-Cauvery (Grand Anicut) — have been under examination of the authorities.
- The Ken-Betwa ILR is India’s first such project.
- With regard to the peninsular rivers, the Centre has chosen to focus on the Godavari-Cauvery link rather than the earlier proposal to link the Mahanadi-Godavari-Krishna-Pennar-Cauvery rivers.
National River Linking Project (NRLP) envisages the transfer of water from the water-excess basin to the water-deficient basin by interlinking 37 rivers of India by a network of almost 3000 storage dams. This will form a gigantic South Asian water grid.
There are two components to this project:
- Himalayan Component
- Peninsular Component
Benefits of River Interlinking
There are many benefits that the proposed interlinking projects will bring about. They are discussed below:
- Interlinking rivers is a way to transfer excess water from the regions which receive a lot of rainfall to the areas that are drought-prone. This way, it can control both floods and droughts.
- This will also help solve the water crisis in many parts of the country.
- The project will also help in hydropower generation. This project envisages the building of many dams and reservoirs. This can generate about 34000 MW of electricity if the whole project is executed.
- The project will help in dry weather flow augmentation. That is when there is a dry season, surplus water stored in the reservoirs can be released. This will enable a minimum amount of water flow in the rivers. This will greatly help in the control of pollution, in navigation, forests, fisheries, wildlife protection, etc.
- Indian agriculture is primarily monsoon-dependent. This leads to problems in agricultural output when the monsoons behave unexpectedly. This can be solved when irrigation facilities improve. The project will provide irrigation facilities in water-deficient places.
- The project will also help commercially because of the betterment of the inland waterways transport system.
- Moreover, the rural areas will have an alternate source of income in the form of fish farming, etc.
- The project will also augment the defence and security of the country through the additional waterline defence.
Issues and Concerns
1. Ecological issues
One of the major concerns is that rivers change their course in 70–100 years and thus once they are linked, future change of course could create huge practical problems for the project.
2. Aqua life
A number of leading environmentalists are of the opinion that the project could be an ecological disaster. There would be a decrease in downstream flows resulting in reduction of fresh water inflows into the seas seriously jeopardizing aquatic life.
Creation of canals would need large areas of land resulting in large scale deforestation in certain areas.
4. Areas getting submerged
Possibility of new dams comes with the threat of large otherwise habitable or reserved land getting submerged under water or surface water. Fertile deltas will be under threat, with coastal erosion expected to threaten the land and livelihoods of local economies that support 160 million people.
5. Displacement of people
As large strips of land might have to be converted to canals, a considerable population living in these areas must need to be rehabilitated to new areas.
6. Dirtying of clean water
As the rivers interlink, rivers with dirty water will get connected to rivers with clean water, hence dirtying the clean water.
7. Disrupting of ecological flow
On implementation, water discharge in 23 out of 29 rivers will reduce considerably, they say. The Ganga will see a 24% decrease in flow. Its tributaries Gandak (-68%) and Ghagra (-55%) will be the worst affected. While the Brahmaputra will see only a 6% loss, its tributaries will see massive flow reductions: Manas (-73%), Sankosh (-72%) and Raidhak (-53%). Changes in water flow and trapping of silt in reservoirs will see a dip in the sediment deposited by rivers.
Conclusion/ Way Forward:
Water is the essence of life. It is something that cannot be created by man. Therefore, the management of available water resources is essential to meet the demands of growing population. Towards this endeavour, the government has initiated the ILR Programme.
As pointed out by the Draft National Water Framework Bill, 2016, equity component of access to water should be given prime importance while choosing the beneficiaries of the programme.
- There is a considerable disagreement between the states on the ILR. While Tamil Nadu is in its favour, Assam, Kerala and Sikkim may oppose it due to the loss of water resources.
- Hence, it is the responsibility of the Union Government to build consensus on the programme in order to avoid strains in federal relations. For this, the Parliament is the most appropriate platform.
- Principles of surplus should be laid down instead of legal definition of surplus which has different perspectives among stakeholders and environmentalists.
