Daily Prelims Notes 1 April 2023
- April 1, 2023
- Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
1 April 2023
Table Of Contents
- The first International Day of Zero Waste
- Past warm and cold spells in the Arctic influenced India’s monsoon
- Global South needs to come together for a better just transition deal
- India’s semiconductor mission might need a compass
- New Foreign Trade Policy
- Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement For Trans-Pacific Partnership
- CERT-in may be exempted form giving information under RTI Act, says centre
- Famed US museum to repatriate stolen artefacts
- Gujarat HC sets aside CIC order seeking information on Prime Minister’s MA degree, fines Arvind Kejriwal
1. The first International Day of Zero Waste
Context: The world marked the first-ever International Day of Zero Waste on March 30, 2023, encouraging everyone to prevent and minimize waste and promoting a societal shift towards a circular economy.
- On 14 December 2022, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution at its seventy-seventh session to proclaim 30 March as International Day of Zero Waste, to be observed annually.
- Turkey, with 105 other countries, put forward the resolution. It follows other resolutions focused on waste, including “End plastic pollution: towards an internationally legally binding instrument”, adopted at the United Nations Environment Assembly on 2 March 2022.
- During International Day of Zero Waste, Member States, organizations of the United Nations system, civil society, the private sector, academia, youth and other stakeholders are invited to engage in activities aimed at raising awareness of national, subnational, regional and local zero-waste initiatives and their contribution to achieving sustainable development.
- The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) jointly facilitate the observance of International Day of Zero Waste.
- Promoting zero-waste initiatives through this international day can help advance all the goals and targets in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, including Sustainable Development Goal 11 and Sustainable Development Goal 12. These goals address all forms of waste, including food loss and waste, natural resource extraction and electronic waste.
International Day of Zero Waste
- International Day of Zero Waste aims to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, support the societal shift towards circularity and raise awareness about how zero-waste initiatives contribute to the advancement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
- The waste sector contributes significantly to the triple planetary crisis of climate change, biodiversity and nature loss, and pollution.
- Humanity generates an estimated 24 billion tons of municipal solid waste annually, of which only 55 per cent is managed in controlled facilities. Every year, around 931 million tons of food is lost or wasted and up to 14 million tons of plastic waste enters aquatic ecosystems.
- Zero-waste initiatives can foster sound waste management and minimize and prevent waste, helping to address the triple planetary crisis, protect the environment, enhance food security and improve human health and well-being.
Adopting zero waste
- A zero-waste approach entails responsible production, consumption and disposal of products in a closed, circular system. This means that resources are reused or recovered as much as possible and that we minimize the pollution to air, land or water.
- Achieving zero waste requires action at all levels.
- Products should be designed to be durable and require fewer and low-impact materials. By opting for less resource-intensive production and transport methods, manufacturers can further limit pollution and waste. Advertising and closely managing demand can further enable zero waste throughout products’ life cycles.
- Consumers can also play a pivotal role in enabling zero waste by changing habits and reusing and repairing products as much as possible before properly disposing of them.
- With governments, communities, industries and other stakeholders increasingly recognizing the potential of zero-waste initiatives, bolstering waste management and improving recovery systems through finance and policymaking. The Global Strategy for Sustainable Consumption and Production can guide this transition.
2. Past warm and cold spells in the Arctic influenced India’s monsoon
Section: Climate Change
Context: Warm and cold climatic spells in the Arctic, over the past 1000 years, imprinted on India’s monsoon fluctuations during that period, a climate reconstruction study finds.
More on the News:
- Scientists have reconstructed the past 1000 years of climate history from the Arctic, a region that’s warming faster than any other place on the planet.
- They’ve detected warm and cold climatic spells in the Arctic over the past 1000 years. Warm Arctic conditions were linked to intense rainfall over the Indian subcontinent while cold conditions in the Arctic were associated with weak spells of rain over the Indian subcontinent over the past 1000 years, say scientists at India’s National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR).
- Arctic’s influence on the short-term changes in the Indian monsoon may become more pronounced as the region experiences further human-driven warming.
- It is anticipated that the monsoon will intensifyalongside further Arctic warming, and the difference in precipitation between intense and weak monsoon years will also likely change.
