Daily Prelims Notes 1 March 2021
- March 1, 2021
- Posted by: admin1
- Category: DPN
Daily Prelims Notes
1 March 2021
All 6 Prelims qualified
4 CSE Mains qualified
If I can do it, you can too
Table Of Contents
- National Green Tribunal (NGT)
- National Science Day
- Phase 2 of the Covid vaccination
- Maritime India Summit 2021
- Child Welfare Committee (CWCs)
- Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary and the Mollem National Park (GOA)
- Johnson & Johnson’s single-shot Covid-19 vaccine (JNJ-78436735 or Ad26.COV2.S.)
- Global Education Monitoring Report (GEM report)
- TEQIP (Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme)
- Cloud Computing
- Saksham Anganwadis schemes
- National Creche Scheme
- Poshan Abhiyan 2.0
Subject: Science and Technology
Context: ISRO’s workhorse Polar Synchronous Launch Vehicle delivered its 53rd successful mission on Sunday.
- It launched Amazonia-1, a 637-kg commercial remote sensing satellite for the Brazilian space research agency INPE, and 18 co-passenger satellites (five being Indian satellites and 13 from the US) from Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Srihari kota in Andhra Pradesh.
- It was inserted into sun synchronous orbit.
- Amazonia-1 is the first satellite designed, developed and launched by the Brazilian space research agency and is intended to monitor deforestation and agricultural activities in the Amazon region in Brazil.It will monitor the country, the Amazon and bio reserves in the country.
- It is first full-fledged commercial satellite launch (Earlier three launches involving auxiliary small satellites) for New Space India Limited (NSIL).
- NSIL is a commercial arm of ISRO created in 2019 to commercialise ISRO research and capabilities.
- 4 of the co-passenger satellites were signed for launch by IN-SPACe, ISRO’s small satellites facilitation agency, and others by NSIL.
- Among Indian satellites three are UNITYsats built by students from the Jeppiaar Institute of Technology, Sriperumbudur, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur, and Sri Shakti Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, and a fourth one called the Satish Dhawan Sat (SDSAT) was built by the firm Space Kidz India.
- The UNITYsats will provide radio relay services while the SDSAT, a nano satellite, will study radiation, space weather and demonstrate long-range communication tech
- The fifth Indian satellite on the launch was the Sindhu Netra, a commercial payload to demonstrate technology.
- Pixxel India (Start up billed as India’s version of SpaceX) was suppose to send satellite in this launch (first of its satellite ‘Anand’ was to be on this launch to image whole globe) but software issues didn’t make it ready for the launch.
About Sun Synchronous orbit
- Sun-synchronous orbit or a heliosynchronous orbit allows a satellite to pass over a section of the Earth at the same time of day. It lies in a plane that maintains a fixed angle with respect to the Earth-sun direction
- Since there are 365 days in a year and 360 degrees in a circle, it means that the satellite has to shift its orbit by approximately one degree per day.
- These satellites orbit at an altitude between 700 to 800 km. These satellites use the fact since the Earth is not perfectly round (the Earth bulges in the center, the bulge near the equator will cause additional gravitational forces to act on the satellite. This causes the satellite’s orbit to either proceed or recede.
- These orbits are used for satellites that need a constant amount of sunlight. Satellites that take pictures of the Earth would work best with bright sunlight, while satellites that measure longwave radiation would work best in complete darkness.
Context: NGT cites delay in filing appeal to dismiss every second plea which has at times effected implementation of laws even as such appeals falls within outer time limit of 60 days apart from initial 30 days.
- Under the NGT Act, 2010, a clearance can be challenged by an affected party within 30 days while the Tribunal has the authority to condone another 60 days’ delay given “sufficient cause”.
- This time limit applies from the day of communication as both regulators and developers are legally required to place every project clearance in the public domain.
Some of the projects according to a report which saw appeal by people against environment clearances being denied even when sufficient cause existed:
- Kusmunda opencast coal mine – Chhattisgarh
- Penganga opencast coal mine – Maharashtra
- limestone mining – Gujarat’s Gir-Somnath district
- Ashti Lift Irrigation Scheme III – Maharashtra
Subject: Science and Technology
Context: On the occasion of National Science day on 28th February, the Science and Technology minister said that the fundamental and translatory science is important, but it has to be solution-based and people-centric.