- Necessary legal framework should be prepared in the form of MoUs and agreements to ensure cooperation of neighbouring countries that have sovereign rights over the Himalayan river waters.
Q15. Account for the huge flooding of the million cities in India including the smart ones like Hyderabad and Pune. Suggest lasting remedial measures. (Answer in 250 words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
Recently there have been frequent Urban Floods as seen in case of Mumbai Floods and Floods in Assam. I have asked this topic many times in Daily Practice Sheet.
Introduction: Mention about rapidly increasing urbanization along with million cities and smart cities. According to the 2011 census, there were 46 million-plus cities in India. Recent flood like situation in Mumbai leading to disruption in civic life.
Body: Flood is defined as “an overflow of a large body of water over areas not usually inundated”. Thus, flooding in urban areas is caused by intense and/or prolonged rainfall, which overwhelms the capacity of the drainage system.
Causes of urban flooding
Impact of Urban Flooding:
Impact on Human:
- Loss of life & physical injury
- Increased stress; psychological trauma
- Contamination of water supplies leading to diseases
- Rise in mosquito borne diseases
Impact on Economy:
- Damage to buildings, roads and other infrastructures
- Disruptions to industrial production
- Disruptions to utility supplies
- Impact on heritage or archaeological site
- Post-disaster rescue and rehabilitation adds to financial burden of the government
Impact on Transport and Communication:
- Increased traffic congestion, disruption in rail services
- Disruption in communication- on telephone, internet cables
Impact on environment:
- Loss of tree cover, loss of habitat
- Impact on animals in zoo, stray animals
- Creation of sponge cities.
- Green roofs and rooftop gardens to harvest rainwater.
- Creation of flood plains and overflow areas for rivers.
- Sustainable drainage, Permeable sidewalks and gardens.
- Proper planning for rainwater management.
- Improve flood warning mechanisms.
- Climate Change adaptation & Paris Agreement.
- Sustainable Development.
Q16. India has immense potential of solar energy through there are regional variations in its development. Elaborate (Answer in 250 words)
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
Solar energy is in news because of increased target.
MAINS OPTIMA 2020 NOTES
I have asked this question in DPS many times
Energy is a critical element of development of a nation. Solar energy based on radiation from sunlight is used as electricity or thermal energy through photovoltaic cells, solar heater etc. It has come to form an indispensable component of India’s as well as world’s energy needs.
particularly amidst aim for sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
Why is solar energy preferred?
Abundant and replenishable: According to the Ministry of Renewable Energy, theoretically, a small fraction of incidence solar energy can meet the country’s power demands.
Cleaner: It does not generate pollution and can be the world’s future in terms of energy if it seeks to control global warming.
Low running costs compared to thermal and other power plants.
Cheaper: According to the The Energy and Resource Institute (TERI) estimates the cost of solar energy which is already falling will be Rs 2.30 /unit by 2030.
Advantages/Potential for India in solar energy:
- Climate: India, a tropical country, receives sunlight for almost 300 days. Around 5,000 trillion kWh per year energy is incident over India’s land area with most parts receiving 4-7 kWh per sq. m per day. States like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, and West Bengal have great potential for tapping solar energy due to their location.
- Upscaling in capacity: India changed its 2022 target of solar energy from 20 GW to 100 GW due to quick progress in it.
- Energy Security: With fossil-based energy dependency (Around 80%), solar energy with the installed capacity of 35.12 GW has emerged as a potential alternative in diversifying India’s energy basket.
- Suits energy demand of India: Decentralized nature of solar energy distribution suits unreachable areas and brings to them electricity and energy. Ex- by the end of 2015 just under one million solar lanterns were sold in the country, reducing the need for kerosene.
- Leadership opportunity: With India-France coming together for the International Solar alliance (ISA), it gives India scope for leadership in a world looking for a sustainable
However the Regional Variations in solar energy and challenges India faces in sector:
- High upfront investment: With solar energy still an emerging sector investor is worried about the initial cost which is very high initially. Capital investments vary from states to states.