- Warm/cold Arctic spells most likely modified the temperature profile of the Tibetan Plateau. The Plateau is an elevated heat source to the atmosphere because of its height and can influence monsoons by influencing the prevailing North-South temperature difference that exists in many forms during the monsoon- such as the land-sea temperature contrast.
- When the Arctic experiences a period of warming, it can cause a shift in the jet stream, which is a fast-moving, high-altitude wind that circles the Northern Hemisphere. This shift can then affect weather patterns in regions far away from the Arctic, such as the Indian subcontinent.
National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research
- National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR) is an autonomous research institution of the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India.
- It was established in 1998 and is located in Vasco da Gama, Goa.
- The primary objective of NCPOR is to conduct research in the polar and oceanic regions, with a focus on understanding the role of these regions in the global climate system. The institution carries out research in areas such as atmospheric science, oceanography, glaciology, geology, and marine biology.
- Some of the specific research activities carried out by NCPOR include:
- Studying the impact of climate change on the polar regions and the oceans, and how this impacts global climate systems.
- Investigating the role of oceanic currents and circulation patterns in global climate systems.
- Studying the dynamics of glaciers and ice sheets, and how they are responding to climate change.
- Conducting research on marine biodiversity, and how it is being impacted by climate change and other anthropogenic activities.
- In addition to research activities, NCPOR also undertakes various outreach and educational activities to promote awareness about polar and oceanic science among the general public and stakeholders.
- NCPOR is also responsible for coordinating India’s polar research activities, and has established research stations in Antarctica and the Arctic. The institution collaborates with several national and international organizations in conducting research and promoting scientific cooperation in the polar and oceanic regions.
3. Global South needs to come together for a better just transition deal
Section: International Convention
Context: South Africa was the first country that signed a Just Energy Transition Partnership (JETP) with G7 countries in 2021 for $8.5 billion.
More on the News:
- Though the Government of India denies the need for a uniform policy on a just transition away from coal, the push for such a policy, from experts, is getting stronger.
- Recently, a Delhi-based think tank, iForest, released two reports – one proposed a just transition framework, including polices, plans and institutional mechanisms, while the other estimated that India needs $900 billion over the next 30 years for a just energy transition. Both the reports emphasised the need for international cooperation for a just transition in the Global South. The reports state that countries such as India need grants and concessional financing to support the economic diversification of fossil fuel regions, green energy, and industrial development and to build the resilience of the impacted communities.
- Meanwhile, there is also an increasing recognition among the global community of the importance of just transition finance, which is reflected in collaborations between developed countries (G7) and developing countries.
- From the Global South countries, only South Africa has developed a comprehensive just transition framework so far.
Just Energy Transition Partnership https://optimizeias.com/about-just-energy-transition-partnership-jetp/
4. India’s semiconductor mission might need a compass
Subject : Science and technology
- The United States Department of Commerce and its Indian counterpart have recently concluded a memorandum of understanding to ensure that subsidies by each country do not come in the way of India’s semiconductor dreams, as espoused by the much publicized semiconductor policy.
India’s Semiconductor Mission
- India Semiconductor Mission (ISM) has been setup as an Independent Business Division within Digital India Corporation having administrative and financial autonomy to formulate and drive India’s long-term strategies for developing semiconductors and display manufacturing facilities and semiconductor design ecosystem.
- ISM is serving as the nodal agency for efficient, coherent and smooth implementation of the programme for development of semiconductor and manufacturing ecosystem in India.
Significance of the Mission
- Create a prosperous semiconductor ecosystem– India’s Semiconductor Mission is the latest division of the Digital India Corporation. The goal is to create a prospering semiconductor and exhibit ecosystem that would allow India to become a global center for electronics manufacturing and innovation.
- Self -Sufficient– The mission will be self-sufficient in terms of deciding the best technology combination, applications, node production, and capacity, as well as suggesting the fiscal aid framework and amount for approved applicants.
- Act as focal point – Led by global experts of the Semiconductor and display ecosystem the mission aims to serve as a focal point for the comprehensive, coherent, efficient, and smooth deployment of the Program.
Objectives of the Mission:
- Long-term strategy for developing semiconductors– Formulation of a comprehensive long-term strategy for developing semiconductors & display manufacturing facilities and semiconductor design ecosystem in the country in consultation with Government ministries / departments / agencies, industry, and academia.
