Daily Practice Sheet 21 January 2021
- January 21, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPS
Daily Practice Sheet 21 January 2021
All 6 Prelims qualified
4 CSE Mains qualified
If I can do it, you can too
Daily Prelims Topic
- PM Street Vendor’s AtmaNirbhar Nidhi (PM SVANidhi) programme
- Exclusion from the NRC doesn’t render one ineligible to vote
- Disturbed Areas Act
- India Innovation Index Report
- Chenab hydel project
- Dragon fruit
- Sec 32A of IBC
- Revenue Deficit
- Official secrets Act
- Cauvery and tributaries
- The combined fiscal deficit of the states will hit a peak of Rs 8.7 lakh crore, or 4.7 per cent of their GDP, this fiscal according to a Crisil study.
Daily Mains Mantra
GS 1: Society
As per International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) latest report, ‘Global Migration Report 2020’, India continues to be the largest country of origin of international migrants with a 17.5 million-strong diaspora across the world.
Quote the data of census 2011 on Internal migration (India constitute a large population of 309 million internal migrants or 30 percent of the population)
In the body, Define the term migration and its types: (internal and external)
Delineate the major causes for migration.
- Push and pull factors
- Circular migration
- Employment and income benefits
- Development induced displacements
- Marriage and education
Merits of migration:
- Labour demand and supply
- Economic remittances,
- development of skills
- Quality of life and education
- Standard of living
- Women empowerment
- Creation of capital assets
Demerits of Migration:
- Demographic imbalances leading to regional imbalances Eg: UP, Bihar
- Brain Drain
- Women led households leading to psychological stress
- Low wages, poverty,
- Poor health and sanitation
- Low literacy and poor skills
- Emergence of slums
- Political and social exclusion
Quote the recent migrants issue faced during pandemic.
- One nation One ration card
- Labour friendly laws
- Infrastructure development
- Ensuring minimum wages
- Social inclusion – EG. Kerala development model
In conclusion, mention the importance of the nexus between Migration and Development and how crucial it is to streamline the issues and challenges associated with the migration to attain the fruits of development which is sustainable. (Use SDG goals to end the answer)
GS 2: Polity
India and US are one of the largest two largest democracies. India has parliamentary system whereas US has presidential system.
President’s Power to Pardon in US
The President of the US has the constitutional right to pardon or commute sentences related to federal crimes. The US Supreme Court has held that this power is granted without limit and cannot be restricted by Congress.
- Clemency is a broad executive power, and is discretionary, that means the President is not answerable for his pardons, and does not have to provide a reason for issuing one. But there are a few limitations.
- Section 2 under Article II, for instance, of the US Constitution says that all Presidents shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.
- Further, the power only applies to federal crimes and not state crimes those pardoned by the President can still be tried under the laws of individual states.
Pardoning Power – Indian President
- Article 72 of the Constitution empowers the President to grant pardons to persons who have been tried and convicted of any offence in all cases, in which, the Punishment or sentence is for an offence against a Union Law, a court martial (military court),sentence of death.
- The pardoning power of the President is independent of the Judiciary, an executive power. But, the President while exercising this power, does not sit as a court of appeal. It is for correcting any judicial errors in the operation of law, relief from a sentence, which the President regards as unduly harsh.
The pardoning powers of the President are
- Pardon – It removes both the sentence and the conviction and completely absolves the convict from all sentences, punishments and disqualifications.
- Commutation – It denotes the substitution of one form of punishment for a lighter form. For example, a death sentence may be commuted to rigorous imprisonment, which in turn may be commuted to a simple imprisonment.
Unlike the US President, the President of India has to act on the advice of the Cabinet.
- Under Article 72 of the Constitution, the President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence where the sentence is a sentence of death.
- The President cannot exercise his power of pardon independent of the government. RashtrapatiBhawan forwards the mercy plea to the Home Ministry, seeking the Cabinet’s advice. The Ministry in turn forwards this to the concerned state government; based on the reply, it formulates its advice on behalf of the Council of Ministers.
- The SC has ruled that the President has to act on the advice of the Council of Ministers while deciding mercy pleas. These include Maru Ram vs Union of India in 1980, and Dhananjoy Chatterjee vs State of West Bengal in 1994.
- Although the President is bound by the Cabinet’s advice, Article 74(1) empowers him to return it for reconsideration once. If the Council of Ministers decides against any change, the President has no option but to accept it
GS 3: Economy