- Intermittent nature: It is not a continuous supply (During night and bad weather). Southern states and regions in the tropical belt receive continuous supply of sunlight compared to northern states
- Import dependency: India is largely dependent on imports (MainlyChina) for solar polar manufacture.
- Space constraints: High population density in areas of UP and Bihar creates issues in land availability w.r.t potential of solar energy. Even in rooftop solar there has been slow progress (Till October 2019, only 1.82 GW of rooftop solar capacity has been installed), because people don’t wish to lose open spaces.
- Storage challenges: Lack of development of high-end technology for storage and transmitting it to long distances has emerged as one of the biggest issues.
- Development of solar park and ultra-mega solar power park to ensure economy of scale.
- KUSUM scheme with the aim of promoting solar power in villages with extra source of income and water availability for farmers.
- International Solar Alliance for international cooperation in finance and technology with secretariat at Gurgaon.
- The Parliamentary Committee on energy recommended simplifying and speeding up the process of subsidy disbursement and increasing awareness, particularly for rooftop solar projects.
- Public procurement should be promoted with high priority and unutilized public spaces to be used for solar power generation. Ex-Stranded or unutilized land of Railways.
Q17. Examine the Status of Forest Resources of India and its resultant impact on Climate Change.
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
Indian State of Forest Report (ISFR) 2019 has recently been launched. IPCC special report on Climate Change and land has come up with impacts of Climate change on Forests and food security.
Also forest were in news throughout the year.
I had covered forest resources and its interlinkage with climate change in OPTIMA (MAINS 2020)
OPTIMA (MAINS 2020) NOTES
Introduction: The 16th biennial assessment of India’s forests by Forest Survey of India, an organisation under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC).
- The Total Forest and Tree cover is 24.56% of the geographical area of the country.
- The Total Forest cover is 7,12,249sq km which is 21.67% of the geographical area of the country.
- The Tree cover is 2.89% of the geographical area of the country.
- As compared to ISFR 2017 the current assessment shows an increase of
- 0.65% of forest and tree cover put together, at the national level
- 0.56% of forest cover
- 1.29% of tree cover
- Change in Recorded forest Area/Green Wash (RFA/GW) as compared to previous assessment of 2017.
- Forest cover within the RFA/GW: a slight decrease of 330 sq km (0.05%)
- Forest cover outside the RFA/GW: there is an increase of 4,306 sq km.
- The top five States (UT) in terms of increase in forest cover: Karnataka>Andhra Pradesh>Kerala>Jammu & Kashmir>Himachal Pradesh.
- Forest cover in the hill districts is 40.30% of the total geographical area of these districts. An increase of 544 sq km (0.19%) in 140 hill districts of the country.
- The total forest cover in the tribal districts is 37.54% of the geographical area of these districts.
- Total forest cover in the North Eastern region is 65.05% of its geographical area. The current assessment shows a decrease of forest cover to the extent of 765 sq km (0.45%) in the region. Except Assam and Tripura, all the States in the region show decrease in forest cover.
- Mangrove cover in the country has increased by 1.10% as compared to the previous assessment.
- Wetlands cover 3.83% of the area within the RFA/GW of the country. Amongst the States, Gujarat has the largest area of wetlands within RFA in the country followed by West Bengal.
- Dependence of fuelwood on forests is highest in the State of Maharashtra, whereas, for fodder, small timber and bamboo, dependence is highest in Madhya Pradesh.
- It has been assessed that the annual removal of the small timber by the people living in forest fringe villages is nearly 7% of the average annual yield of forests in the country.
Impact of climate change on Indian forests:
- Changes in the distribution of forests: Carbon dioxide is required for photosynthesis, the process by which green plants use sunlight to grow. Given sufficient water and nutrients, increases in atmospheric CO2 may enable trees to be more productive, which may change the distribution of tree species.
- Impact on NPP: The NPP tends to increase over India., the Himalayan dry temperate forests and subalpine and alpine forests register maximum increase in NPP. The subtropical dry evergreen forests register the lowest increase in NPP.