- Adoption of trusted electronics-Facilitation in the adoption of trusted electronics through secure semiconductors and display supply chain, including raw materials, specialty chemicals, gases, and manufacturing equipment.
- Promoting indigenous Intellectual Property -Promoting indigenous Intellectual Property (IP) generation and encourage, enable and incentivize Transfer of Technologies (ToT).
- Subsidies to enterprises- The recent efforts is to open up subsidies to global small and medium sized enterprises in the upstream supply chain are welcome because an existing facility like the Semi-Conductor Laboratory (SCL) will benefit from this.
- Full time director– To execute this vision in the next five years, there is a need to have a career scientist from the Department of Space, as is the case now. This is because there is a multifaceted market that needs to be served.
- Leverage assets at Semiconductor Laboratory (SCL)- We need to leverage human and capital assets at the SCL to build on what exists in a targeted manner, to jumpstart the semiconductor mission by taking advantage of recent technological breakthroughs.
Digital India Corporation
- Digital India Corporation is a not-for-profit Company set up by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), of India, under Section 8 of Companies Act 2013.
- Digital India Corporation (DIC) leads and guides in realizing the vision, objectives and goals of the Digital India program.
- It provides the strategic support to Ministries/Departments of Centre/States for carrying forward the mission of Digital India by way of Capacity Building for e-Governance projects, promoting best practises, encouraging Public-Private Partnerships (PPP), nurturing innovation and technology in various domains.
Section: External Sector
- Union Minister of Commerce and Industry, Shri Piyush Goyal, recently launched the Foreign Trade Policy 2023.
Foreign Trade Policy 2023:
- Foreign Trade Policy (2023) is a policy document which is based on continuity of time-tested schemes facilitating exports as well as a document which is nimble and responsive to the requirements of trade.
- The Key Approach to the policy is based on these 4 pillars –
- Incentive to Remission,
- Export promotion through collaboration – Exporters, States, Districts, Indian Missions,
- Ease of doing business, reduction in transaction cost and e-initiatives and
- Emerging Areas – E-Commerce Developing Districts as Export Hubs and streamlining SCOMET policy.
Key Highlights of FTP 2023:
Process Re-Engineering and Automation :
- Greater faith is being reposed on exporters through automated IT systems with risk management system for various approvals in the new FTP.
- The policy emphasizes export promotion and development, moving away from an incentive regime to a regime which is facilitating, based on technology interface and principles of collaboration.
- FTP 2023 codifies implementation mechanisms in a paperless, online environment, building on earlier ‘ease of doing business’ initiatives.
- Reduction in fee structures and IT-based schemes will make it easier for MSMEs and others to access export benefits.
- Duty exemption schemes for export production will now be implemented through Regional Offices in a rule-based IT system environment, eliminating the need for manual interface.
Towns of Export Excellence :
- Four new towns, namely Faridabad, Mirzapur, Moradabad, and Varanasi, have been designated as Towns of Export Excellence (TEE) in addition to the existing 39 towns.
- Towns of Export Excellence is a status provided to those towns which produce and export goods worth a minimum value in a specific sector.
- Sectors include handicraft, handloom, seafood, pharmaceutical, fisheries, apparel, coir, leather products, etc.
- Once a town is recognized as a TEE it helps in maximizing its potential and enables them to move higher in the value chain.
- According to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, towns producing goods worth Rs 750 crore (US$ 98.7 million) or more can be recognized as Towns of Export Excellence. For certain sectors like handloom, handicraft, agriculture, and fisheries the threshold limit is set at Rs 150 crore (US$ 19.7 million).
- The TEEs will have priority access to export promotion funds under the MAI scheme and will be able to avail Common Service Provider (CSP) benefits for export fulfillment under the EPCG Scheme.
- Market Access Initiative (MAI) Scheme is an Export Promotion Scheme envisaged to act as a catalyst to promote India’s exports on a sustained basis.
- The objective of the Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme is to facilitate import of capital goods for producing quality goods and services and enhance India’s manufacturing competitiveness.
- This addition is expected to boost the exports of handlooms, handicrafts, and carpets.
Recognition of Exporters :
- Exporter firms recognized with ‘status’, based on export performance, will now be partners in capacity-building initiatives.