- It is celebrated in India on 28 February each year to mark the discovery of the Raman effect by Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman on 28 February 1928.
- the theme of NSD, 2021 was “Future of STI: Impacts on Education, Skills, and Work”.
- For this discovery he received Nobel prize in Physics in 1930.
- It was the first Nobel in Physics for a non-white person, and for an Indian scientist.
About Raman Effect:
- It is the process of scattering of light particles by molecules of a medium. Ex- Scattering of light by sea and oceans. The scattering occurs due to a change in the wavelength of light as it enters the medium. When a beam of light travels through a dust-free, transparent chemical, a small fraction of the light emerges in directions other than where it should.
- Light consists of particles called photons; whose energy is directly proportional to the frequency with which they travel. When they strike molecules in a medium at high speeds, they bounce back and scatter in different directions depending on the angle with which they hit the molecules.
- Most of these scatterings are elastic — the photons retain their energy and are deflected with the same speed as they were traveling with.
- However, once in a while, the molecules of the medium, light passes through absorb or give energy to photons that strike them. The light particles then bounce with decreased or increased energy, and thus, frequency.
- It laid to Raman Spectroscopy which has extensive applications around the globe, and across fields.
- It can help in determining chemical bonding structures, characterise materials, determine temperature, find out crystalline orientation, identify pharmaceutical chemicals, discover counterfeit drugs, identify pigments in old paintings and historical documents, and detect explosives using lasers from a distance
Subject: Science and Technology
Context: India will start 2nd Phase of the vaccination of Covid 19 from today
- It will cover 10 crore people across the country. So far, more than 1.5 crore people have received Covid-19 shots in first phase.
Context: The PM Modi will inaugurate virtual Maritime India Summit, 2021 today.
- The Maritime India Summit 2021 is being organized by the Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways in collaboration with FICCI on a virtual platform www.maritimeindiasummit.in from 2nd March to 4th March 2021.
- The Summit will visualize a roadmap for India’s Maritime sector for next decade and will work to propel India to the forefront of the Global Maritime Sector.
- Denmark is the partner country for the three-day summit.
- Various stakeholders in the maritime sector including senior and eminent policy planners, domestic and international investors, CEOs of Indian and global maritime companies, industry experts, thought leaders, technology providers, bankers and insurers, representatives of major ports and shipping lines from across the world.
Context: The CWC pulled up police in a gangrape case of minor as CWC was kept in dark regarding the incident.
- It is a quasi-judicial agency and is the final authority on children in need of care and protection. It is an autonomous body.
- The Child Welfare Committee functions as a bench guided by the powers that are conferred in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. Anyone connected to the child is allowed to file a petition to the Magistrate of that District, who considers and passes appropriate orders.
- It is mandatory to form one or more Child Welfare Committees in every district for exercising power and to discharge the duties conferred in relation to children in need of care and protection.
- This committee consists of a Chairperson and other four members who according to the State Government are fit to be appointed, at least one of whom should be a woman and the other should preferably be an expert on matters that are concerning the children.
Power and function as mentioned in Section 27 of the Juvenile Justice, Act 2015:
- The Committee has the full authority of disposing of cases for the care, protection and treatment of the children.
- The Committee can also dispose of cases that are for the development, rehabilitation and protection of children that are in need, and also to provide for the basic need and protection that is needed by the children.
- When a Committee is constituted for any particular area, then it has the power to exclusively deal with all proceedings that are being held under the provisions of this Act that are related to children in terms of need of care and protection.
- While exercising the given powers curtailed under this Act, the Committee is barred from performing any act which would go against anything contained in any other law that is in force at that time.
- CWCs are designated by law as final district-level authorities for care, protection, treatment, development and rehabilitation of “children in need of care and protection” – or CNCP
- POCSO Act mandates the police to inform CWC
- In case of sexual abuse, the Juvenile Justice Act defines CNCP as any child “who has been or is being or is likely to be abused, tortured or exploited for the purpose of sexual abuse or illegal acts”.
- Rules under POCSO Act make it mandatory that if the police have reasons to believe that the child is without a home or paternal support, or is in any institution or when a perpetrator is in the same house, among others, the victim has to be produced before CWC.
Context: Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has granted clearances for the diversion of 140 hectares of forest land for the South Western Railway’s double-tracking project in Goa amidst protests.
- Environmentalists and locals have been protesting against the plan to cut through the Bhagwan Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary and the Mollem National Park in south Goa as a result of the project.