- Impact on soil organic carbon (SOC). Tropical moist deciduous forests and sub-alpine and alpine forests are projected to have large (40–45%) increases in SOC. In contrast subtropical pine forests and Himalayan moist temperate forests have much smaller increases (20–30%) in SOC.
- Implication at the state level: Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh experience the largest percentage change in forested grids at 73 %, 67%, 62% and 49% respectively while Northeastern states experience the least amount of changes in forested grids.
- A vulnerability index for Indian forests: Forests in India are already subjected to multiple stresses including over extraction, insect outbreaks, live-stock grazing, forest fires and other anthropogenic pressures. Climate change will be an additional stress.
- Impact on forest growth and productivity due to increases in temperature, changes in precipitation, and increases in carbon dioxide (CO2).
Forests are one of the most important solutions to addressing the effects of climate change. Approximately 2.6 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide, one-third of the CO2 released from burning fossil fuels, is absorbed by forests every year. Therefore increasing and maintaining forests is an essential solution to climate change.
INFLUENCE OF FORESTS ON CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
- Influence on Air Temperature: Forest vegetation reduces mean annual temperature. Forests lower the daily maximum of air temperature and raise the daily minimum.
- Influence on Local Precipitation: The influence of forests on local precipitation at low elevation is negligible but their influence increases rapidly with increase in elevation particularly in mountainous regions.
- Influence on Atmospheric Humidity: The effect of forest vegetation in the relative humidity of the air appears to vary considerably in different localities. Evaporation from snow surface in the open may be four times as rapid as from similar surface protected by a forest cover
- Influence on Transpiration Loss:A large part of the water absorbed by vegetation is taken from the soil, enters the transpiration current and is returned to the air through the leaves.
- Influence on Soil:The beneficial influence of forest vegetation on soil is due to its beneficial effect and its power of increasing fertility of the land by adding nutrients.
- Influence on Seepage and Water Retention: Forest vegetation, by reducing surface runoff, increase the amount of water that percolates into a soil.
- Influence on Wind and water Erosion
- Influence on Springs:Part of the water that seeps into soil at higher elevations reappears at the surface lower down in springs. A forest through its influence in increasing seepage and decreasing, surfaces runoff provides a large supply of ground water, particularly in mountainous and hilly region.
Influence on Floods:Forests, in reducing surface runoff and increasing seepage, extend the time over which precipitation reaches as streams.
Q.18 Is diversity and pluralism in India under threat due to globalization? Justify your answer. ( 250 words, 15 marks).
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
Globalisation is in news. There has been reports that many languages are dying in India under the influence of globalisation.
Globalization is a process of increasing interdependence, interconnectedness and integration of economies and societies to such an extent that an event in one part of the globe affects people in other parts of world.
Effects of globalisation on Indian Society:
Influence of transnational corporations dominated English language over regional languages and minority languages. For eg: Families in urban areas often use English language in their day to day communication
- However, it has led Indians to excel in the services sector of the country
- Relaxed norms of socializing, intermingling, intercaste marriages.
- Expansion of economic opportunities and breakdown of traditional division of labour led to social mobility.
- But, caste system shows resilience in terms of exploitation of the vulnerable caste groups.
- Lack of skills among the lower caste people has pushed in informalization of workforce,
- Increased prosperity have influenced the materialistic aspects of religion.
- Spread of religious ideas through migration. For eg – the rise of spiritual affiliation in western countries
- Clash of civilizations, wherein religious consciousness is on rise due to negative influence of other religious aspects.
- Also, globalization led to the questioning of exploitative traditions like Deva-Dasi, Triple Talaq.
- New cuisines like Chinese food and Italian cuisine are dominating the chain of restaurants.
- Lifestyle changes due to consumption of junk foods like pizza, burger, etc
- Franchise food culture like McDonald, KFC has homogenized the eating habits across world.
- Traditional dresses has become a symbol of ceremony while western clothing patterns dominate everyday life.