- Similar to the “each one teach one” initiative, 2-star and above status holders would be encouraged to provide trade-related training based on a model curriculum to interested individuals.
- This will help India build a skilled manpower pool capable of servicing a $5 trillion economy before 2030.
- Status recognition norms have been re-calibrated to enable more exporting firms to achieve 4 and 5-star ratings, leading to better branding opportunities in export markets.
Promoting Export from the Districts :
- The FTP aims at building partnerships with State governments and taking forward the Districts as Export Hubs (DEH) initiative to promote exports at the district level.
- District specific export action plans to be prepared for each district outlining the district specific strategy to promote export of identified products and services.
- District Export Hub Initiative
- Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
- It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
- The Scheme will be part of the new Foreign Trade Policy(FTP).
- Aim: To help producers across 200 districts scale up manufacturing and find foreign buyers for their goods.
- Implementing Body: Directorate General of Foreign Trade(DGFT).
- Under the scheme, District Export Promotion Committees(DEPCs) have been constituted in most of the districts and products and services with export potential have been identified in each district.
Streamlining SCOMET Policy :
- India is placing more emphasis on the “export control” regime as its integration with export control regime countries strengthens.
- There is a wider outreach and understanding of SCOMET among stakeholders.
- SCOMET item is an acronym for Special Chemicals, Organisms, Materials, Equipment, and Technologies, and these are dual-use items that can be used for both civilian and military applications.
- India’s Foreign Trade Policy regulates the export of items on the SCOMET List. The exporter must obtain a license from the Directorate General of Foreign Trade, Ministry of Commerce, to export SCOMET.
Facilitating E-Commerce Exports :
- E-commerce exports are a promising category that requires distinct policy interventions from traditional offline trade.
- Various estimates suggest India’s e-commerce export potential in the range of $200 to $300 billion by 2030.
- FTP 2023 outlines the intent and roadmap for establishing e-commerce hubs and related elements.
- As a starting point, the consignment wise cap on E-Commerce exports through courier has been raised from ₹5Lakh to ₹10 Lakh in the FTP 2023.
Facilitation under Export Promotion of Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme
- The EPCG Scheme, which allows import of capital goods at zero Customs duty for export production, is being further rationalized. Some key changes being added are:
- Prime Minister Mega Integrated Textile Region and Apparel Parks (PM MITRA) scheme has been added as an additional scheme eligible to claim benefits under the CSP (Common Service Provider) Scheme of Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme (EPCG).
- Dairy sector to be exempted from maintaining Average Export Obligation – to support the dairy sector to upgrade the technology.
- Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) of all types, Vertical Farming equipment, Wastewater Treatment and Recycling, Rainwater harvesting system and Rainwater Filters, and Green Hydrogen are added to Green Technology products – will now be eligible for reduced Export Obligation requirement under EPCG Scheme..
Facilitation under Advance authorization Scheme :
- Advance authorization Scheme accessed by Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) units provides duty-free import of raw materials for manufacturing export items.
- Based on interactions with industry and Export Promotion councils, certain facilitation provisions have been added in the FTP 2023.
- Advance Authorisation Scheme allows the duty-free import of inputs, which are physically incorporated in an export product. In addition to any inputs, packaging material, fuel, oil, and catalyst which is consumed/utilized in the process of production of export product, is also allowed.
- Only Exporter (either merchant or manufacturer) who holds an AEO Certification (Authorized Economic Operator) is eligible to opt for this scheme.
- The inputs imported are exempt from duties like Basic Customs Duty, Additional Customs Duty, Education Cess, Anti-dumping duty, Safeguard Duty and Transition Product-Specific Safeguard duty, Integrated tax, and Compensation Cess, wherever applicable, subject to certain conditions.
- Finally, the Government is strongly committed to reducing litigation and fostering trust-based relationships to help alleviate the issues faced by exporters.
- In line with “Vivaad se Vishwaas” initiative, which sought to settle tax disputes amicably, the government is introducing a special one-time Amnesty Scheme under the FTP 2023 to address default on Export Obligations.
- This scheme is intended to provide relief to exporters who have been unable to meet their obligations under EPCG and Advance Authorizations.
For further notes on PM MITRA , refer – https://optimizeias.com/pm-mitra-parks/
6. Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement For Trans-Pacific Partnership
Subject : International relations
- The UK acceded to the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), with Prime Minister Rishi Sunak describing the outcome as an example of “post-Brexit freedoms”.