- Approval for double-tracking between Castlerock railway station in north Karnataka to Kulem railway station in south Goa was given.
- Environmentalists have opposed three linear projects — the double-tracking project, the four-laning of a national highway and the Goa-Yanmar transmission power project.
- The protest is for the reason that the projects could cause large-scale destruction to forests in the Western Ghats, give no benefits to local residents and were aimed at accelerating the transport of coal from the Mormugao Port Trust to Karnataka.
- “Save Mollem” movement led by the Goa Foundation has been protesting against the diversion of forest land since last year.
Subject: Science and Technology
Context: The US FDA on Saturday authorised Johnson & Johnson’s single-shot Covid-19 vaccine for emergency use, third vaccine to reach US citizen.
- It has been developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, a Belgium-based division of the company, in collaboration with Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
- Currently two-shot vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being given in USA.
- Concern over J&J’s single shot vaccine have been raised as it had 72% efficacy rate in the US clinical trial site (other two had 95%).
- It is based on the SARS-CoV-2 virus’s genetic instructions for building the spike protein that it uses to enter human cells. But unlike the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines, which store the instructions in single-stranded RNA, the J&J vaccine uses double-stranded DNA.
- It is adenovirus-based, which is a more rugged type than the mRNA vaccines from Pfizer and Moderna. DNA is not as fragile as RNA, and the adenovirus’s tough protein coat helps protect the genetic material inside. As a result, the J&J vaccine can be refrigerated for up to three months at 2-8°C.
- Unlike the Pfizer, Moderna, Oxford-AstraZeneca (Covishield in India), Covaxin which are double dose, this vaccine is single dose.
Subject: International reports
Context: A World Bank report. Compiled in collaboration with UNESCO’s Global Education Monitoring Report, it said current levels of government spending in low and lower-middle income nations fall short of those needed to achieve Sustainable Development Goals.
- 65% of low- and middle-income countries and 33% of others have cut their education budget due to Covid-19 stress on finances.
About GEM report:
- It was released by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
- GEM 2020 said that during the height of school closures in April 2020, almost 91% of students around the world were out of school.
- Poorer countries opted for radio and television (TV) lessons, 55% of low-income, 73% of lower-middle-income and 93% of upper-middle-income countries adopted for online learning platforms for primary and secondary education.
- India has used a mix of all three systems (radio, TV and online platforms) for educational continuity.
- GEM, 2021 will focus on role of non-state actor in education.
Subject: Welfare schemes
Context: With the project near to its end it may leave more than 1,200 assistant professors out of a job and some rural colleges bereft of half their faculty.
- The government is saying it is planning its own MERITE project to promote scientific, technical and industrial knowledge post TEQUIP completion. However, even as Tequip is coming to an end, there is not much clarity regarding the same.
- Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme is a project of Government of India assisted by World Ban
- The objective of the Program is to enhance quality and equity in participating Engineering Education Institutes and improve the efficiency of the Engineering Education System in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, 8 North Eastern States and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
- The Project has two main components, (i) Improving quality and equity in engineering institutes in those states; and (ii) System-level initiatives to strengthen sector governance and performance.
- It focuses on capacity building of staffs, research fellowships and R&D infrastructure development.
- The project has been designed as a disbursement linked loan, that is, the World Bank loan will be disbursed on achievement of specific outcomes.
- Three phases of the ₹3,600-crore TEQIP project have been completed since it was launched in December 2002 (third phase will soon end).
- The third phase focused on improving quality and equity (ex- recruit more than 1,500 faculty from top institutions — four out of five are from the NITs and the IITs) in engineering institutions in seven low income, eight northeastern and three hilly States.
Subject: Science and Technology
Context: According to the LinkedIn Global Skillset Survey, cloud computing is the most sought-after skill set today.
- It is estimated that cloud computing industry is set to grow from $371.4 billion in 2020 to $832.1 billion by 2025, at a 17.5 per cent CAG.
- The rise in demand is because companies are seeking to build digital presence and remain alive during Covid-19 and longterm benefits of cloud service is attracting talents as well as companies.
- It is the delivery of computing services including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligenceover the Internet (“the cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale.
Types of cloud
- Public clouds are owned and operated by a third-party cloud service provider, which deliver their computing resources like servers and storage over the Internet. Ex- Nicrosoft Azure.