- The rise in denim culture can be seen across regions, gender and demography,
Family and Marriage:
- Decline in joint family pattern, dominance of nuclear families. Modern thoughts like live in culture has also been recognised by the Supreme Court in the famous Kanniammal case.
- Familial celebrations have been added by the Mother’s Day, Father’s Day, Daughter’s Day etc.
- The concept of dual income family wherein women also earns, has changed the role performance of men and women.
- Increased in concept of love marriages.
- Web based marriage alliance system has become a common phenomenon.
- The pandemic has seen the rise of live streaming of marriages and even virtual marriage due to technological influence.
Homogenization of culture:
The process of rising global interconnectedness and interdependence has led to standardization and uniformization of culture across the world.
- Change in family structure and Rise in retirement homes and community culture.
- Homogenization in food and clothing (discussed above)
- Homogenization in teaching methods like smart classrooms, virtual learning apps.
- Homogenization of English Language For Eg: 196 Indian languages are in danger of extinction, according to UNESCO’s Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing (UNESCO 2009).
- Homogenization of Yoga across world is a contribution from Indian land.
- Homogenization in values and rights like democracy, scientific temper, rationality, human rights, child rights, banking culture.
Glocalization of culture:
Globalization + Localization = Glocalization.
- glocalization campaigns involve culturally friendly media and ad campaigns to encourage the acceptance of foreign products among a local audience.
- Examples: Indian version of Amazon, Yahoo etc
- The translation of bestselling books into local languages.
- The dubbing of movies in local languages For eg, The Lion King ha been dubbed in regional languages like hindi, tamil, etc
- Indian version of global cuisine for eg, adding spices and masalas to noodles, pastas,etc.
- Glocalized saree draping is a rising fashion theme. i.e, multiple ways of wearing sarees.
- Phonetics of English language is often based on the speech sounds of local languages.
Revival of Culture:
- Demand for handmade arts and crafts in global market.
- Spread of Yoga
The emphasis of traditional medicines like Ayurveda, Siddha etc
India is a rapidly changing country in which inclusive, high-quality education is of utmost importance for its future prosperity. The country is currently in a youth bulge phase. It has the largest youth population in the world—a veritable army of 600 million young people under the age of 25
- introduction of computer-mediated learning has revolutionized the teaching and learning process
- possible to interact more effectively across cultural boundaries. Sharing information and collaborating with others has proven to be a revolution in education.
- Skills for global Economy: The quest among students to learn new skills like coding, designing, etc makes them to participate in global employment scenario.
- Changes in curriculum: Wider elements and wider perspectives of study enriches the knowledge of students.
- Quest for international ranking of institutions repeatedly enforces quality enrichment in the education.
- Globalization poses challenges like faculty shortage, infrastructural constraints in India.
- Marketization of education has led to inequality and compensation of quality of education especially in the higher education sector
- Homogenization of western education in India, induced by international rankings like PISA
- Brain drain ,is serious issue which hampers India’s development.
- Value erosion is a concern.
- Mushrooming of private online content creators in education is often misleading. For example, the learn to code campaign.
The effect of globalization in India is almost a double edged sword. Globalization, though brought in many westernized thoughts and practices it had a major impact on all spheres of Indian society Viz, cultural, social, economical etc which are many a times proves to be detrimental in nature.
Q19. Customs and traditions suppress reason leading to obscurantism. Do you agree? ( 250 words, 15 marks).
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
The question was expected as lack of scientific temper has been emphasised in news and television many times in last 1 years. I have asked this question many times in Daily Practice Sheet.
This question can also be interpreted in gender perspective. There has been protest against many customs and tradition which hinders women progress. Patriarchy is an integral part of culture and tradition.
I have asked patriarchy in OPTIMA (MAINS 2020) and also in last 30 days plan.
DPS MAY 2020
Third Millennium Development Goal aims to empower women. Despite serious efforts, process of women empowerment has been lagging behind the target rate.
There are various examples from day to day where we come across many incidences that hinders the empowerment of women. One among them is customs and traditions.