- The agreement will now need to be ratified by Westminster and each of the CPTPP countries.
- The country will become the first new member, and the first in Europe, to join the agreement since it came into force in 2018.
- The deal is a “gateway” to the Indo-Pacific region which would account for a majority (54%) of global economic growth in the future.
- It will also, as a CPTPP member, get a veto on whether China joins the treaty.
- The CPTPP, also known as TPP-11, is a free trade agreement with 11 members: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, New Zealand, Singapore and Vietnam.
- The eleven signatories have combined economies representing 13.4 percent of global gross domestic product, at approximately US$13.5 trillion, making the CPTPP one of the world’s largest free-trade areas by GDP, along with the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, the European Single Market, and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.
- It succeeded the Trans-Pacific Partnership after the United States withdrew under former President Donald Trump in 2017.
- The bloc is home to more 500 million people and will be worth 15% of global GDP once the United Kingdom joins.
- Beijing had applied to become a member of the bloc in September 2021.
- The CPTPP commission in 2023 is chaired by New Zealand.
- All 11 countries of CPTPP are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
- It is a forum of 21 Asia-Pacific economies established in 1989.
- Members: Australia; Brunei Darussalam; Canada; Chile; People’s Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; Indonesia; Japan; Republic of Korea; Malaysia; Mexico; New Zealand; Papua New Guinea; Peru; the Philippines; the Russian Federation; Singapore; Chinese Taipei; Thailand; the United States of America; Vietnam.
- It seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
- The APEC Secretariat, headquartered in Singapore, provides advisory and logistic services as well as research and analysis.
- APEC decisions are reached by consensus, and commitments are made on a voluntary basis.
7. CERT-in may be exempted form giving information under RTI Act, says centre
- The Central Government recently informed that the Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-in) may soon be exempt from responding to queries under the Right to Information (RTI) Act.
- The Department of Personnel and Training has reviewed a proposal from the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology to include CERT-in in the Second Schedule to the RTI Act, which deals with exempted organisations like the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and the Border Security Force.
Section 24 and Second Schedule of RTI
- Section 24 of the RTI Act 2005:
- It says that this law is not applicable to the intelligence and security organisations specified in the Second Schedule.
- However, the only exception these organisations have is for information on allegations of corruption and human rights violations.
- Second Schedule:
- It includes intelligence and security agencies under its ambit.
- Some of them are (i) Intelligence Bureau (IB), (ii) Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of the Cabinet Secretariat (iii) Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI), (iv) Special Frontier Force (SFF), (v) Border Security Force (BSF) (vi) National Security Guards (NSG) and (Vii) Assam Rifles.
- Section 8 of the RTI:
- It deals with exemption from disclosure of information under this legislation.
- It says that there shall be no obligation on Government to provide any citizen information, disclosure which will affect (i) India’s sovereignty and integrity, (ii) security, (iii) strategic, scientific or economic interests of the state and (iv) relations with foreign States or (v) will lead to incitement of an offence.
About Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-in):
- CERT-In is a functional organisation of the Ministry of Information & Electronics Technology.
- It is the national nodal agency for responding to computer security incidents as and when they occur.
- Objective: Securing Indian cyberspace.
- CERT-In has been operational since January 2004.
- Collection, analysis and dissemination of information on cyber incidents;
- Forecast and alerts of cyber security incidents;
- Emergency measures for handling cyber security incidents;
- Coordination of cyber incident response activities;
- Issue guidelines, advisories, vulnerability notes and whitepapers relating to information security practices, procedures, prevention, response and reporting of cyber incidents.
8. Famed US museum to repatriate stolen artefacts
Section: Art and Culture
- The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, is returning 15 antiquities to the Government of India after having learned that these were “illegally removed” from India.
Art works returned
- The sculptures date back from the 1st century BCE to the 11th century CE, and include terracotta, copper, and stone works.
- Among the antiquities is an enthralling sandstone sculpture of Apsara,the celestial dancer.
- The 33.5inch tall sculpture from Madhya Pradesh dates back to the mid11th century CE and is worth $10,00,000 (around ₹ 82crore).