- Private cloud refers to cloud computing resources used exclusively by a single business or organisation. A private cloud can be physically located on the company’s on-site datacenter.
- Hybrid clouds combine public and private clouds, bound together by technology that allows data and applications to be shared between them giving business greater flexibility, more deployment options and helps optimise your existing infrastructure, security and compliance
Types of cloud services: IaaS, PaaS, serverless and SaaS
- Infrastructure as a service (IaaS): Renting of IT infrastructure like servers and virtual machines (VMs), storage, networks, operating systems from a cloud provider on a pay-as-you-go basis
- Platform as a service (PaaS): Platform as a service refers to cloud computing services that supply an on-demand environment for developing, testing, delivering and managing software applications.
- Software as a service (SaaS): Software as a service is a method for delivering software applications over the Internet, on demand and typically on a subscription basis. Cloud providers host and manage the software application and underlying infrastructure and handle any maintenance
- Serverless computing: building app functionality without spending time continually managing the servers and infrastructure required to do so. The cloud provider handles the setup, capacity planning and server management.
Subject: Welfare schemes
Context: The budget 2021-22 for Ministry of women and child development saw highest allocation to the Sakasham Anganwadi Scheme along with the Poshan Abhiyan 2.0.
- It is a Ministry of women and Child development scheme.
- The aim of the scheme is to upgrade a total of 2.5 lakhanganwadis in the next five years.
- Anganwadis or a type of rural child care centre were started by the Indian government in 1975 as part of the Integrated Child Development Services program to combat child hunger and malnutrition.
- These are focal point for implementation of all the health, nutrition and early learning initiatives under ICDS.
- Currently Anganwadis services scheme provide 6 services: Supplementary nutrition, immunisation, health check-up, pre-school non-formal education, nutrition and health education, and referral services. These are performed by The Anganwadi worker (AWW).
- AWW is a woman (18- 44 years) from the local village and acceptable in the local community. They are honorary workers who receive a monthly honorarium
- They are supported by supported by a part-time assistant, called an Anganwadi Helper (AWH).
- Generally, there is 1 Anganwadi worker for a population of about 1000 people
Subject: Welfare Schemes
Context: Budget 2021-22 has also focused on National Creche Scheme to provide day care facilities to children (0-6 years) of working mother.
- It is a Ministry of Women and Child Development scheme. It is a Central sector scheme.
- A crèche is a facility which enables parents to leave their children while they areat work and where children are provided stimulating environment for their holistic development.
- It seeks to provide day care facilities to children (0-6 years) of working mother and other eligible women belonging to families (of working women in rural and urban areas who are employed for a minimum period of 15 days in a month, or six months in a year.)
- It seeks to improve quality and reach of day care services/crèches for working women amongst all socio-economic groups both in the organized and unorganized sectors.
- It provides supplementary nutrition, health care (immunization, polio drops, basic health monitoring), sleeping facilities, early simulations (below 3 years), pre-school education (0-6 years) and emergency medicines.
- To provide day-care facilities for children (6 months to 6 years) of working mothers in the community.
- To improve nutrition and health status of children.
- To promote physical, cognitive, social and emotional development (Holistic Development) of children.
- To educate and empower parents /caregivers for better childcare
Subject: Welfare scheme
Context: Poshan Abhiyan 2.0 was announced in budget 2021-22 as a next step to ongoing Poshan abhiyan to eliminate malnutrition.
- The Poshan 2.0 Scheme is to be an umbrella scheme covering the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), Anganwadi Services, Poshan Abhiyaan, Schemefor Adolescent Girls and National Creche Scheme.
- It is an intensified strategy to improve nutritional outcomes will prioritize 112 aspirational districts with focus on: Heath, wellness & immunity of children and pregnant women to eradicate malnutrition.
- It will merge Supplementary Nutrition Programme and the Poshan Abhiyan.
- Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0 will cover the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme, national nutrition mission or POSHAN Abhiyaan, scheme for adolescent girls, national crèche scheme.
- The budget has allocated Rs. 20,105 crores for ‘Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0’ covering the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme.
About Poshan Abhiyan
- It is a flagship programme to improve nutritional outcomes for children, pregnant women and lactating mothers.
- Launched in 2018 it aims at making it a people’s movement (Jan Andolan) around malnutrition and intended to significantly reduce malnutrition in the next three years.