- Most of the average Indian woman’s life is spent in marriage; many women are still married before the legal age of 18, and the incidence of non-marriage is low in India.
- Childbearing and raising children are the priorities of early adulthood for Indian women. Thus, if they enter the workforce at all, it is far later than Indian men. Women also have to settle for jobs that comply with their obligations as wives, mothers, and homemakers.
Another issue that concerns women is the dress code expected of them. Islam requires both men and women to dress modestly. This concept is known as hijab and covers a wide interpretation of behavior and garments. There is mixed opinion among feminists over extremes of externally imposed control. Women from other religions are also expected to follow dress codes.
Land and property rights:
- In most Indian families, women do not own any property in their own names, and do not get a share of parental property.
- Due to weak enforcement of laws protecting them, women continue to have little access to land and property.
- In India, women’s property rights vary depending on religion, and tribe, and are subject to a complex mix of law and custom, but in principle the move has been towards granting women equal legal rights, especially since the passing of The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005.
- The Hindu personal laws of 1956 (applying to Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Jains) gave women rights to inheritances.
- However, sons had an independent share in the ancestral property, while the daughters’ shares were based on the share received by their father. Hence, a father could effectively disinherit a daughter by renouncing his share of the ancestral property, but a son would continue to have a share in his own right. Additionally, married daughters, even those facing domestic abuse and harassment, had no residential rights in the ancestral home.
- In 1986, the Supreme Court of India ruled that Shah Bano, an elderly divorced Muslim woman, was eligible for alimony. However, the decision was opposed by fundamentalist Muslim leaders, who alleged that the court was interfering in their personal law. The Union Government subsequently passed the Muslim Women’s (Protection of Rights Upon Divorce) Act.
- Similarly, Christian women have struggled over the years for equal rights in divorce and succession. In 1994, all churches, jointly with women’s organizations, drew up a draft law called the Christian Marriage and Matrimonial Causes Bill. However, the government has still not amended the relevant laws. In 2014, the Law Commission of India has asked the government to modify the law to give Christian women equal property rights.
Sabarimala temple entry case:
As per traditions and customs, women between 10 and 50 years of age were not allowed to enter into Sabarimala Temple.
But the situation changed when the Supreme Court on September 28, 2018, ruled that restricting entry of women of menstruating age (between 10 and 50 years old) was unconstitutional.
Women are not allowed to have combat roles in the armed forces. According to a study carried out on this issue, a recommendation was made that female officers be excluded from induction in close combat arms.
The study also held that a permanent commission could not be granted to female officers since they have neither been trained for command nor have they been given the responsibility so far, although changes are appearing. Women are starting to play important roles in army and the previous defence minister was a woman.
However, On 17 February 2020 the Supreme Court of India said that women officers in the Indian Army can get command positions at par with male officers. The court said that the government’s arguments against it were discriminatory, disturbing and based on stereotype. The court also said that permanent commission should be available to all women, regardless of their years of service, and the order must be implemented in 3 months
- Skewed sex ratio
- The attitude towards Girl child
- Son meta preference
- Women seen as a body of commodification
- Glass ceiling effect in work places
- Pink collar jobs and confined mostly to service sector
- Care economy
- Domestic violence
- Low political literacy
- Poverty and mal nourishment among women
- Feminization of poverty
- Low enrollment ratio in higher education
- Poor health and hygiene (Menstruation is seen as a stigma)
- Denied entry in social sphere .
Though many affirmative actions were taken by Government through various schemes, Customs and traditions hinders women empowerment since ages. The breaking point is far visible unless the values enshrined in the constitution and concept of gender equality is implemented and realized to its fullest potential.
Q20. How have digital initiatives in India contributed to the functioning of education system in the country? Elaborate your answer. ( 250 words, 15 marks).
Santosh Sir’s take on the question:
The question was expected as COVID -19 lockdown has forced adoption of online classes and digital medium in education.
I had asked this both in Expected Essay topic and in GS 2 as part of OPTIMA (Mains 2020).
I have also asked this in Daily Practice Sheet many times in the last 6 months.