- A 1st century BCE ceramic pot from Chandraketugarh (archaeological site near Kolkata), a stone bust of Kamadeva, the God of Love, from the second half of the 8th century CE, and a Svetambara enthroned Jina, with attendant Yaksha and Yakshi, belonging to the 11th century CE, are also part of the antiquities.
- An apsara is a heavenly dancer and celestial maiden who accompanies the gods in Hindu mythology.
- Featuring prominently in sculpture, dance, literature and painting from India, Indonesia, China and Cambodia, apsaras are thought to personify the performing arts.
- This sensual, sandstone figure came from the walls of a Hindu temple at Khajuraho in North India.
- She stands relaxedly in a tribhanga pose, a gentle, curving S-shaped stance constituted by three bends in the body at the neck, waist and knee.
- This posture is considered one of the most graceful and sensual of the positions in the Odissi, a major Indian classical dance that originated in the Hindu temples of Odisha, an eastern coastal state of India.
- Her lyrical curves evoke the lilting rhythm of music and dance.
- Kama (desire, longing or enjoyable experience) is a central tenet of Hinduism and is considered an integral part of spirit and creation.
9. Gujarat HC sets aside CIC order seeking information on Prime Minister’s MA degree, fines Arvind Kejriwal
The Gujarat High Court said on Friday, 31 March, that the Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) need not furnish PM Modi’s undergraduate and post-graduate degree certificate.
In ruling so, the court set aside an order by the Chief Information Commission (CIC) asking the PMO, Gujarat University and Delhi University to file details of Modi’s graduate and post graduate degrees.
Additionally, the Court has also imposed a ₹25,000 fine on Arvind Kejriwal who had asked for details of the PM’s degree certificate.
Exemption from disclosure of information is provided on sec 8 of RTI Act.
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, there shall be no obligation to give any citizen, —
- information, disclosure of which would prejudicially affect the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security, strategic, scientific or economic interests of the State, relation with foreign State or lead to incitement of an offence;
- information which has been expressly forbidden to be published by any court of law or tribunal or the disclosure of which may constitute contempt of court;
- information, the disclosure of which would cause a breach of privilege of Parliament or the State Legislature;
- information including commercial confidence, trade secrets or intellectual property, the disclosure of which would harm the competitive position of a third party, unless the competent authority is satisfied that larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
- information available to a person in his fiduciary relationship, unless the competent authority is satisfied that the larger public interest warrants the disclosure of such information;
- information received in confidence from foreign government
- information, the disclosure of which would endanger the life or physical safety of any person or identify the source of information or assistance given in confidence for law enforcement or security purposes;
- information which would impede the process of investigation or apprehension or prosecution of offenders;
- cabinet papers including records of deliberations of the Council of Ministers, Secretaries and other officers: Provided that the decisions of Council of Ministers, the reasons thereof, and the material on the basis of which the decisions were taken shall be made public after the decision has been taken, and the matter is complete, or over: Provided further that those matters which come under the exemptions specified in this section shall not be disclosed;
- information which relates to personal information the disclosure of which has not relationship to any public activity or interest, or which would cause unwarranted invasion of the privacy of the individual unless the Central Public Information Officer or the State Public Information Officer or the appellate authority, as the case may be, is satisfied that the larger public interest justifies the disclosure of such information: Provided that the information, which cannot be denied to the Parliament or a State Legislature shall not be denied to any person.
- The Chief Information Commissioner(CIC) and Information Commissioners(CI) shall be appointed by the President on the recommendation of a committee consisting of
- The Prime Minister, who shall be the Chairperson of the committee.
- The Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha.
- A Union Cabinet Minister to be nominated by the Prime Minister.
- Section 12(5) of the RTI Act 2005 provides that the CIC and IC shall be persons of eminence in public life with wide knowledge and experience in law, science and technology, social service, management, journalism, mass media or administration and governance.
- Also, CIC/IC shall not be a MP or MLA, or hold any other office of profit or connected with any political party or carrying on any business or pursuing any profession.
- CIC shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office and shall not be eligible for reappointment
- Information Commissioner(IC) shall also hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office and shall not be eligible for reappointment of IC. However, IC is eligible for appointment as CIC
- Where the Information Commissioner is appointed as the Chief Information Commissioner, his term of office shall not be more than five years in aggregate as the Information Commissioner and the Chief Information Commissioner.