Daily Practice Sheet :
India has about 650 million cellular phone users, of which around 300-400 million people are smartphone users. Having one of the fastest rates of digital implementation in the world, the Indian Government has made use of this digital revolution and implemented several education-based projects.
In a press release, the Ministry of Human Resource Development outlined seven main e-learning initiatives that have made access to online educational resources easier for students and educators.
National Digital Library (NDL):
The National Digital Library is an online source of millions of academic texts from around the world, that is open to the general public. The NDL makes digital educational resources available to all Indian citizens and aims to empower, inspire and encourage learning.
It has over 17 million source materials from more than 160 sources, in over 200 languages. The NDL uses a single-window system to increase efficiency through time and cost savings. The platform collects and organises metadata from leading learning domestic and international institutions. It functions as a digital repository containing textbooks, articles, videos, audiobooks, lectures, simulations, fiction and other kinds of learning media.
The National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) developed the e-pathshala (e-school). It is an educational cyberspace meant to offer and disseminate e-resources in a variety of other print and non-print materials. So far, 3,444 audio files and videos, 698 e-books and 504 flipbooks are available on its portal and mobile app.
The ShaGun web portal-from the words Shaala (school) and Gunvatta (quality)- is a two-part initiative that provides a platform for the exchange of educational information.
One of the parts of the portal is a Repository. It consists of resource material, including, good practices, images, videos, studies, and newspaper articles etc. The project has been implemented throughout the country’s States and Union Territories. It aims to facilitate the sharing of ‘success stories’ and to foster a ‘positive competitive spirit’ among the students in the country by enabling them to learn from each other.
National Repository of Open Educational Resources (NROER):
The National Repository of Open Educational Resources (NROER) initiative sets out to bring together all digital and digitisable resources across every level of school and teacher education. At present, 13,635 files including collections (401), documents (2,722), audio files (1,664), images (2,581), and videos (6,105) are now available on its portal.
The Study Webs of Active Learning for Young Aspiring Minds (SWAYAM) is an integrated platform for online courses. It covers courses from the school (from grades 9 to 12) to the Post Graduate (PG) level. It provides a wide variety of subjects and skill-sector courses at affordable costs to students across the country.
The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)’s Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are also available on the portal.
The SWAYAM Prabhaprogrammeutilises satellite communication technologies to transmit educational content to national channels. Essentially, it is an around-the-clock educational television channel.
Information Communication Technology in school curricula
The Ministry has implemented the ICT in Education Curricula across the country. The project is aimed at students, teachers, and teacher educators. Now, the guidelines for cyber safety and security are a part of required learning material in schools.
- Under the composite grant for schools, ranging between Rs. 25,000 for small schools with less than 100 students and Rs. 1 lakh for schools with over a thousand students for awareness and community mobilisation to sensitise parents, students and local leaders about pandemics, social distancing and other preventive measures.
- A proposed budget of Rs. 55,840 crore to equip government schools above the upper primary level, with ICT facilities.
- The possibility of being missed out due to Social Inequality and digital divide.
Digital gender divide:
- Only 21 per cent of women in India are mobile internet users, according to GSMA’s 2020 mobile gender gap report, while 42 per cent of men have access. The report says that while 79 per cent of men own a mobile phone in the country, the number for women is 63 per cent.
- Families who are BPL cannot afford online education with meagre income.
Commercialization and brand endorsement of Education:
- commercialization of education may exclude the self-dependent tutors and students from mainstream education.
- Poor students, who do not have access to e-resources (computers, laptops, internet connectivity), will not be able to attend classes from home.
Lack of Practical Learning:
- Chances Of Distraction Are Very High. Students can easily lose track of their studies in online education since there are no face-to-face lectures and classmates to remind you about assignments.
- Cannot Do Courses That Require Labs/Workshops.
- Traditional learning is an indispensable part of education.
- Strengthening Right to education
- Access to universal internet service
- Investment in traditional education and infrastructure
- Increase GDP allocation for education
- Policy framework to ensure gender equality in education
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